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THE IMPACT OF GLOBALIZATION ON WORLD BUSINESS IN THE NEW MILLENNIUM: COMPETITION, COOPERATION, ENVIRONMENT, AND DEVELOPMENT

August 22, 2010 1 comment

International Management
Development Association
Pennsylvania, USA

Akdeniz University
Antalya, Turkey

Eleventh Annual World Business Congress

THE IMPACT OF GLOBALIZATION ON WORLD BUSINESS IN THE NEW MILLENNIUM: COMPETITION, COOPERATION, ENVIRONMENT, AND DEVELOPMENT

July 10 – 14, 2002
Resort Dedeman Antalya Hotel, Antalya, Turkey

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

MESSAGE FROM JAN NAPOLEON SAYKIEWICZ, CONGRESS CO-CHAIR………… 3
MESSAGE FROM YAVUZ TEKELIOGLU, CONGRESS CO –CHAIR………………….. 4
MESSAGE FROM ERDENER KAYNAK AND FULYA D. SARVAN, CONGRESS PROGRAM CO-CHAIRS………………………………………………………………… 5
MESSAGE FROM ERTUGRUL DOKUZOGLU, GOVERNOROF ANTALYA 6
MESSAGE FROM BEKIR KUMBUL, MAYOR OF THE CITY OF ANTALYA…………. 7
MESSAGE FROM YASAR UCAR, RECTOR OF AKDENIZ UNIVERSITY……………… 8
CONGRESS PROGRAM COMMITTEE………………………………………………………9
LOCAL STEERING COMMITTEE IN TURKEY…………………………………………….10
LOCAL ARRANGEMENTS COMMITTEE IN TURKEY………………………………… 10
LOCAL ARRANGEMENTS COMMITTEE IN NORTH AMERICA……………………… 10
CONGRESS TRACK CO- CHAIRPERSONS……………………………………………… 11
LIST OF TRACKS, PANELS AND SPECIAL SESSIONS………………………………… 12 CONGRESS PROGRAM SCHEDULE………………………………………………………..14
CONCURRENT SESSIONS………………………………………………………………..14-15 Wednesday, July 10, 2002…………………………………………………………………… 14
Thursday, July 11, 2002………………………………………………………………… 14
Friday, July 12, 2002………………………………………………………………….. 15
Saturday, July 13, 2002……………………………………………………………….. 15
Sunday, July 14, 2002……………………………………………………………… 15
MASTER SCHEDULE……………………………………………………………………… 16
TWELFTH WORLD BUSINESS CONGRESS
Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, July 2-6, 2003…………………………… ………….. 54
INVITATION TO ATTEND 12TH WORLD BUSINESS CONGRESS…………………… 59
INDEX OF AUTHORS, CHAIRS, PARTICIPANTS……………………………………… 60
LIST OF COUNTRIES REPRESENTED……………………………………………………..64
IMDA NEWSLETTER INFORMATION……………………………………………………..65
PRELIMINARY STATEMENT OF INTENT……………………………………………… 67
ABOUT INTERNATIONAL MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT ASSOCIATION……….68
HOTEL MAP…………………………………………………………………………………..70

WELCOME MESSAGE TO THE IMDA 11TH ANNUAL WORLD BUSINESS CONGRESS PARTICIPANTS

Jan Napoleon Saykiewicz, Congress Co-chair, Vice-President for Programs and President Elect of the International Management Development Association (IMDA)

Dear Colleagues:

Welcome to the Eleventh World Business Congress of the International Management Development Association as we celebrate the 15th anniversary of its foundation. Welcome to Turkey, to Antalya, and to Akdeniz University, our academic host that so successfully influences development in business education and management in its region.

IMDA, created in 1987 to provide an interdisciplinary, multifunctional, and global platform to address problems and issues linking academe, business and politics, proudly stands by its mission to emphasize management development as a way to promote understanding and cooperation in the world business. There are a lot of issues in today’s expanding business world. Global policy makers are scrambling to catch up with the expanding role of foreign direct investment which has outpaced world trade and GNP growth. A complex relationship develops between policy changes, market conditions, and global trends. Globalization tends to result in a closer integration to worldwide labor markets.

We convened here, coming from different parts of the world, to discuss the impact of globalization on world business in the new millennium. Millennium of great hopes and also great fears. We are going to debate on competition, cooperation, environment and development not only from economic or technology point of view but addressing mainly the problems and issues of management development.

The importance of management development can not be underestimated. Despite great development in technology, not so much technological management development contributed to the economic success of various countries. Still good management is a hot commodity and sells well by presenting solutions to existing problems, and values that contribute to the success of business entities.

Management development is stimulating closer links, cooperation and understandings between academe, business, and politicians and may also help to find responses to challenges posed by the constantly arising problems in our environment. By fighting ignorance and backwardness, it may promote economic and social development in many areas of the world that badly needs different approaches to social and economic issues. This is an important objective of IMDA to stimulate close cooperation between academe, business and politics in purpose to contribute to economic growth and global business success through management development.

All of us here worked very hard to support this objective. Our Turkish hosts, Akdeniz University colleagues, paper authors, reviewers, track chairs prepared an intellectually stimulating program both professionally and socially valuable and enjoyable. Professor Dr. Khosrow Fatemi, President of IMDA, successfully lead our organization the last three years. Professor Dr. Yavuz Tekelioglu, Dean, made great effort to perfect all local arrangements. Professor Dr. Fulya D. Sarvan worked hard as Congress Program Co-chair and Proceedings Co-editor. Professor Dr. Erdener Kaynak, IMDA Executive Vice President and Director, and also our Congress Proceedings Co-editor should be recognized for his hard work in organizing this Eleventh World Business Congress.

Colleagues, welcome to this great, historic land, to Antalya, to Akdeniz University, to IMDA. I wish you good sessions, stimulating debates, interesting networking and great memories of IMDA Congress and Turkey as a host country.

WELCOME MESSAGE FROM THE DEAN OF THE FACULTY OF ECONOMIC AND ADMINISTRATIVE SCIENCES

Yavuz Tekelioğlu – Dean, Faculty of Economic and Administrative Sciences, Akdeniz University and Congress Co-chair

On behalf of my Faculty and Staff members I would like to welcome the delegates of the Eleventh World Business Congress to Antalya. It has been a great pleasure and excitement for me and my colleagues at the Local Arrangements Committee to carefully plan the congress program to make it an unforgettable experience of a combination of traditional Turkish hospitality, the Mediterranean climate and the rich Anatolian history and culture, for all the delegates and their spouses
.
Our Local Steering Committee is composed of the leading public and business people of Antalya, including the Governor and Major of Antalya, the Rector of Akdeniz University, the presidents of business organizations and the Chamber of Commerce. We are proud to have received their full support to the 11th World Business Congress of IMDA, to make this event an exciting experience of Turkish hospitality, to be remembered pleasantly years after.

Since its foundation in 1993, our Faculty of Economic and Administrative Sciences has hosted 30 international and numerous national scientific meetings in Antalya. Being a quite young Faculty, we have been enjoying the advantage of the willingness of our young, dynamic and enthusiastic faculty and staff in undertaking challenging events and assignments. The 11th World Business Congress of IMDA is certainly the biggest event that we have undertaken so far and has undoubtedly required the best of our capabilities and resources. It is our sincere hope that you will enjoy both the academic and social programs of the congress. We have done our best to invite the best possible speakers in their own areas of specialization to make the program of keynote speakers, panels of industry representatives and public policy makers an interesting opportunity of getting first hand information about Turkey and her economic and business relationships with other countries.

We also hope that you will enjoy being in Antalya, renowned as the “Turkish Riviera”, combining all the natural beauties of the Mediterranean coast, with a very rich collection of ancient historical sites around its vicinities. Owing to these qualities, Antalya has also become a well known international congress town, hosting many international and national congresses, every year. Please take this chance to see as much as you can around the vicinities
which offer more than that could be hoped for tourism and cultural opportunities. Being a town of Roman – Ottoman core, the city enjoys a historic district around the Roman harbor, which is now a yacht marina, and at the outskirts, not very far from the city, the ancient cities – Perge, Aspendos, Side, Termessos, Phaselis, and Olimpos offer more to see in the way of historical sites. The Antalya Museum carries a rich collection of arts from all around the ancient cities. Antalya Cultural Center provides the cultural flavor, with concerts, operas and theaters all around the year. From mid-June to mid-July visitors can enjoy the marvelous ballet and opera performances at the ancient amphitheater Aspendos during the Aspendos Festival of Opera and Ballet.

The academic and administrative staff of our Faculty of Economic and Administrative Sciences welcome the delegates of the congress and wish everybody an enjoyable time in Antalya .

WELCOME MESSAGE FROM CONGRESS PROGRAM CO-CHAIRS

Erdener Kaynak, Executive V.P. and Director of IMDA and Proceedings Co-editor
Fulya D. Sarvan, Associate Dean, Akdeniz University and Proceedings Co-editor

On behalf of the Program Committee, Track and Session Co-chairs, we take this opportunity to welcome all of the delegates and the accompanying persons and guests to the beautiful city of Antalya for the Eleventh World Business Congress of IMDA held from July 10 through 14, 2002. Since last July, Congress Organizing Committee members both in North America and in Turkey have been working very diligently to organize a diverse congress program which will be challenging and stimulating academically and culturally enriching for all of the participants.

We are extremely pleased that a number of plenary sessions and panels with representatives from local industry, representatives of trade organizations and government have been organized. We have also developed “Meet-the-Editors” Panel, a city tour, and Turkish entertainment. There will be a one-day visit to ancient sites of Antalya region for those who have already made bookings for it on Wednesday all day. The plenary sessions will be held on all day Thursday. All day Friday and Saturday, and Sunday morning, there will be academic sessions and special panels devoted to various contemporary management development issues. This year, as in the past IMDA congresses, we are offering full-papers, research-in-progress papers, and special panels. We are very pleased to note that a broad spectrum of papers, ideas, and research findings are being presented by scholars and practitioners coming from five continents and 35 countries. As part of our IMDA tradition, we will again publish the Congress Best Papers in a future issue of the Association’s Journal of Transnational Management Development (JTMD).

This is our second World Business Congress organized in Turkey. The first one was held in Istanbul in 1995 and it was a tremendous success. We would like to continue this tradition and organize more IMDA congresses in the Middle East and North Africa region in the future. We are very pleased with the sponsorship of Akdeniz University, Faculty of Economic and Administrative Sciences and their hard work and dedication. In particular, Congress Co-chair Dean Yavuz Tekelioglu and Local Arrangements Co-chairs, Drs. Safak Aksoy and I. Serdar Tetik were of special help to us. They both did a yeoman’s job at every stage of the Congress organization. Congress Web Page and Proceedings papers were prepared by our enthusiastic and dedicated colleague, Dr. Talha Harcar of Pennsylvania State University at Beaver. Because of the excellent Congress web site Talha has developed, the site facilitated the work of everyone who was involved with the Congress organization as well as the paper presenters. May we also take this opportunity to extend our warm thanks and appreciation to Congress Co-chairs, Local Arrangements Committee members and support staff in various locations for their extraordinary efforts in organizing what seems to be an excellent Congress. Special thanks and appreciation also go to 51 Track Co-chairs, manuscript reviewers, and colleagues who are chairing panels and
special sessions at the Congress.

We wish much success in the deliberations at the Eleventh World Business Congress. We are certain that we will all benefit from it immensely. We encourage all of you to attend the Twelfth World Business Congress to be held in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada from July 2 through 6, 2003. See you all there and enjoy this year’s congress in Antalya, Turkey.

WELCOME MESSAGE FROM THE GOVERNOR OF ANTALYA
Ertuğrul Dokuzoğlu, Governor of Antalya, Turkey

On behalf of my government, I am welcoming the participants of the 11th Annual World Business Congress to our renown city of Antalya. It has been a great pleasure for me to sit on the Local Steering Committee of the Congress and collaborate with the staff of the Faculty of Economic and Administrative Sciences of Akdeniz University on a multitude of details making up a successful congress organization. I hope everything goes as well as we wished for.

I believe that the universities are the real sources of knowledge and development and their impact on community is indispensable. The presence and development of Akdeniz University in Antalya has added such a great value to the potentialities of the city that, now its contributions can be appreciated more than ever by everybody. The 11th Annual World Business Congress to be hosted by Akdeniz University between 10th to 14th July 2002 will be an event that will attract the attention and hospitality of people and organizations of Antalya.

For the last ten years our city has increasingly become renowned as a tourism and congress destination and every year quite a number of congress events are organized in a host of venues around Antalya. The natural beauties, the climate, the quality hotels and young tourism professionals render Antalya a perfect destination for congresses besides purposes of tourism. I would like to congratulate the Executive Board of IMDA for choosing Antalya as the host town of the 11th World Business Congress. I have no doubt that it is going to be successful in every respect.

I would like to take this opportunity to inform all the participants that Antalya is one of the safest cities in the World. Please feel comfortable while you are enjoying the pleasant moments during your stay.

I wish all the participants an enjoyable and fruitful congress.

Thanks for choosing to participate at the 11th Congress and coming to visit Antalya on this occasion.

WELCOME MESSAGE FROM THE MAYOR OF ANTALYA
Bekir Kumbul, Mayor of Antalya, Turkey

On behalf of the Municipal Government I take great pleasure in welcoming all the participants of the 11th Annual World Business Congress to Antalya, the tourism capital of Turkey. Being invited to sit on the Local Steering Committee has been a great honor for me and I will feel delighted if the congress fulfills all the expectations.

Our city hosts many congresses every year, but I believe that the 11th Annual World Business Congress to be held between 10th to 14th July 2002 will be among the most important ones in respect to the topics to be discussed, since understanding and appreciating global economic issues is becoming essential more than ever.

Antalya is a city of about 2 million inhabitants and hosts close to 2 million tourists every year. The population increase is about 7 percent a year. There are close to 80 hotels with bed capacity of about 10.000 in the city. The cultural heritage dating back to the second century B.C., the natural beauties and the sunny climate are attracting people from all over the world to visit and enjoy this beautiful geography. These facts place a great responsibility on the shoulders of the municipal government of Antalya, to keep the city tidy and clean, to provide best service to the inhabitants and tourism establishments, to build infrastructure for the newly developing quarters and create new recreational possibilities. The people of the municipal government of Antalya are working really hard to keep the premises clean, neat and safe for all the inhabitants and guests.

In carrying out these responsibilities the Municipal Government of Antalya frequently refers to the specialization provided by Akdeniz University, requests consultancy and education and collaborates with the various departments in specific projects. There is a strong bond of trust and cooperation between these two important institutions of the city.

The Municipal Government of Antalya will be happy to provide any support or service that would be needed during 11th World Business Congress. The hosting Faculty of Economic and Administrative Sciences, Akdeniz University has worked really hard to make this congress a memorable experience for all the participants and the municipality is ready to play its own part.

I sincerely hope that you enjoy being in this beautiful town and I wish much success to your congress.

I welcome you again to Antalya on behalf of my city.

WELCOME MESSAGE FROM THE RECTOR OF AKDENIZ UNIVERSITY
Yaşar Uçar, Rector of Akdeniz University, Antalya, Turkey

On behalf of Akdeniz University, I welcome the participants of the 11th Annual World Business Congress to the beautiful city of Antalya. It is a great honor for all of us, and especially for my colleagues at the Faculty of Economic and Administrative Sciences, to be the host of such a prestigious event for international business scholars and practitioners.

The 11th Annual World Business Congress to be held between 10th to 14th July 2002 will be among the most important scholarly meetings that our university has hosted since its foundation some 20 years ago. When I look back, I can see that it has shown quite a rapid progress, since now it has close to twelve thousand students, fifteen hundred academic staff, 1300 administrative personnel, 11 faculties, 10 schools of higher education, three institutes of graduate education, one conservatory and 18 centers of research and application.

During the past 20 years, Akdeniz University has become an indispensable research and education center for the Western Mediterranean Region, taking its place among the most promising universities of Turkey. Our faculties and schools create knowledge and service for people and organizations, in many areas including medicine, agriculture, engineering, economics, social sciences and fine arts. Every year we have new departments, schools or faculties getting started. The academic staff of our university become increasingly integrated to the international academic networks and world class academic achievements are becoming a rule rather than an exception. I feel really proud of the achievements, the growth pace and dynamism of my young university and I see this congress as another indicator of its high performance.

I believe that the 11th Annual World Business Congress will provide plenty of opportunities for the participants to get acquainted with the warm hospitality of Turkish people, taste the natural beauties and rich cuisine of the Mediterranean coast and also establish pleasant relations and new academic networks with Turkish colleagues. It is my sincere hope that the image of Akdeniz University will become still brighter after the positive impressions of the participants when the congress is over.

My colleagues at the Faculty of Economic and Administrative Sciences have been working really hard, in collaboration with the IMDA Executive Board, to make this congress a memorable experience for all the participants, both academically and socially. I have taken great pleasure to be on the Local Steering Committee and to be able to contribute to the social programs of your congress.

I sincerely hope that you enjoy every moment of your presence in our country and I wish much success in all the activities of your congress.

I welcome you again to Antalya on behalf of my university.

CONGRESS PROGRAM COMMITTEE

CONGRESS CO–CHAIRS

Yavuz Tekelioglu
Dean
Graduate School of Economic and Business
Akdeniz University
Antalya 07058
Turkey Jan Napolean Saykiewicz
School of Business Administration
Duquesne University
Pittsburgh, PA 15282
USA

CONGRESS PROGRAM CO–CHAIRS

Erdener Kaynak
Chair, Marketing Program
School of Business Administration Pennsylvania State University at Harrisburg
777 West Harrisburg Pike
Middletown, PA 17057
USA
Fulya D. Sarvan
Associate Dean
Faculty of Economic and Administrative Sciences
Akdeniz University
Antalya 07058
Turkey

PROCEEDINGS CO–EDITORS

Erdener Kaynak
Chair, Marketing Program
School of Business Administration
Pennsylvania State University at Harrisburg
777 West Harrisburg Pike
Middletown, PA 17057USA
Fulya D. Sarvan
Faculty of Economic and Administrative
Sciences
Akdeniz University
Antalya 07058
Turkey

LOCAL ARRANGEMENTS CO-CHAIRS
CONGRESS ADMINISTRATIVE DIRECTOR
Safak Aksoy
Associate Dean
Faculty of Economic and Administrative Sciences,
Akdeniz University
Antalya 07058 Turkey
I. Serdar Tetik,
Vocational School of Tourism Administration and Hotel Management
Akdeniz University
Antalya 07058, Turkey Talha Harcar
Department of Business Administration
Pennsylvania State University
Beaver Campus
Monaca, PA 15061
USA

LOCAL STEERING COMMITTEE IN TURKEY

1. Prof. Dr. Yaşar Uçar, Rector, Akdeniz University
2. Ertuğrul Dokuzoğlu, Governor, Antalya
3. Bekir Kumbul, Mayor, Antalya Metropolitan Municipality
4. Süleyman Evcimen, Mayor, Muratpaşa Municipality
5. Muhittin Böcek, Mayor, Konyaaltı Municipality
6. Mehmet Atay, Mayor, Kepez Municipality
7. Mesut Akca, Provincial Director of Tourism, Antalya
8. Osman Siviloğlu, Provincial Director of Culture, Antalya
9. Bekir Bülend Özsoy, Chairman of the Board of Directors, Antalya Industrialists’ and Businessmen’s Association (ANSİAD)
10. Menderes Türel, President, Antalya Chamber of Commerce and Industry
11. Ercan Boztepe, Chairman of the Board, General Secretariat of Antalya Exporters’ Union
12. Ahmet Barut, Chairman, The Union of Mediterranean Tourist Hotels (AKTOB)
13. Kerim Çavuşoğlu, Director of Regional Executive Board, Association of Turkish Travel Agencies

LOCAL ARRANGEMENTS COMMITTEE IN TURKEY

1. Şafak Aksoy, Associate Dean, Akdeniz University, Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences
2. I. Serdar Tetik, Assistant Director, Akdeniz University Vocational School of Tourism Administration and Hotel Management
3. Orhan Kuruüzüm, Director, Akdeniz University, Institute of Social Sciences
4. Ayse Kuruüzüm, Akdeniz University, Faculty of Economic and Administrative Sciences
5. Esra Çayhan, Akdeniz University, Faculty of Economic and Administrative Sciences
6. Can Deniz Köksal, Akdeniz University, Faculty of Economic and Administrative Sciences
7. Eda Atilgan, University, Faculty of Economic and Administrative Sciences
8. Serkan Akıncı, Akdeniz University, Faculty of Economic and Administrative Sciences
9. Filiz Angay, Akdeniz University, Faculty of Economic and Administrative Sciences
10. Sibel M. Aykın, Akdeniz University, Faculty of Economic and Administrative Sciences
11. Emre Çetin, Akdeniz University, Faculty of Economic and Administrative Sciences
12. Koray Çetin, Akdeniz University, Faculty of Economic and Administrative Sciences
13. Nejla Arıca, Akdeniz University, Faculty of Economic and Administrative Sciences
14. Eren Güzeloğlu, Akdeniz University, Institute of Social Sciences

LOCAL ARRANGEMENTS COMMITTEE IN NORTH AMERICA

1. Kip Becker, Boston University, USA
2. Khosrow Fatemi, San Diego State University, Imperial Valley Campus, USA
3. Talha Harcar, Pennsylvania State University at Beaver, USA
4. Elif S. Kaynak, Pennsylvania State University at University Park, USA
5. Erdener Kaynak, Pennsylvania State University at Harrisburg, USA
6. Ovgu I. Kaynak, Philheaven Clinic, USA
7. Orsay Küçükemiroglu, Pennsylvania State University at York, USA
8. Mathew Loose, Philheaven Clinic, USA
9. Jan Napoleon Saykiewicz, Duquesne University, USA

CONGRESS TRACK CO-CHAIRPERSONS

1. Aahad M. Osman-Gani, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, Global Human Resource Management
2. Juhary Haji Ali, University Utara, Malaysia, Global Human Resource Management
3. Kip Becker, Boston University, USA, Global Information Technology Management
4. Ata Nahouraii, Indiana University of Pennsylvania, USA, Global Information Technology Management
5. Mark Speece, Asian Institute of Technology, Thailand, Management and Global Business Education
6. Abbas Ali, Indiana University of Pennsylvania, USA, Global Entrepreneurship and Small Business Development
7. John A. Pearce, Villanova University, USA, Global Entrepreneurship and Small Business Development
8. John R. Schermerhorn, Jr., Ohio University, USA, Global Management and Corporate Strategy
9. Marca Marie Bear, The University of Tampa, USA, Global Management and Corporate Strategy
10. Muzaffer Uysal, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, USA, Global Tourism Development
11. Frederic Dimanche, Tourism Management Program, CERAM, France, Global Tourism Development
12. A. Coskun Samli, University of North Florida, USA, Cross-Cultural Marketing and Marketing Research
13. Isabelle Szmigin, The Birmingham Business School, United Kingdom Cross-Cultural Marketing and Marketing Research
14. C. P. Rao, Kuwait University, Kuwait, Global Business in Africa and the Middle East
15. Syed Aziz Anwar, University of Sharjah, United Arab Emirates, Global Business in Africa and the Middle East
16. T.S. Chan, Lingnan University, Hong Kong, Global Business in Asia
17. Muammer Ozer, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Global Business in Asia
18. Violeta A. Llanes, University of Otago, New Zealand, Global Business in Australia and New Zealand
19. Colin Jevons, Monash University, Australia, Global Business in Australia and New Zealand
20. Josef Poeschl, The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, Austria, Business in Transition Economies
21. Marin A. Marinov, Gloucestershire Business School, United Kingdom, Business in Transition Economies
22. Nevenka Cavlek, University of Zagreb, Croatia, Global Business in Europe
23. John Hill, University of Alabama, USA, Global Supply Chain Management
24. S. Altan Erdem, University of Houston-Clear Lake, USA, Global Supply Chain Management
25. Talha Harcar, Pennsylvania State University at Beaver, USA, Global E–Commerce
26. Gopal Iyer, Florida Atlantic University, Global E–Commerce
27. Gerhard Gniewosz, University of Wollongong, Australia, Social Responsibility and Cultural Values in Global Business
28. Riad Ajami, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, USA, Social Responsibility and Cultural Values in Global Business
29. Jan Nowak, The University of the South Pacific, Fiji Islands, Global Production, Operations, and Services Management
30. Sudhi Seshadri, Indian Institute of Management Bangalore, India, Global Production, Operations, and Services Management
31. Noel Murray, Chapman University, USA, Global Marketing Management and Strategy
32. Havva J. Meric, East Carolina University, USA, Global Marketing Management and Strategy
33. Soumitra Sharma, University of Zagreb, Croatia, International Economics and Economic Development
34. Asim Erdilek, Case Western Reserve University, USA, International Economics and Economic Development
35. Tamer Kocel, Dean, Kultur University, Turkey, International Economics and Economic Development
36. Shaukat Ali, University of Wolverhampton, United Kingdom, International Economics and Economic Development
37. Manucher Farhang, Luleå University of Technology, Sweden, Global Relationship Marketing
38. Jean Harris, Pennsylvania State University at Harrisburg, USA, International Accounting, Taxation, and Finance
39. Mehmet C. Kocakülah, University of Southern Indiana, USA, International l Accounting, Taxation, and Finance
40. Myron Kyj, Widener University, USA, Global Business in Eastern /Central Europe and C.I.S. Countries
41. Anatoly Zhuplev, Loyola Marymount University, USA, Global Business in Eastern /Central Europe and C.I.S.
42. Paul S. Marshall, Widener University, USA, Global Business Case Studies
43. Mohamed A.S. Latib, DeSales University, USA, Global Business Case Studies
44. Ekrem Tatoglu, Beykent University, Turkey, Turkish Business
45. Sitki Gozlu, Istanbul Technical University, Turkey, Turkish Business
46. Frederic Jallat, Paris Graduate School of Business-ESCP-EAP, France, Geo strategic Issues and International Business
47. Erdener Kaynak, Pennsylvania State University at Harrisburg, USA, Global Business (Misc.)

LIST OF TRACKS, PANELS AND SPECIAL SESSIONS

1. Business Education, Training, and Development in Turkey
2. Company Internationalization: Experiences of Turkish Companies
3. Company Performance in a Changing Global Business Arena
4. Consumer Behavior: Cross Cultural/National Perspectives
5. Country Specific Cases of Globalization
6. Cross–National/Cultural Marketing
7. Current Issues in Transition Economies
8. E-Commerce Management
9. Economic Development of Turkey and EU Entry: Public Policy Concerns
10. Entrepreneurship and Small Business Development
11. Entrepreneurship in a Changing World
12. Entrepreneurship in Emerging Markets
13. Entrepreneurship in Global Contexts
14. Global Business in Africa and the Middle East
15. Global Business in Asia
16. Global Business in Europe
17. Global Destination Tourism
18. Global E–Business
19. Global Economic Development and Higher Education
20. Global Entrepreneurship and Small Business Development
21. Global Information Technology and Innovation
22. Global Internet Usage
23. Global Management
24. Global Marketing
25. Global Marketing Management and Strategy
26. Global Publishing Opportunities in Business Administration: Publish and Perish
27. Global Sales and Marketing
28. Global Tourism: Development and Sustainability
29. Global Trade and Development
30. Global Training and Development
31. Globalization and Development
32. Human Resource Development Practices
33. Impact of Global Technology
34. International Business Competitiveness
35. International Business Development
36. International Business in Africa
37. International Business Teaching
38. International Finance and Banking
39. Issues in Emerging Economies
40. Managing the Global Marketplace
41. Marketing and Development
42. Networking, International Education and Consulting Opportunities
43. Operational Risk Management and Financial Analysis
44. Organizational Development and Business Enterprises
45. Publishing Opportunities in Business Administration
46. Social Responsibility and Cultural Values in Global Business
47. Technology Transfer and Foreign Direct Investment
48. Tourism and Hospitality Management
49. Transition Economies
50. Turmoil in Turbulent International Business Environment: Responses to Violence and Terrorism

GOODWILL AMBASSADORS

1. Ali Sevki Akay, Department of Food Economics, Akdeniz University
2. Andac Gorgulu, Department of Management, Akdeniz University
3. Basak Berberoglu, Department of Management, Akdeniz University
4. Eren Guzeloglu, Department of Management, Akdeniz University
5. Husamettin Serkan Akilli, Depoartment of Public Administration, Akdeniz University
6. M. Burak Onemli, Department of Economics, Akdeniz University
7. Nejla Arica, International Relations Department, Akdeniz University
8. Ogeday Calli, Department of Public Administration, Akdeniz University
9. Ozge Burunsuz, Department of Economics, Akdeniz University
10. Ozge Tutuncu, Department of Management, Akdeniz University
11. Pinar Baytaroglu, Department of Management, Akdeniz University
12. Z. Tugce Ciftcibasi, Department of Public Administration, Akdeniz University

CONGRESS PROGRAM SCHEDULE

WEDNESDAY, July 10, 2002

8:30 – 17:00

10:00 – 12:00
16:00 – 18:00
18:00 – 19:30

20:00 – 21:30

EVENING IS FREE TOUR TO PERGE, ASPENDOS, SIDE (Optional Paid Tour)
Please Meet at the Hotel Lobby (Pre–Booking is Needed)
IMDA, EXECUTIVE BOARD MEETING (Toros 1)
CONGRESS REGISTRATION AT FUAYE
ANTALYA CITY TOUR ( For Registered Delegates, Spouses and Invited Guests) Main Attractions of Antalya
EARLY BIRD RECEPTION (Sponsored by Resort Dedeman Antalya Hotel ) (For Registered Delegates, Spouses and Invited Guests Only) Dedeman Hotel, Golfer’s Corner, Lobby Floor

THURSDAY, July 11, 2002

8:00 – 17:00
9:00 – 10:00
10:00 – 10:30

10:30 – 11:00
11:00 – 12:30

12:30 – 14:00
14:00 – 15:30

15:30 – 16:00
16:00 – 17:30

17:30 – 18:30
18:30
19:00 – 23:00

CONGRESS REGISTRATION
OPENING CEREMONIES
STATE MINISTER’S WELCOMING ADDRESS (Hotel Dedeman Resort Antalya, Aladağ Room)
COFFEE BREAK (Sponsored by IMDA)
SPECIAL PANEL I (at Hotel Dedeman Resort Antalya, Aladağ
Room
LUNCH BREAK (on your own)
SPECIAL PANEL II (at Hotel Dedeman Resort Antalya, Aladağ Room)
COFFEE BREAK (Sponsored by IMDA)
SPECIAL PANEL III (at Hotel Dedeman Resort Antalya, Aladağ Room)
IMDA, EXECUTIVE BOARD MEETING (Toros 1)
LEAVE FOR AKDENIZ UNIVERSITY CAMPUS
RECEPTION AND DINNER, SHOWS, ENTERTAINMENT AND CULTURAL PERFORMANCES AT OLBIA AMPHITHEATRE

FRIDAY, July 12, 2002

9:00 – 17:00
9:00 – 10:30
10:30 – 11:00
11:00 – 12:30
12:30 – 14:00
14:00 – 15:30
15:30 – 16:00
16:00 – 17:30
19:30 – 23:30

23:30 CONGRESS REGISTRATION
CONCURRENT SESSIONS
COFFEE BREAK (Sponsored by IMDA)
CONCURRENT SESSIONS
LUNCH BREAK (on your own)
CONCURRENT SESSIONS
COFFEE BREAK (Sponsored by IMDA)
CONCURRENT SESSIONS
CONGRESS BANQUET / AWARD CEREMONIES/ENTERTAINMENT
ADJOURN

SATURDAY, July 13, 2002

9:00 – 17:00
9:00 – 10:30
10:30 – 11:00
11:00 – 12:30
12:30 – 14:00
14:00 – 15:30
15:30 – 16:00
16:00 – 17:30
18:00 – 21:00

21:00 – 23:00 CONGRESS REGISTRATION
CONCURRENT SESSIONS
COFFEE BREAK (Sponsored by IMDA)
CONCURRENT SESSIONS
LUNCH BREAK (On your own)
CONCURRENT SESSIONS
COFFEE BREAK (Sponsored by IMDA)
CONCURRENT SESSIONS
BOAT TOUR WITH COCTAIL AND REFRESHMENT
(The Boat Tour Finishes In The Old City Harbor)
DINNER AT OLD CITY (on your own)

SUNDAY, July 14, 2002

9:00 – 11:00
9:00 – 10:30
10:30 – 11:00
11:00 – 12:00
12:00 – 12:30
12:30 – 19:00
CONGRESS REGISTRATION
CONCURRENT SESSIONS
COFFEE BREAK (Sponsored by IMDA)
IMDA MEMBERSHIP MEETING (Toros 1)
CLOSING CEREMONIES (Toros 1)
CULTURAL VISIT TO PHASELIS ANCIENT CITY (Lunch at Ulupinar Historic City) For Registered Delegates and Registered Spouses and Accompanying Persons.

Date Day Concurrent
Sessions TIME VENUE
Tour program (Registered IMDA Congress participants)
Antalya City Tour (Meet at the Lobby)
18:00 – 19:30
Early Bird’s Reception (20:00-21:30) (For Registered Delegates, Spouses, and Invited Guests Only)
Aladag Pinarbasi 1 Pinarbasi 2 Pulpinar Toros 1 Club Room
July 10, 2002 Wednesday 16:00-18:00 C
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N Congress Registration at Fuaye Level on Wednesday, July 10,2002, 16:00- 18:00
Congress Registration at Fuaye Level on Thursday through Sunday July 11-14, 2002, 9:00-17:00 and Sunday 9:00-11:00
July 11, 2002 Thursday 1 9:00-10:30 Opening Ceremony and Keynote Addresses
2 11:00-12:30 I.1
Special Panel I
3 14:00-15:30 I.2
Special Panel II
4 16:00-17:30 I.3
Special Panel III
July 12, 2002 Friday 5 9:00-10:30 II.1 II.2 II.3 II.4 II.5
6 11:00-12:30 II.6 II.7 II.8 II.9 II.10
7 14:00-15:30 II.11 II.12 II.13 II.14 II.15
8 16:00-17:30 II.16 II.17 II.18 II.19 II.20
19:30-23:30 Congress Banquet / Award Ceremonies / Entertainment Resort Dedeman Hotel Pool Side
Registered Delegates, Registered Spouses, and Registered Accompanying Persons
July 13, 2002 Saturday 9 9:00-10:30 III.21 III.22 III.23 III.24 III.25
10 11:00-12:30 III.26 III.27 III.28 III.29 III.30
11 14:00-15:30 III.31 III.32 III.33 III.34 III.35
12 16:00-17:30 III.36 III.37 III.38 III.39 III.40
18:00-21:00 Boat Tour (The boat tour finishes in the old City Harbor)
July 14, 2002 Sunday 9:00-10:30 IV.41 IV.42 IV.43 IV.44 IV.45
11:00-12:00 IMDA Member-ship meeting
12:00-12:30 Closing Ceremo-nies
12:30-19:00 Cultural Visit to Phaselis Antique City (Lunch at Ulupinar Historic City)

I.M.D.A. AND THE CONGRESS ORGANIZING COMMITTEE GRATEFULLY ACKNOWLEDGE THE CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE FOLLOWING ORGANIZATIONS

FACULTY OF ECONOMIC AND ADMINISTRATIVE SCIENCES OF AKDENIZ UNIVERSITY, ANTALYA, TURKEY

INTERNATIONAL MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT ASSOCIATION (IMDA), PENNSYLVANIA, USA

TURK TELEKOM INC.

AFYON KOCATEPE UNIVERSITY, AFYON, TURKEY

TARIS (AGRICULTURAL SALES COOPERATIVES’ UNION), IZMIR, TURKEY

FISKO BIRLIK (HAZELNUT SALES COOPERATIVES’ UNION), GIRESUN, TURKEY

KAYISI BIRLIK (APRICOT SALES COOPERATIVES’ UNION), MALATYA, TURKEY

GULBIRLIK (ROSE AND ROSE BY- PRODUCTS SALES COOPERATIVES’ UNION), ISPARTA, TURKEY

AYTAC INC. (MEAT AND DAIRY PRODUCTS), ANTALYA, TURKEY

PAMUKKALE WINERY, DENIZLI, TURKEY

YENIGUN INC. (JAM, MARMALADE, AND CONFECTIONERY), ANTALYA, TURKEY

ANTALYA EXPORTERS’ UNION, ANTALYA, TURKEY

INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS PRESS (IBP) AND THE HAWORTH PRESS INC. OF NEW YORK, USA

ORIENT BASAR (ORIENTAL CARPETS, RUGS, AND ANTIQUE ORNAMENTS), ANTALYA, TURKEY

Wednesday, July 10, 2002

TOUR

8:30 – 17:00

VISIT TO PERGE, ASPENDOS, SIDE (Optional Paid Tour )

(Pre–paid delegates only. Please congregate at the lobby of the hotel by 8:30 a.m.)

IMDA EXECUTIVE BOARD MEETING
10:00 – 12:00
Location: Hotel Dedeman Resort Antalya, Toros 1

CONGRESS REGISTRATION
Location: Hotel Dedeman Resort Antalya
16:00 – 18:00

TOUR PROGRAM (Registered IMDA Congress Participants)
Antalya City Tour (Meet at the Hotel Lobby)
18:00 – 19:30

EARLY BIRD RECEPTION
Location: Hotel Dedeman Resort Antalya
Golfer’s Corner- Lobby Floor
20:00 – 21:30
(Sponsored by Resort Dedeman Antalya Hotel)

EVENING IS FREE
Thursday July 11, 2002

CONGRESS REGISTRATION
Location: Hotel Dedeman Resort Antalya
8:00 – 17:00

OPENING CEREMONY
9:00 – 10:00
Location:
Hotel Dedeman Resort Antalya
Aladağ Room

KEYNOTE ADDRESS
10:00 – 10:30
His Excellency TUNCA TOSKAY, State Minister Responsible for Foreign Trade, Republic of Turkey

COFFEE BREAK
10:30 – 11:00
(Sponsored by IMDA)

SPECIAL PANEL I
Location: Aladağ Room
11:00 – 12:30

LUNCH BREAK
12:30 – 14:00
(On your Own)

SPECIAL PANEL II
Location: Aladağ Room
14:00 – 15:30

COFFEE BREAK
15:30 – 16:00

SPECIAL PANEL III
Location: Aladağ Room
16:00 – 17:30

LEAVING FOR AKDENIZ UNIVERSITY CAMPUS FOR DINNER RECEPTION, CULTURAL PERFORMANCES AND SHOWS AT OLBIA AMPHITHEATRE
Departure is at 18:30 Sharp
(Please congregate at the Hotel Lobby)

RECEPTION AND ENTERTAINMENT
Location: Akdeniz University Campus
19:00 – 23:00

OPENING CEREMONY AND KEYNOTE ADDRESS
Location: Aladağ Room
Thursday, July 11, 2002

OPENING CEREMONIES

9:00 – 9:45 Welcome Messages and Introductions

Dr. Erdener Kaynak, Pennsylvania State University at Harrisburg, Congress
Program Co-chair, Executive Vice President and Director of IMDA
Dr. Khosrow Fatemi, Dean, Imperial Valley College, San Diego State University, President, International Management Development Association (IMDA)
Dr. Yavuz Tekelioglu, Dean, Faculty of Economic and Administrative Sciences,
Akdeniz University, Congress Co–Chair
Dr. Jan Napolean Saykewicz, Duquesne University, Congress Co-Chair, V.P. for Programs and President Elect of IMDA
Dr. Fulya D. Sarvan, Associate Dean, Faculty of Economic and Administrative
Sciences, Akdeniz University, Congress Program Co–Chair
Dr. Kip Becker, Boston University, Chairman of the Board of Country Directors of
IMDA

Welcoming Addresses
Ertugrul Dokuzoglu
Governor of Antalya

Bekir Kumbul
Mayor of Antalya

Welcoming Address
Prof. Dr. Yasar Ucar, Rector of Akdeniz University
9:45 – 10:00

Keynote Address
His Excellency Tunca Toskay, Minister of State Responsible for Foreign Trade,
Republic of Turkey
10:00 – 10:30

10:30 – 11:00 Coffee Break at the Fuaye

1.1: SPECIAL POLICY MAKERS PANEL

Hotel Dedeman Resort Antalya
Thursday, July 11, 2002
11:00 – 12:30
Location: Aladağ Room

Economic Development of Turkey and EU Entry

CHAIR: San Oz-Alp, Rector of Afyon Kocatepe University, Turkey

SPEAKERS:

1. Rifat Hisarciklioglu,, Chairman of the Board of Directors, Turkish Union of Chambers (TOBB)

2. Oğuz Satıcı, Chairman of the Turkish Exporters’ Assembly

3. Baki Alkacar, Republic of Turkey, Prime Ministry, Deputy Undersecretary of Foreign Trade

4. Vural Kural, Deputy Director, Prime Ministry, Undersecretary for Treasury, Economic Research Directorate

12:30–14:00 Lunch Break (On your own)
1.2: SPECIAL BUSINESS LEADERS PANEL

Hotel Dedeman Resort Antalya
Thursday, July 11, 2002
14:00 – 15:30
Location: Aladağ Room

Company Internationalization: Experiences of Local Turkish Companies

CHAIR: Fulya D. Sarvan, Akdeniz University, Turkey

SPEAKERS:
1. Bekir Bulend Ozsoy, Chairman of the Board of Directors, Antalya Industrialists’ and Businessmen’s Association (ANSIAD)

2. Paul Schwaiger, General Manager, Sun Express Airlines

3. Yusuf Ornek, General Manager, VASCO Tourism Inc.

4. Hilmi Unsal, General Manager, Wagner Kablo Inc.

___________________________________________________________________________

Coffee Break: 15:30 – 16:00
At the Lobby

1.3: SPECIAL PANEL III
Hotel Dedeman Resort Antalya
Thursday, July 11, 2002
16:00 – 17:30
Location: Aladag Room

Global Publishing Opportunities in Business Administration: Publish or Perish?

CHAIR: Erdener Kaynak, Editor–in–Chief, International Business Press (IBP), New York, London, Norwood (Australia) and Executive Editor, The Haworth Book Series in International Business

PANELISTS:

Kip Becker, Editor, Journal of Transnational Management Development
Muzaffer Uysal, Editor–in–Chief, Tourism Analysis
Khosrow Fatemi, Editor, Global Economy Quarterly
Manton Gibbs, Editor, Competitiveness Review
Boris Vukonic, Editor–in–Chief, Acta Turistica
Abbas J. Ali, Editor, International Journal of Commerce and Management
Soumitra Sharma, Editor–in–Chief, Zagreb International Review of Economics and Business
Erdener Kaynak, Editor–in–Chief, IBP International Marketing/Business Journals
______________________________________________________________________________

RECEPTION
Akdeniz University Campus
19:00 – 23:00
(Sponsored by Faculty of Economic and Administrative Sciences, Akdeniz University)

______________________________________________________________________________

Friday, July 12, 2002

CONGRESS REGISTRATION
Location: Hotel Dedeman Resort Antalya
9:00 – 17:00

CONCURRENT SESSIONS
9:00 – 10:30
11:00 – 12:30
14:00 – 15:30
16:00 – 17:30
Sessions are Held at Pinarbasi I, Pinarbasi II, Pulpinar, Toros I, Club Room

COFFEE BREAKS
10:30 – 11:00
15:30 – 16:00
(Sponsored by IMDA )

LUNCH BREAK
12:30 – 14:00
(On your Own)

CONGRESS BANQUET/AWARD CEREMONIES
Location: Hotel Dedeman Resort Antalya,
Poolside
19:30 – 23:30

MASTER OF CEREMONIES
Kip Becker

AWARD CEREMONIES
BEST PAPER AWARDS
IMDA INTERNATIONAL DEAN OF THE YEAR AWARD
IMDA INTERNATIONAL BUSINESSPERSON OF THE YEAR AWARD
DOOR PRICES AND BOOK DONATION DRAWS
ENTERTAINMENT: TURKISH MUSIC AND BELLY DANCE

STATE OF THE ASSOCIATION ADDRESS
Presented by Khosrow Fatemi, President of the IMDA

PRESENTATION OF VANCOUVER, BRITISH COLUMBIA, CANADA AS THE SITE OF THE TWELFTH WORLD BUSINESS CONGRESS OF IMDA
Presented by Ernest Neumann, Kingston College

CONCURRENT SESSIONS
Location: Hotel Dedeman Resort Antalya
Friday, July 12, 2002
9:00 – 10:30

II.1: Global Tourism: Development and Sustainability
Location: Pinarbasi I

CHAIR: Brian Mihalik, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, USA

SPEAKERS:

1. Tourism Risk Assessment: A Cross Regional Comparison
F. T. Mavonda, Monash University, Australia
Sebastian Vengesayi, Monash University, Australia

2. Tourism Management in Protected Natural Areas in Romania
Michaela Dinu, Romanian American University, Romania

3. Identification and Measurement of Tourism Fesources: The Case of Virginia
Sandro Formica, Institut de Management Hotelier International (IMHI), France

4. Sweepstakes: Are they a Viable Marketing Option to Promote Turkish Tourism?
John L. Beisel, Pittsburg State University, USA
Musa Pinar, Pittsburg State University, USA

SPECIAL PANEL
II.2: Turmoil in Turbulent International Business Environment: Responses to Violence and Terrorism
Location: Pinarbasi II

CHAIR: Erdener Kaynak, Pennsylvania State University at Harrisburg, USA

SPEAKERS:

Education and Global Progress
Phillip W. Balsmeier, Nicholls State University, USA

2. Global Economic Integration or Militarization of the Globe
Abbas J. Ali, Indiana University of Pensylvania, USA

3. Civility, Trade, and Terror: Moving Beyond Simplicity
Riad Ajami, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, USA

4. American Public Attitudes Towards Flying: Pre and Post September 11 Comparisons
Erdener Kaynak, Pennsylvania State University at Harrisburg, USA
Orsay Kucukemiroglu, Pennsylvania State University at York, USA

II.3: Human Resource Development Practices
Location: Pulpinar

CHAIR: Gerhard Gniewosz, University of Wollongong, Australia

SPEAKERS:

1. Human Resource Management Practices in Small, Medium and Large Firms: A
Multivariate Analysis
Muhammad Aminu Bawa, University Utara Malaysia, Malaysia
Muhamad Jantan, University Utara Malaysia, Malaysia
Juhary Ali, University Utara Malaysia, Malaysia

2. Integrated Human Resources Development Practices of the Large British
Corporations: Technology-Based Learning Dimension
Serkan Bayraktaroglu, Sakarya University, Turkey

3. Potential Effects of Job Satisfaction on Employees and Organizations: An
International Review
Ismail Bakan, Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University, Turkey

4. Cultural Values, Work Values, Motivation and Rewards: A Conceptual Analysis
Gerhard Gniewosz, University of Wollongong, Australia
______________________________________________________________________________

II.4: Cross-National Management Issues
Location: Toros 1

CHAIR: Frederic Jallat, Paris Graduate School of Business (ESCP), France

SPEAKERS:

1. Relationship Quality and Customer Loyalty in China
Y. H. Wong, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, China
Peter Oswald, Pfleiderer Wind Energy GmbH, China
Lorett B.Y. Lau, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, China

2. IT Outsourcing in Public Sector – A Framework for Analysis and Decision Making
Syed Zahoor Hassan, Lahore University of Management Sciences, Pakistan

3. Regionalism and its Impact on Global Business Regionalism and its Impact on Global Business – The Case of BSEC and Turkey
Zeynep Bilgin, Marmara University, Turkey
Ven Sriram, Morgan State University, USA

4. Fortress France? Myths and Reality of a “Cultural Exception”
Frederic Jallat, Paris Graduate School of Business (ESCP), France

II.5 Operational Risk Management and Financial Analysis
Location: Club Room

CHAIR: David Weir, CERAM, France

SPEAKERS:

1. Portfolio Investment: ESP Trading Strategy in Hong Kong and in Singapore
Simon K.M. Mak, City University of Hong Kong, China
Stephen Y.L. Cheung, City University of Hong Kong, China
Chris K.C. Ng, City University of Hong Kong, China

Translation of Financial Statements Under GAP, IAS, and TAS
Dilek Leblebici, Istanbul Technical University, Turkey

The Evolution of Self-Regulation of the Audit Oversight Function in Australia
Antoinette Richardson, Swinburne University of Technology, Australia
Irene Tempone, Swinburne University of Technology, Australia

The Effect of Agency Problem on the Performance of the Istanbul Stock ExchangeCompanies
Ahmet Kose, Istanbul Commerce University, Turkey
Kemal Guven Gulen, Istanbul Commerce University, Turkey

Coffee Break: 10:30 – 11:00 At Fuaye

CONCURRENT SESSIONS
Friday, July 12, 2002
11:00 – 12:30

II.6: Tourism and Hospitality Management
Location: Pinarbasi 1

CHAIR: Muzaffer Uysal, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, USA

SPEAKERS:

1. Tourism and Hospitality Education in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Prince Sultan College for Tourism and Hotel Sciences – A case Study
Ali Essa Al-Shabbi, Prince Sultan College for Tourism & Hotel Sciences, Saudi Arabia

2. Global Integration of the Turkish Tourism Sector: Organizational Learning Perspectives
Serkan Bayraktaroglu, Sakarya University, Turkey
Rena Ozen Kutanis, Sakarya University, Turkey

3. The Influence of Globalization on Tour Operating Business
Nevenka Cavlek, University of Zagreb, Croatia

4. A Path Analytic Investigation of Relationship Between Destination Performance, Overall
Satisfaction, and Behavioral Intention for Distinct Segments
Seyhmus Baloglu, University of Nevada Las Vegas, USA
Ibrahim Ilhan, Nevsehir Turizm Isletmecilik ve Otelcilik Yuksek Okulu, Turkey
Shiang-Lih Chen, University of Nevade Las Vegas, USA
___________________________________________________________________________

II.7: Company Performance in a Changing Global Business Arena
Location: Pinarbasi 2

CHAIR: Tuncdan Baltacioglu, Izmir Ekonomi University, Turkey

SPEAKERS:

Market Orientation and Business Performance in Small and Medium Sized Enterprises: Exploring the Moderating Effects of Market Dynamism and Planning Flexibility
Cengiz Yilmaz, Gebze Institute of Technology, Turkey

The Perception of the Importance of Entrepreneurial Qualities Across Different Cultures: A First Report
Italo Trevisan, University of Trento, Italy
Johan W. de Jager, Technikon Pretoria, South Africa
Jan Grundling, Technikon Pretoria, South Africa

3. Corporate Motivations and Pressures for Environmental Citizenship Behavior: The Case of
Turkish Medicine Industry
Fatma Kusku, Istanbul Technical University, Turkey

4. Motivation Factors and Reasons of Total Quality Management Implementation in the
Turkish Companies
Sitki Gozlu, Istanbul Technical University, Turkey
Dilek Erertem, Istanbul Technical University, Turkey

II.8: Business Education, Training, and Development in Turkey
Location: Pulpinar

CHAIR: A. Coskun Samli, University of North Florida, USA

SPEAKERS:

1. Alternative Methods to Measure Service Quality in Education Sector: The Analytical
Hierarchy Process
Ayse Kuruuzum, Akdeniz University, Turkey
Nuray Atsan, Akdeniz University, Turkey

2. Research into Determining the Personality Traits of Students Who Prefer to Pursue a
Career in Finance: The Case of the Faculty of Business Administration, Istanbul
University
Mahmut Paksoy, Istanbul University, Turkey
Gonen Dundar, Istanbul University, Turkey
Ahmet Kose, Istanbul University, Turkey

3. Management Ethics and Social Responsibility: Practices in Turkish Industry
Asli Suder, Istanbul Technical University, Turkey

4. Research on the Effect of the Identity of University Lecturers and the Quality of
Lectures on Success of Employees in Organizations
Erol Eren, Dogus University, Turkey
Hakan Tat, Dogus University, Turkey

II.9: Cross-National/Cultural Marketing
Location: Toros 1

CHAIR: John S. Hill, University of Alabama, USA

SPEAKERS:

1. Correlates of Cultural Values and Message Strategies in Service Advertising
H. C. Susan Tai, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, China

2. Estimating Consumer Demand for Food Safety: A Case Study of Mad Cow (BSE) Scare in Turkey
Sedef Akgungor, Isik University, Turkey

3. Prevention of HIV/AIDS in South Africa: A Social Marketing Approach
Johan W. de Jager, Technikon Pretoria, South Africa
L. de W. Fourie, Technikon Pretoria, South Africa
Jan Grunding, Technikon Pretoria, South Africa

4. A Dynamic Approach to Scenario Analysis
Sule Onsel Sahin, Istanbul Technical University, Turkey
Fusun Ulengin, Istanbul Technical University, Turkey
Burc Ulengin, Istanbul Technical University, Turkey

II.10: Issues in Emerging Economies
Location: Club Room

CHAIR: Anatoly Zhuplev, Loyola Marymount University, USA

SPEAKERS:

1 New Product Development Practices of Urban Regeneration Units
Roger Bennett, London Guildhall University, United Kingdom
Sharmila Savani, London Guildhall University, United Kingdom

2. Globalization and the Changing Profile of Polish Commerce
Jan Napoleon Saykiewicz, Duquesne University, USA

3. Foreign Market Expansion in Newly Emerging Markets – Finnish Companies in
Visegrad Countries
Zsuzsanna Vincze, Turku School of Economics and Business Administration, Finland

4. Turkish Foreign Direct Investment in Central Eastern Europe and Commonwealth of Independent States
Refik Culpan, Pennsylvania State University at Harrisburg, USA
Emin Akcaoglu, Ankara University, Turkey
______________________________________________________________________________

Lunch Break – On Your Own 12:30 – 14:00

CONCURRENT SESSIONS
Friday, July 12, 2002
14:00 – 15:30

II.11: Technology Transfer and Foreign Direct Investment
Location: Pinarbasi 1

CHAIR: Jan Nowak, University of the South Pacific, Fiji Islands

SPEAKERS:

1. Technology Transfer, R&D and Trade Policies
Berk Ataman, Istanbul Technical University
Zeki Orbay, Istanbul Technical University

2. The Impact of Information Technology in Developing Countries and Sustainable
Development
Kip Becker, Boston University, USA
Stewart W. Ting Chong, Boston University, USA
Ustun Alan, Boston University, USA

3. Socialization of Technology in Relationship Marketing
Aslihan Nasir, Bogazici University, Turkey

4. Strategic Alliances in the Aviation Industry: An Analysis of Turkish Airlines
Experience
Fatih Semercioz, Istanbul University, Turkey
Burak Kocer, Istanbul Bilgi University, Turkey
___________________________________________________________________________

II.12 International Finance and Banking
Location: Pinarbasi 2

CHAIR: Mehmet C. Kocakulah, University of Southern Indiana, USA

SPEAKERS:

1. Dating a Financial Crisis with Evidence from the Asian Crisis of 1997
Kessara Thanyalakpark, Chulalongkorn University, Thailand
Jonathan A. Batten, Deakin University, Australia

2. The Purpose of Using Financial Derivatives: A Case of Turkish Banking Sector
Oktay Tas, Istanbul Technical University, Turkey

3. Audit Committees: Provision for its Effectiveness in Malaysia
Kalaithasan Kuppusamy, Monash University, Australia
Mohamed Nazim Abdul Rahman, Monash University, Australia

4. Competition, Quality Focus and the Emphasis Given to Non-Financial Indicators in
Manufacturing Organizations
Mohd. Yussoff Ibrahim, University of Sains Malaysia, Malaysia
Daing Nasir Ibrahim, University of Sains Malaysia, Malaysia
Subramaniam Pillay, University of Sains Malaysia, Malaysia

II.13: Globalization and Development
Location: Pulpinar

CHAIR: Ahmad Fawzi Mohd Basri, University Utara Malaysia, Malaysia

SPEAKERS:

1. Peasants and Globalization
John Hurd, Norwich University, USA

2. Market-Age Index: A New Tool for Accurate Forecasting
Mehdi Hojjat, Neumann College, USA

3. Convergence and Restructuring: A Comparison of Japan and the United States
Toru Yoshikawa, Nihon University, Japan
Deepak K. Datta, University of Kansas, USA
Abdul A. Rasheed, University of Texas at Arlington, USA
Joseph Rosenstein, University of Texas at Arlington, USA

4. The Role of Distribution Systems in Economic Development: An Exploration
A. Coskun Samli, University of North Carolina, USA
Jean-Phillippe Dominguez, University of North Carolina, USA

II.14: Current Issues in Transition Economies
Location: Toros 1

CHAIR: Marin A. Marinova, Gloucestershire Business School, United Kingdom

SPEAKERS:

1. Globalization of a Transitional Economy – the Experience of Poland
Rodoslaw Gorynia, University of Warsaw, Poland
Jan Nowak, University of the South Pacific, Fiji Islands
Radoslaw Wolniak, Poznan University of Economics, Poland

2. Internationalization of Japanese Corporations in Central and Eastern Europe
Marin A. Marinova, Gloucestershire Business School, United Kingdom
Svetla T. Marinova, University of Birmingham, United Kingdom
Ken Morita, Hiroshima University, Japan

3. Russia and Eastern Europe Enterprise Reform and Corporate Governance
Jennifer Foo, Stetson University, USA

3. Privatization in the Bulgarian Sector: The Impact on Bank Performance and Credit
Availability
Didar Erdinc, American University in Bulgaria, Bulgaria
______________________________________________________________________________

II.15: Organizational Development and Business Enterprises
Location: Club Room

CHAIR: Kamariah Othman, University Tenaga Nasional, Malaysia

SPEAKERS:

Islamic Perspectives on Organizational Development
Abbas J. Ali, Indiana University of Pennsylvania, USA

Islamic Principles Governing Business and Entrepreneurial Behavior
Mohammad Saeed, Minot State University, USA
Syeda-Masooda Mukhtar, Price Waterhouse Coopers, United Kingdom
Zafar U. Ahmed, Fort Hays State University, USA

Leadership in Third Rome Globalization
Manton Gibbs, Indiana University of Pennsylvania, USA
Ling Yuan, Indiana University of Pennsylvania, USA

Survivors’ Attitudes in the Aftermath of Downsizing: Assessing Effects of Organizational
Justice and ‘Best Management Practices’
Syed Akhtar, City University of Hong Kong, China
Anson K.K. Kong, City University of Hong Kong, China
Richard C.M. Yam, City University of Hong Kong, China
______________________________________________________________________________

Coffee Break: 15:30 – 16:00 At Fuaye
___________________________________________________________________________

CONCURRENT SESSIONS
Friday, July 12, 2002
16:00 – 17:30

II.16: Entrepreneurship and Small Business Development
Location: Pinarbasi 1

CHAIR: Gunes Gencyilmaz, Istanbul Kultur University, Turkey

SPEAKERS:

1. Customer Expectation and Perception of Services Quality (Hospital Performance) and Their
Influence on Overall Service Quality: A Special Case at a Non-Profit Hospital in Turkey
Ahmet Kara, Fatih University, Turkey
Mehves Tarim, Marmara University, Turkey
Selim Zaim, Fatih University, Turkey

2. The ISO 9000: 2000 Vision in Quality Assurance Systems and its Impact on Global Small
Business Development
Orhan Kuruuzum, Akdeniz University, Turkey
Fulya D. Sarvan, Akdeniz University, Turkey

3. Does CEO Good-bye Mean Investor Good-bye?
Antony McCloy, Swinburne University of Technology, Australia

4. Cross Border Entrepreneurs- A Study of the Strategies and Competencies of Hong Kong,
Theresa Lau, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, China
__________________________________________________________________________

II.17: International Business Competitiveness
Location: Pinarbasi 2

CHAIR: Mohamed Latib, DeSales University, USA

SPEAKERS:

1. Evaluation of Performance of Joint Ventures in Electronic, Chemical, and Earth Sectors
in Turkey
Erol Eren, Dogus University, Turkey
Aysegul Samsunlu, Dogus University, Turkey

2. Financing IT Startups: Case Study Evidence from Bulgaria
Didar Erdinc, American University in Bulgaria, Bulgaria

3. Entrepreneurial and Administrative Management Approach to New Business
Development – A Comparative Analysis
Robert Zacca, Akademia Ekonomiczna w Krakowie, Poland

4. Equity Ownership as a Strategic Tool in Global Automobile Manufacturing
Refik Culpan, Pennsylvania State University at Harrisburg, USA

II.18: Entrepreneurship in Emerging Markets
Location: Pulpinar

CHAIR: Phillip W. Balsmeier, Nicholls State University, USA

SPEAKERS:

1. Entrepreneurship and Small Business Development: The Necessary Ingredient for
Economic Progress
A. Coskun Samli, University of North Florida, USA

2. Fostering Entrepreneurship Through Technology Business Incubators: A Study on
Manager-Tenant Relationship
Kamariah Othman, University Tenaga Nasional, Malaysia
Yaacob Anas, University Technologi MARA, Malaysia
Shazam Juliana Abu Bakar, University Tenaga Nasional, Malaysia

3. Cross Border Entrepreneurs – A Study of the Strategies and Competencies of Hong
Kong Entrepreneurs in Emerging China Context
Theresa Lau, Hong Kong Polytechnics University, China
K. F. Chan, Hong Kong Polytechnics University, China
Ricky Ho, Hong Kong Polytechnics University, China

4. Problems, Prospects and Turkey’s EU Membership
Mensur Akgun, Istanbul Kultur University, Turkey
________________________________________________________________________

II.19: Global Information Technology and Innovation
Location: Toros 1

CHAIR: Kip Becker, Boston University, USA

SPEAKERS:

1. Consumer Attitudes and Adoption of Internet Banking: An Empirical Research
Serkan Akinci, Akdeniz University, Turkey
Eda Atilgan, Akdeniz University, Turkey
Safak Aksoy, Akdeniz University, Turkey

2. Cultural Recognition in One-to-One Internet Advertising
D. Selcen Ozturkcan, Florida Atlantic University, USA

3. The Development of Global Business By E-Commerce – A Case of Saudi Banks
Mohammed Duliem Al-Qahtany, King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia

4. E-Learning as a New Approach to Corporate Training and Development: A Case Study from Turkey
Esra Nemli, Istanbul University, Turkey
Serhat Yanik, Istanbul University, Turkey
Selim Yazici, Istanbul University, Turkey
___________________________________________________________________________

II.20: International Business Development
Location: Club Room

CHAIR: Abbas J. Ali, Indiana University of Pennsylvania, USA

SPEAKERS:

1. International Joint Ventures in a Diversifying Economy: A Case Study of Dubai Internet City
Ali Hammoutene, University of Sharjah, United Arab Emirates

2. Success Factors in New Product Development: Are the Factors Universal?
Wan Jamaliah Wan Jusoh, International Islamic University, Malaysia
Nordin Zain, International Islamic University, Malaysia

3. Determinants of FDI in United Arab Emirates
Syed Aziz Anwar, University of Sharjah, United Arab Emirates

4. The Economic Effects of an ERP System Implementation for a Utility Corporation
Mehmet C. Kocakulah, University of Southern Indiana, USA
Andrew Freson, Vectren Corporation, USA
______________________________________________________________________________

Saturday, July 13, 2002

CONGRESS REGISTRATION
Location: Hotel Dedeman Resort Antalya
9:00 – 17:00

CONCURRENT SESSIONS
9:00 – 10:30
11:00 – 12:30
14:00 – 15:30
16:00 – 17:30
Sessions ar Held at Pinarbasi I, Pinarbasi II, Pulpinar, Toros I, Club Room

COFFEE BREAKS
10:30 – 11:00
15:30 – 16:00
(Sponsored by IMDA )

LUNCH BREAK
12:30 – 13:30
(On your Own)

EVENING PROGRAM
BOAT TOUR (The Boat Tour Finishes In The Old City Harbor)
18:00 – 21:00

FREE TIME AT OLD CITY
21:00 – 23:00

CONCURRENT SESSIONS
Location: Hotel Dedeman Resort Antalya
Saturday, July 13, 2002
9:00 – 10:30

III.21: International Business in Africa
Location: Pinarbasi 1

CHAIR: Refik Culpan, Pennsylvania State University at Harrisburg, USA

SPEAKERS:

1. Managerial Challenges of Ethical Business Practices in Africa
Gbolahan Gbadamosi, University of Botswana, Botswana

2. The Impact of Legislative Changes in the Tobacco Industry on South African Clearing the
Air
Johan de Jager, Technikon Pretoria, South Africa

3. Importance of South African Company Specific Labor Related Risk Factors for Financial
Investment Decision-Making by Global Investors
F.J. Mostert, University of Stellenbosch, South Africa

4. On the Future of International Business Research on Africa: Some Critical Thoughts
Foster Ofosu, Turku Polytechnic, Finland
Jacque Muhati, Marcus Evans, United Kingdom

III.22: Tourism and Hospitality Management
Location: Pinarbasi 2

CHAIR: Musa Pinar, Pittsburg State University, USA

SPEAKERS:

1. Developing Healthy Tourist Friendly Destinations: The Public and Private Sectors
Zaher Hallab, The University of Southern Mississippi, USA
Muzaffer Uysal, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, USA

2. Factors Affecting the Advancement of the Lebanese Tourism Industry
Said M. Ladki, Lebanese American University, Lebanon
Mira W. Sadik, Lebanese American University, Lebanon

3. Online Survey Process: Where Does it Fit?
Sungsoo Pyo, Kyonggi University, Republic of Korea
Brian J. Mihalik, Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University

4. The Implications of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) on the Turkish
Travel and Tourism Industry
Ibrahim Birkan, Baskent University, Turkey
Gamze Tanil, Middle East Technical University, Turkey
_______________________________________________________________________

III.23: Marketing and Development
Location: Pulpinar

CHAIR: Erdener Kaynak, Pennsylvania State University at Harrisburg, USA

SPEAKERS:

1. Life-Style Orientation of US and Canadian Consumers: Are Regio-Centric Standardized Marketing Strategies Feasible?
Talha D. Harcar, Pennsylvania State University at Beaver, USA
Erdener Kaynak, Pennsylvania State University at Harrisburg, USA
Orsay Kucukemiroglu, Pennsylvania State University at York, USA

2. On Exporting to the Arab Market: An Empirical Investigation of the Key Variables
Affecting the Japanese Multinational’s Export Performance
Trimeche Marouane, Kyoto University, Japan

3. Consumers’ Adoption of Internet Usage in Turkey: A Comparison Between Online
Shoppers and Non-shoppers
Serap Ekin, Istanbul Bilgi University, Turkey
Sebnem Burnaz, Istanbul Bilgi University, Turkey

4. The Evolution of Self-Regulation of the Audit Oversight Function in Australia
Antoinette Richardson, Swinburne University of Technology, Australia
Irene Tempone, Swinburne University of Technology, Australia

III.24: Global Growth and Competition Through Strategic Alliances
Location: Toros I

CHAIR: Myron Kyj, Widener University, USA

SPEAKERS:

1. Networked (Interactive) Competitive Advantage
Gabriel Baffour Awuah, University of Skovde, Sweden
Desalagen Abraha Gebrekidan, University of Skovde, Sweden

2. Developing Effective Growth Strategies by Linking Business Climate and the Formation of
Strategic Alliances
K. Mark Weaver, Rowan University, USA
Berrin Dosoglu-Guner, Rowan University, USA

3. Global Linking and Local Leveraging of Firm’s Resaources
Starboard T.H. Yeung, University of Technology, Sydney, Australia

4. Building Strategic Scenarios by Using Managers Mental Models
Umit Ozen, Sabanci Holding, Turkey
Fusun Ulengin, Istanbul Technical University, Turkey
______________________________________________________________________________

III.25: Global Business Case Studies
Location: Club Room

CHAIR: Paul Marshall, Widener University, USA

1. Case Study: Teivovo Magazine
Carol Frodey, University of the South Pacific, Fiji Islands
Elenoa Korovulavula, University of the South Pacific, Fiji Islands

2. Sportivna Bazaar
Paul Marshall, Widener University, USA
Ekaterina Evtouchhovich, Belarussian State University, Belarus

3. Natural Waters of Viti Limited: P:ionering a New Industry in the Fiji Islands
Jan Nowak, University of the South Pacific, Fiji Islands
Jim McMaster, University of the South Pacific, Fiji Islands

4. Brand Without Boundaries – Croata Case
Durdana Ozretic-Dosen, University of Zagreb, Croatia

______________________________________________________________________________

Coffee Break: 10:30 – 11:00 At Fuaye

CONCURRENT SESSIONS
Saturday, July 13, 2002
11:00 – 12:30

III.26: Global Business Trends in the Far East
Location: Pinarbasi 1

CHAIR: T. S. Chan, Lingnan University, China

SPEAKERS:

1. Foreign Companies in China: Guanxi Strategy
David McHardy Reid, Rochester Institute of Technology, USA

2. Chinese Joint Ventures: Sino/Sino, Sino/UK Perspectives
Shaukat Ali, University of Wolverhampton, United Kingdom
Paul Buszard, University of Wolverhampton, United Kingdom
T. S. Leung, University of Wolverhampton, United Kingdom
Neil Morris, University of Wolverhampton, United Kingdom

3. Is Giuanxi a Bridge for Knowledge Transfer Among Firms in the PRC?
T.S. Chan, Lingnan University, China
Matthew Yeung, University of Nottingham, United Kingdom

4. When Strengths Become Weaknesses: Shanghai the New Hong Kong?
David McHardy Reid, Rochester Institute of Technology, USA
______________________________________________________________________________

III.27: Entrepreneurship in a Changing World
Location: Pinarbasi 2

CHAIR: Kamariah Othman, University Tenaga Nasional, Malaysia

SPEAKERS:

1. Market Orientation and Business Performance in Small-and-medium-Sized Enterprises: Exploring the Moderating Effects of Market Dynamism and Planning Flexibility
Cengiz Yilmaz, Gebze Institute of Technology, Turkey
Nihat Kaya, Gebze Institute of Technology, Turkey
Lutfihak Alpkan, Gebze Institute of Technology, Turkey

2. Using Biometric Technology for Airport Identification and Customer Satisfaction
Phillip W. Balsmeier, Nicholls State University, USA
Blaise J. Bergiel, Nicholls State University, USA

3. The Role of Gender on Risk Taking Propensity and Tolerance for Ambiguity as
Entrepreneurial Attributes
Ferda Erdem, Akdeniz University, Turkey
Nuray Atsan, , Akdeniz University, Turkey
Beykan Cizel, Akdeniz University, Turkey
Kadriye Karakas, Akdeniz University, Turkey

4. The Gender Gap in Leadership Positions in Business Organizations
Maali H. Ashamalla, Indiana University of Pennsylvania, USA
John N. Orife, Indiana University of Pennsylvania, USA
A. Amin Mohamed, Indiana University of Pennsylvania, USA

III.28: Emerging Trends in Business Higher Education
Location: Pulpinar

CHAIR: Mahmut Paksoy, Istanbul University, Turkey

SPEAKERS:

1. Analysis of Progenistic and Prodigical Knowledge Management Development
Kamal Dean Parhizgar, Texas A & M University, USA
Pena-Sanchez Rolando, Texas A & M University, USA
Fuzhan F. Parhizgar, Texas A & M University, USA

2. University Students’ Approach to Corporate Identity and Corporate Image: A Comparative
Study
F. Muge Arslan, Marmara University, Turkey
A. Ercan Gegez, Marmara University, Turkey
Sahavet Gurdal, Marmara University, Turkey
Okan Tuna, Dokuz Eylul University, Turkey
A. Gulden Cerit, Dokuz Eylul University, Turkey

3. The New Role of the Professor When Teaching and Learning Leave the Classroom
Tahereh Alavi Hojjat, DeSales University, USA
Mohamed Latib, DeSales University, USA

4. Student Satisfaction, Intentions, and Retention in the U.S. Higher Education Institutions: Working Toward a Structural Equation Model
Ali Kara, Pennsylvania State University at York, USA
Oscar W. De Shields, California State University at Northridge, USA
______________________________________________________________________________

III.29: Globalization Strategies: Issues and Strategies
Location: Toros I

CHAIR: Mile Jovic, Institute of Economic Sciences, Yugoslavia

SPEAKERS:

1. Implementation of the EFQM Business Excellence Model in the Turkish Firms: Benefits and
Difficulties
Sitki Gozlu, Istanbul Technical University, Turkey

2. A Phenomenological Study of Sub-Contracting Small-and Medium-Sized Enterprises and
Their Globalization Strategies and Responses: A Scottish Perspective
John Saee, IĖSEG School of Management, Catholic University of Lille, France
Olga Mouzychenko, Charles Sturt University, Australia

3. The Globalization Process: Historical Perspectives on Catalysts and Impediments
John S. Hill, University of Alabama, USA

4. Transforming an Indonesian State-Owned Enterprise (SOE) in the Context of Transition
into an Open Market: A Pilot Project Experience
Hasnil Rasyid, University of Hertfordshire, United Kingdom
______________________________________________________________________________

III.30: Joint Ventures and Network Alliances in Turkey
Location: Club Room

CHAIR: Ekrem Tatoglu, Beykent University, Turkey

SPEAKERS:

1. Management Practices in Different Cultures: International Influences on Culture
Ismail Bakan, Kahramanmaras Sutcuimam University, Turkey

2. The Strategic Planning Processes of Turkish Firms
Ekrem Tatoglu, Beykent University, Turkey
Omer Dincer, Beykent University, Turkey

3. Trust, Inter-Partner Conflicts, Cultural Distance, Commitment and Joint Venture
Performance: An Empirical Analysis of International Joint Ventures in Turkey
Mehmet Demirbag, PRIAE, United Kingdom
David T. H. Weir, CERAM, France
Hafiz Mirza, University of Bradford, United Kingdom

4. A Dynamic Model and Empirical Examination of Performance and Customer Satisfaction in a Non-Profit Health Care Sector in Turkey
Ahmet Kara, Fatih University, Turkey
Mehves Tarim, Marmara University, Turkey
Selim Zaim, Fatih University, Turkey

___________________________________________________________________________

Lunch Break – On Your Own 12:30 – 14:00

CONCURRENT SESSIONS
Saturday, July 13, 2002
14:00 – 15:30

SPECIAL PANEL
III.31: Business Education in a Changing World
Location: Pinarbasi I

CHAIR: Khosrow Fatemi, San Diego State University, Imperial Valley Campus, USA

SPEAKERS:

1. Impact of Technology on Global Business Education
Mohamed Latib, De Sales University, USA

2. Business Education in Ukraine
Pavlo Sheremeta, The Kiev-Mohyla School of Business, Ukraine

3. Business Education in Russian Federation
Anatoly Zhuplev, Loyola Marymount University, USA
Paul Marshall, Widener University, USA

4. Business Education in Bulgaria
Didar Erdinc, American University in Bulgaria, Bulgaria

III.32: Business Management in a Changing World
Location: Pinarbasi 2

CHAIR: Nimet Uray, Istanbul Technical University, Turkey

SPEAKERS:

1. The Performance of IPOs in Istanbul Stock Exchange in the Year 2000
Suat Teker, Istanbul Technical University, Turkey
Omer Ekit, Istanbul Technical University, Turkey

2. Determinants of Foreign Direct Investment in United Arab Emirates
Syed Aziz Anwar, University of Sharjah, United Arab Emirates

3. Integration versus Disintegration in Logistics Activities: Perspectives of Turkish Firms
Nimet Uray, Istanbul Technical University, Turkey
Fusun Ulengin, Istanbul Technical University, Turkey

4. Hugo Boss Lifestyle on Andriyivs’kyy Uzviz: What will the Transformation of the “Yunist”
Garment Factory in Kyiv Result in?
Alexandra Baklanova,

III.33: E-Business and Company Performance
Location: Pulpinar

CHAIR: Fahri Unsal, Ithaca College, USA

SPEAKERS:

1. An E-Business Case Study from Turkey: TEBA
Mustafa Murat Inceoglu, Ege University, Turkey
Fatih Gullukaya, Ege University, Turkey
Saban Eren, Ege University, Turkey

2. Developing Tactical Strengths Through Technology and E-Commerce Strategies Designed to Confront Shifting Global Challenges
Kip Becker, Boston University, USA

3. Internet Banking: Will it Receive Global Acceptance?
Fahri Unsal, Ithaca College, USA
Hormoz Movassaghi, Ithaca College, USA
Abraham Mulugetta, Ithaca College, USA

4.. The Digital Divide: The Challenges Ahead
Gurmak Singh, University of Wolverhampton, United Kingdom

III.34: Global Resource Management Issues
Location: Toros 1

CHAIR: Elliot Wood, Curtin University of Technology, Australia

SPEAKERS:

1. Recruitment and Selection of Managers for Effective Performance in a Knowledge-Based Economy: A Sudy of HR Professionals in Singapore
Aahad M. Osman-Gani, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore

2. Performance Metrics: Key to Success in Global Supply Chain Management
Abbas Foroughi, University of Southern Indiana, USA
William C. Perkins, Indiana University, USA
Mehmet Kocakulah, University of Southern Indiana, USA

3. Learning in Turbulence
Ali E. Akgun, Gebze Institute of Technology, Turkey
Halit Keskin, Gebze Institute of Technology, Turkey
Cemal Zehir, Gebze Institute of Technology, Turkey

4. The Head of the Chicken or the Tail of the Cow? Chinese and Australian Chinese
Perceptions of Leadership
Elliot Wood, Curtin University of Technology, Australia
Alma Whiteley, Curtin University of Technology, Australia
Shiquan Zhang, Curtin University of Technology, Australia
______________________________________________________________________________
III.35: Organizational and Human Resource Issues
Location: Club Room

CHAIR: Sedef Akgungor, Istanbul Isik University, Turkey

SPEAKERS:

1. Family Ownership: Typology and Implications
Sibel Yamak, Galatasaray University, Turkey
Bengi Ertuna, Galatasaray University, Turkey

2. A Dynamic Approach to Scenario Analysis
Sule Onsel Sahin, Istanbul Technical University, Turkey
Fusun Ulengin, Istanbul Technical University, Turke
Burc Ulengin, Istanbul Technical University, Turkey

3. The Relationship Between Job Related Characteristics and Organizational Commitment
Oya Erdil, Gebze Institute of Technology, Turkey
Halit Keskin, Gebze Institute of Technology, Turkey
Cemal Zehir, Gebze Institute of Technology, Turkey

4. Human Resources Policies of Downsizing Firms in Times of Crisis
Cemal Zehir, Gebze Institute of Technology, Turkey
Halit Keskin, Gebze Institute of Technology, Turkey
Lutfihak Alpkan, Gebze Institute of Technology, Turkey

CONCURRENT SESSIONS
Saturday, July 13, 2002
16:00 – 17:30

III.36: Global Management Development

Location: Pinarbasi 1

CHAIR: Safak Aksoy, Akdeniz University, Turkey

SPEAKERS:

1. Triple Bottom Line Reporting – A Comparative Analysis of the Social and Environmental Disclosures of Two Companies
Meropy Barut, Swinburne University of Technology, Australia

2. Implementing International Countertrade: A Framework
Violi A. Llanes, University of Otago, New Zealand
Andre M. Everett, University of Otago, New Zealand
John Paynter, University of Otago, New Zealand

3. Influence of National Culture on Leadership Behavior and Management Effectiveness: A
Cross-Cultural Study of Principles
Shahid Mahmood, Institute of Leadership and Management, Pakistan

4. Utilization of Rubberwood in Malaysia: A Sustainable Issue
Barudin Muhamad, University Utara Malaysia, Malaysia

III.37: Global Marketing Management and Strategy
Location: Pinarbasi 2

CHAIR: Fred Robins, University of Adelaide, Australia

SPEAKERS:

1. Moderating Influence of Conflict within Manufacturer-Channel Member Relationships
Bulent Sezen, Gebze Institute of Technology, Turkey
Cengiz Yilmaz, Gebze Institute of Technology, Turkey

2. Tourism and Tourist Behaviors in Developing Countries: An Empirical Study in Morocco
Ugur Yucelt, Pennsylvania State University at Harrisburg, USA

3. A Survey of the Factors Affecting the Receptivity of Turkish SME’s to Electronic Commerce Adoption
Ekrem Tatoglu, Beykent University, Turkey
Veysel Kula, Afyon Kocatepe University, Turkey

4. The Rewards of Reach: Cases of SME Gains Online
Fred Robins, University of Adelaide, Australia

III.38: Current Issues in Transition Economies
Location: Pulpinar

CHAIR: Andrei Kuznetsova, Manchester Metropolitan University, United Kingdom

SPEAKERS:

1. Corporate Governance in Russia: The Emerging Framework
Anatoly Zhuplev, Loyola Marymount University, USA
Vladimir Shein, Academy of National Economy, Russian Federation

2. Crisis of Governance: Why Market Solutions to Economic Problems are not Popular in Russia
Olga Kuznetsova, Manchester Metropolitan University, United Kingdom
Andrei Kuznetsova, Manchester Metropolitan University, United Kingdom

3. The Importance of Information Sought from Environmental Scanning: The Influence of Environmental Dynamism
Nikolai Wasilewski, Pepperdine University, USA
Kurt Motamedi, Pepperdine University, USA

4. A Comparison of Web Page Design in Ukraine, the USA and the UK
Myroslaw J. Kyj, Widener University, USA
Larissa S. Kyj, Rowan University, USA

III.39: Global Business
Location: Toros 1

CHAIR: G. Nazan Gunay, Ege University, Turkey

SPEAKERS:

1. Market Orientation and Globalization Among the Turkish Clothing Exporters
G. Nazan Gunay, Ege University, Turkey

2. Technology of Transfer: Strategic Alliances Approach in Malaysia Environment
Huda Ibrahim, Universiti Utara Malaysia, Malaysia
Hasmiah Kasimin, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia
Mohammed Yusoff, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia

3.. The Effects of Organizational Motivation, Managerial Encouragement, Work Group and Task Motivations on Organizational Creativity
Erol Eren, Dogus University, Turkey
Hulya Gunduz, Kocaeli University, Turkey
___________________________________________________________________________

III.40: Pot-pourri
Location: Club Room

CHAIR: Ernest Neumann, Kingston College, Canada

SPEAKERS:

1. Performance Changes in Public, Private and Foreign Banks
Ihsan Isik, Rowan University, USA
Osman Kilic, Quinnipiac University, USA

2. Corporate Motivations and Pressures for Environmental Citizenship Behavior: The Case of Turkish Medicine Industry
Fatma Kusku, Istanbul Technical University, Turkey
Ilke Aydin, Istanbul Technical University, Turkey

3. Whose Game is it Anyway? A Comparison of Governance Issues in Two Football Codes – The Australian Football League and the English Premier League
Julie Foreman, Swinburne University of Technology, Australia

4. Redefining the Process of Development within the Context of a Knowledge-Based Global
Economy
Syeda-Masooda Mukhtar, Pricewaterhouse Coopers, United Kingdom
__________________________________________________________________________

Sunday, July 14, 2002

CONGRESS REGISTRATION
Location: Hotel Dedeman Resort Antalya
9:00 – 12:00

CONCURRENT SESSIONS
9:00 – 10:30
11:00 – 12:30

COFFEE BREAKS
10:30 – 11:00
(Sponsored by IMDA )

CLOSING CEREMONIES (Toros 1)
11:00 – 12:30

CULTURAL VISIT TO PHASELIS ANCIENT HISTORIC CITY (Lunch at Ulupinar Historic City)
13:00 – 21:00

______________________________________________________________________________

CONCURRENT SESSIONS
Location: Hotel Dedeman Resort Antalya
Sunday, July 14, 2002
9:00 – 10:30

IV.41: Miscellaneous I
Location: Pinarbasi 1

CHAIR: Abdullah Homeadan, The Institute of Public Administration, Saudi Arabia

SPEAKERS:

1. Assessing Resources and Capabilities Critical to International Students’ Satisfaction
Mark Gabbott, Monash University, Australia
Yelena Tsarenko, Monash University, Australia

2. Perceived Instructor’s Quality in Marketing Education: A Comparative Study Between New and Well Established Turkish Universities
Talha Harcar, Pennsylvania State University at Beaver, USA
Omer Torlak, Osmangazi University, Turkey

3. Business Ethics: Considerations of Purchasing Professionals
Sebnem Burnaz, Istanbul Technical University, Turkey
Y. Ilker Topcu, Istanbul Technical University, Turkey

4. Doing Global Education Business in Australia: Controlling the Effects of Layoff Survivor Sickness Could Help ‘Give the Edge’
Barbara Lasky, Swinburne University of Technology, Australia
Irene Tempone, Swinburne University of Technology, Australia
______________________________________________________________________________

IV.42: Managing Diversity
Location: Pinarbasi 2

CHAIR: Narendra Reddy, The University of the South Pacific, Fiji Islands

SPEAKERS:

1. Managing Australia’s Cultural Diversity
My-Van Tran, University of South Australia, Australia

2. Restructuring Prospects for the Fiji Sugar Industry
Narendra Reddy, The University of the South Pacific, Fiji Islands

3. The Challenge of Being Number One: A Case Study of Ukranian Mobile Communications Company
Pavlo Sheremeta, Kyiv-Mohyla University, Ukraine.
Natalka Moroz, Kyiv-Mohyla University, Ukraine
______________________________________________________________________________

IV.43: Global Information Technology and Innovation
Location: Pulpinar

CHAIR: Albert Caruana, University of Malta, Malta

SPEAKERS:

1. The Effect of Anemia on Ethnocentrism Among Small Firm Owners and Managers in a Globalization and Liberalization Context
Albert Caruana, University of Malta, Malta
Saviour Chircop, University of Malta, Malta

2. Marketing Ethics in Nigerian Organizations
Linus Osuagwu, Federal University of Technology, Nigeria

3 Business Expansion of Two Polish Companies Abroad- A Case Study on KGHM and
Elektrim
Kari Liuhto, Lappenrata University of Technology, Finland

4. Internet Technology in Nigerian Business Organizations
Linus Osuagwu, Federal University of Technology, Nigeria
_____________________________________________________________________________

IV.44: Global Business Training and Development in the New Century
Location: Toros 1

CHAIR: Jan Napoleon Saykiewicz, Duquesne University, USA

SPEAKERS:

1. International Business Education in North America
A. Coskun Samli, University of North Florida, USA

2. International Business Education in Europe
Frederic Jallat, Paris Graduate School of Business, France

3. International Business Education in Latin America
Khosrow Fatemi, San Diego State University, Iperial Valley Campus, USA

4. International Business Education in Turkey
Fulya D. Sarvan, Akdeniz University, Turkey

5. International Business Education in China and Central Asia
Erdener Kaynak, Pennsylvania State University at Harrisburg, USA
______________________________________________________________________________

IV.45: Miscellaneous II
Location: Club Room

CHAIR: Sebnem Burnaz, Istanbul Technical University, Turkey

SPEAKERS:

1. .The Configural (Factorial) Invariance of the Brand Identity Scale
Kemal Buyukkurt, Concordia University, Canada

2. Contingent Employment in Asia: A Study of Compensation and Benefits of Contract Employees in Singapore
Aahad M. Osman-Gani, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore
Hesan A. Quazi, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore

3. ERP Challenges in the Internet Era: A Romanian Approach
Luminita Finaru, “Al. I. Cuza” University, Romania
Doina Fotache, “Al. I. Cuza” University, Romania
_____________________________________________________________________________

Coffee Break: 10:30 – 11:00 At Fuaye
___________________________________________________________________________

The Twelfth Annual World Business Congress

Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
Sponsored by Kingston College, Vancouver, Canada

July 2 – 6, 2003

Preparations for the Twelfth Annual World Business Congress in Antalya, Turkey have already started. The Congress is to be held in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada from July 2 through 6, 2003.

As in other Congresses, we have developed a number of interesting conference tracks and look forward to your contributions with papers, research–in–progress proposals and presentations, and special panels. If you are interested in becoming part of the 2003 Program as a Track Co-chair, please contact IMDA Secretariat at execdirector@imda.cc

For more attraction information, please check the official Vancouver Tourism Office web site at http://www.tourismvancouver.com

IMDA RECOGNIZES DEAN YAVUZ TEKELIOGLU AS RECIPIENT OF THE INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS DEAN OF THE YEAR AWARD

Professor Tekelioğlu is a 1968 economics graduate of the renowned Faculty of Political Sciences of Ankara University and obtaining the state scholarship for doctoral studies abroad, from 1969 to 1974, he completed his masters and doctoral degrees at Universite de Montpellier in France. Returning to his native country, he worked for the Undersecretary for Land and Agriculture Reform of the Prime Ministry until 1977 and from then on he continued his academic career at Hacettepe University, teaching economics at different departments of the Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences. In 1993 he was assigned as the Founding Dean of the Faculty of Economic and Administrative Sciences of Akdeniz University.

Professor Tekelioglu has given prominence to building international relations since the beginning of his career and has woven excellent personal ties with various universities and research centers in Europe. During the last nine years that he served as the Dean of his Faculty, he has invested his personal ties at such an admirable level to building up the institutional relations of his school that, it has been possible to establish international networks, organize joint conferences and mutual collaboration programs with the academic circles of various countries, at a high intensity level that is beyond the performance expectable from a young Faculty and an international identity only achievable by institutionalized universities could be created.

Beginning from the foundation of the Faculty in 1993, Professor Tekelioğlu has enabled many Turkish and foreign scholars work on and discuss a large range of topics from agriculture to industry, from health to politics, from law to international relations, from business administration to economics, from public administration to public finance, in numerous national and around thirty international academic events such as congresses, colloquiums, panels, seminars, conferences, summer schools, workshops and round table meetings, he and his staff organized in Antalya. Upon recognition of his academic achievements in the international arena, French Government has awarded him with the “Chevalier dans l’Ordre des Palmes Academiques” in 1998.

Professor Tekelioğlu achieved very close relations with the universities and research centers, especially in France, international institutions of the European Union and many domestic and foreign, public and non governmental institutions working towards international relations in Turkey, enabling hundreds of academicians, speacialists and business people to come together in an academic discussion environment, to get acquainted with each other, form bonds, share viewpoints, collaborate in joint research projects and develop friendship between nations, while actualizing the above mentioned academic events. Invitation of Professor Papayannakis, a Greek academician and also a member of the European Parliament, to give a conference at Akdeniz University and the influential messages he has given for the Turkish-Greek friendship has been one of the concrete examples of his achievements in this respect.

The international academic events Professor Tekelioğlu has organized since 1993 reflect only one aspect of his contribution to the development of international relations. His extensive collaboration with French universities, research institutes and agencies like CIHEAM, IAMM and CNRS for many years has resulted in agreements on faculty and student exchange and made it possible to organize mutual visits, joint research projects, resource and information exchange and cooperation programs for the future. Within this framework a number of academicians from his Faculty have been able to conduct research in such centers, many foreign researchers have visited Antalya to give seminars and a number of joint projects have been started. The students visiting Turkey and the students visiting other countries within the summer training program agreements signed by the Universities of Picardie and Auvergne, France, had the chance to improve themselves and also contribute to the friendship of nations. Professor Tekelioğlu’s personal contribution to these projects has been significant and indispensable.

The impact of all the above mentioned efforts on the involvement of his Faculty in international research networks also deserves to be mentioned. The Economic Reseach Center on Meditteranean Countries founded and still directed by Professor Tekelioğlu in 1997 has become a member of EuroMesCo in 2000 and FEMISE in 2001, both creating ample opportunities for the staff to carry their academic studies within international networks. Dean Tekelioglu has made significant contributions in the development of international academic networks and friendship ties between nations.

As the Congress Co-Chair of the Eleventh World Business Congress hosted by his Faculty, Professor Tekelioğlu will be widening the scope of international relations of his academic staff, providing new opportunities to get involved in international academic networks and making his Faculty still renowned among the IMDA colleagues.

For all his accomplishments in making his Faculty a modern education and research center open to the global arena with its students and staff, taking part in international academic cooperation networks, having gained an international identity with a multitude of academic events, and for his outstanding efforts as the leading role model with his dynamic, entreprising and pacifist personality, Dr. Tekelioğlu was awarded the International Business Dean Award of the International Management Development Association.

IMDA HONORS
HÜSEYİN ÇALIK
FOUNDING MEMBER OF THE BOARD OF DIRECTORS OF ATAÇ CONSTRUCTION AND INDUSTRY INC.
AS IMDA INTERNATIONAL BUSINESSMAN OF THE YEAR

Hüseyin Çalık was born in Konya in 1935. After completing his primary and secondary education in Konya, he continued his education in İstanbul and graduated from the Istanbul School of Economics and Commercial Sciences in 1957. During his lycee and university education he worked for the accounting and finance departments of several big companies, gaining plenty of practical experience.
.
His first major entrepreneurial attempt was the foundation of his first company as a partnership with Hikmet Ataman in Antalya. This company, known today as ATAÇ Construction and Industry Inc., has specialized in irrigation projects, dams and purification installments and successfully completed many such projects. Besides this core business area, Hüseyin Çalık made diversified investments in other sectors, such as textile, tourism, agriculture, education and communication. Some of the investments he started as a founding partner are KEPEZ Flour Factory (1974), ANTEKS Spinning Mill (1986), ANTEKS Weaving Plant (1991), Textile Finishing Company (1993), ANTEKS Garment Manufacturing Plant (1996), Antalya Fair Center (1995) and Antalya Joined Forces Holding Company (1999).The ANTEKS Spinning Mill has grown to a capacity of 60.000 spindles in 2001, producing 22 tons of carded, combed, compact, elastan core-spun cotton and slub-yarns daily. The ANTEKS Weaving Plant has steadily grown in capacity to reach 1.000.000 metres of finished fabric in one month. In the Finishing Mill all the grey cloth is dyed and finished using the latest technology. The ANTEKS Garment Factory, situated in the Antalya Free Trade Zone is now producing 1500 shirts daily. The textile group of companies has become an important exporter of textile and ready made clothing products.The biggest markets for export goods are USA, Germany, Italy and France. The major customers for the company’s textile products are GAP Inc., Express USA, Marks nad Spencer, the Benetton Group, Hugo Boss, Calvin Clein, Stefanel and Lacoste.

Çalık’s investments in the tourism area are, Best Western K.Han Hotel downtown Antalya which started in 1989 and Kemer Resort Hotel which is still under construction since the year of 2000. Çalık started his communications investments in 1998 with the foundation of ATAÇ Computer Services company which merged with DORUK Communications and Automation Industry Inc., the first company to provided internet services in Turkey, in 2000. Doruknet has now set itself the challenge of placing itself as the computer infrastructure supplier to companies working within its field.

Hüseyin Çalık is also the founding partner of Antalya College, one of the best providers of private education in the Western Meditteranean Region. He completed the construction of the facilities of the school and started education in 1980. Today this modern College Campus is comprising five schools, the Primary School, the High School, the Science High School, the Anadolu High School of Tourism and Hotel Management and the Anadolu High School of Fine Arts with an enrollment of approximately 2000 students. The College is very well equipped with

computers, laboratories, sports facilities and extra curricular activities for students and also has preparatory programs in English as a Foreign Language. German is also taught as a second foreign language.

Hüseyin Çalık has also been an active initiator of NGO’s for community services. In 1980’s he served as the Director of the Antalya Sports Soccer Club for 8 years and he was also the founding member of the Board of Directors of the Antalya Tennis Club. He was also one of the founders of the Antalya Industrialists’ and Businessmen Association (ANSİAD) and now he is chairing the Higher Consultancy Board of the same association. He is also the founding member of the Denizli and Antalya branches of TABA, The Turkish-American Businessmen Association. He is a senior and active member of many other NGO’s working for a better community, but as a member of the Board of Trustees of the Foundation for Private University of Antalya, his biggest ideal is to achieve the foundation of the private University of Antalya.

For all his proven entrepreneurial performance in a multitude of business areas, his outstanding exports enhancement and his dedicated contributions to community services, he was awarded the Businessman of the Year 2000, by the Antalya Industrialists’ and Businessmen Association.

INVITATION TO VANCOUVER, BRITISH COLUMBIA, CANADA

July 3, 2002

Dr. Khosrow Fatemi
President
International Management Development Association
Dean
Imperial Valley Campus
San Diego State University
7209 Heber Avenue
Calexico, CA 92231

On behalf of the Greater Vancouver Convention & Visitors Bureau, our hotels, our businesses and hospitality community, we’re delighted that you’re considering our city as the site for the 12th Annual World Business Congress to be held here next June or July 2003.

To set the stage for an outstanding meeting, Vancouver has the scenery that your delegates will rave about, activities to suit every whim, hotels for every taste, and first class convention centre that is set amongst it all. A dynamic, International City blessed with exceptional first-class hotels and state of the art facilities. Add to all this Canada’s exceptional exchange rate and you begin to see why Vancouver is one of the world’s best meeting destinations.

While our charm may entice you, we know it is our commitment to quality service that will keep you. Through our Vancouver’s Service Edge program, Tourism Vancouver will work with you every step of the way to ensure your meeting is a success. (And the records show that meetings in Vancouver have an average 14% higher delegate draw.)

Tourism Vancouver – the Greater Vancouver Convention and Visitors Bureau – and its 1,050 members look forward to welcoming your business to our region and to working with you in the near future.

Sincerely,

Rick Antonson
President and CEO

PARTICIPANT INDEX

Abdul-Rahman, M. Nazim 32
Ahmed, Zafar U. 33
Ajami, Riad 25
Akcaoglu, Emin 30
Akgun, Ali E. 46
Akgun, Mensur 35
Akgungor, Sedef 29, 46
Akhtar, Syed 33
Akinci, Serkan 35
Aksoy, Safak 35, 47
Alan, Ustun 31
Ali, Abbas J. 23, 25, 33, 36
Ali, Juhary 26
Ali, Shaukat 41
Alkacar, Baki 22
Alpkan, Lutfihak 41, 47
Al-Qahtany, M. Duliem 35
Al-Shabbi, Ali Essa 27
Anas, Yaacob 35
Anwar, Syed Aziz 36, 45
Arslan, F. Muge 42
Ashamalla, Maali H. 42
Ataman, Berk 31
Atilgan, Eda 35
Atsan, Nuray 29, 42
Awuah, Gabriel Baffour 39
Aydin, Ilke 49
Bakan, Ismail 26, 43
Bakar, Shazam Juliana 35
Baklanova, Alexandra 45
Baloglu, Seyhmus 28
Balsmeier, Phillip W. 25, 35, 41
Baltacioglu, Tuncdan 28
Barut, Meropy 47
Basri, Ahmad Fawzi Mohd 32
Batten, Jonathan A. 31
Bawa, Muhammad Aminu 26
Bayraktaroglu, Serkan 26, 28
Becker, Kip 21, 23, 31, 35
Beisel, John L. 25
Bennett, Roger 30
Bergiel, Blaise J. 41
Bilgin, Zeynep 26
Birkan, Ibrahim 38

Burnaz, Sebnem 39, 51, 53
Buszard, Paul 41
Buyukkurt, Kemal 53
Caruana, Albert 52
Cavlek, Nevenka
Cerit, A. Gulden 42
Chan, K. F. 35
Chan, T. S. 41
Chen, Shiang-Lih 28
Cheung, Stephen Y.L. 27
Chircop, Saviour 52
Chong, Stewart W. Ting 31
Cizel, Beykan 42
Culpan, Refik 30, 34, 38
Datt, Deepak K. 32
Demirbag, Mehmet 43
De Shields, Oscar W. 42
Dincer, Omer 43
Dinu, Michaela 25
Dokuzoglu, Ertugrul 21
Dominguez, Jean-Phillippe 32
Dosoglu-Guner, Berrin 39
Dundar, Gonen 29
Ekin, M. G. Serap
Ekin, Serap 39, 52
Ekit, Omer 45
Erdem, Ferda 42
Erdil, Oya
Erdinc, Didar 33, 34
Eren, Erol 29, 34, 49
Eren, Saban 45
Erertem, Dilek 28
Ertuna, Bengi 46
Everett, Andre M. 47
Evtouchhovich, Ekaterina 40
Fatemi, Khosrow, 21, 23, 44, 52
Finaru, Luminita 53
Foo, Jennifer 33
Foreman, Julie 49
Formica, Sandro 25
Foroughi, Abbas 46
Fotache, Doina 53
Fourie, L. de W. 29
Freson, Andrew 36
Frodey, Carol 40
Gabbott, Mark 51
Gbadamosi, Gbolahan 38
Gebrekidan, Desalagen Abraha 39
Gegez, A. Ercan 42
Gencyilmaz, Gunes 34
Gibbs, Manton 23, 33
Gniewosz , Gerhard 26
Gorynia, Rodoslaw 32
Gozlu, Sitki 28, 43
Grunding, Jan 28, 30
Gulen, Kemal Guven 27
Gullukaya, Fatih 45
Gunay, G. Nazan 49
Gunduz, Hulya 49, 52
Gurdal, Sahavet 42
Hallab, Zaher 38
Hammouten, Ali 36
Harcar, Talha D. 39, 51
Hassan, Syed Zahoor 26
Hill, John S. 29, 43
Hisarlikcioglu, Rifat 22
Ho, Ricky 35
Hojjat, Mehdi 32
Hojjat, Tahereh Alavi 42
Homeadan, Abdullah 51
Hurd, John 32
Ibrahim, Daing Nasir 32
Ibrahim, Huda 49
İbrahim, Mohd. Yussoff 32, 49
İlhan, İbrahim 28
Inceoglu, Mustafa Murat 45
Isik, Ihsan 49
Jager, Johan de 28, 29, 38
Jallat, Frederic 26, 27, 52
Jantan, Muhamad 26
Jovic, Mile 43
Jusoh, Wan Jamaliah 36
Kara, Ahmet 34, 44
Kara, Ali 42
Karakas, Kadriye 42
Kasimin, Hasmiah
Kaya, Nihat 41
Kaynak, Erdener 21, 23, 25, 39, 53
Keskin, Halit 46, 47
Kilic, Osman 49
Kocakulah, Mehmet 31, 36, 46
Kocer, Burak 31
Kong, Anson K.K. 33
Korovulavula, Elenoa 40
Kose, Ahmet 27, 29
Kucukemiroglu, Orsay 25, 39
Kula, Veysel 48
Kumbul, Bekir 21
Kuppusamy, Kalaithasan 32
Kural, Vural 22
Kuruuzum, Ayse 29
Kuruuzum, Orhan 34
Kusku, Fatma 28, 49
Kutanis, Rena Ozen 28
Kuznetsova, Andrei 48
Kuznetsova, Olga 48
Kyj, Larissa S. 49
Kyj, Myroslaw J. 39, 49
Ladki, Said M. 38
Lasky, Barbara 51
Latib, Mohamed 34, 42, 44
Lau, Lorett B.Y. 26, 34
Lau, Theresa 35
Leblebici, Dilek 27
Leung, T. S. 41
Liuhto, Kari 52
Llanes, Violi A. 47
Mahmood, Shahid 47
Mak, Simon K.M. 27
Marinova, Marin A. 33
Marinova, Svetla T. 33
Marouane, Trimeche 39
Marshall, Paul 40, 44
Mavonda, F. T. 25
McCloy, Antony 34
McMaster, Jim 40
Mihalik, Brian J. 25, 38
Mirza, Hafiz 43
Mohamed, A. Amin 42
Morita, Ken 33
Moroz, Natalka 52
Morris, Neil 41
Mostert, F.J. 38
Motamedi, Kurt 48
Mouzychenko, Olga 43
Movassaghi, Hormoz 45
Muhamad, Barudin 47
Muhati, Jacque 38
Mukhtar, Syeda-Masooda 33, 50
Mulugetta, Abraham 45
Nasir, Aslihan 31
Nemli, Esra 36
Neumann, Ernest 49
Ng, Chris K.C. 27
Nowak, Jan 31, 32, 40
Ofosu, Foster 38
Orbay, Zeki 31
Orife, John N. 42
Ornek, Yusuf 22
Osman-Gani, Aahad M. 46, 53
Osuagwu, Linus 52
Oswald, Peter 26
Othman, Kamariah 33, 41
Oz-Alp, San 22
Ozen, Umit 40
Ozretic-Dosen, Durdana
Ozsoy, Bekir Bulent 22
Ozturkcan, D. Selcen 35
Paksoy, Mahmut 29, 42
Parhizgar, Fuzhan F. 42
Parhizgar, Kamal Dean 42
Paynter, John 47
Perkins, William C. 46
Pillay, Subramaniam 32
Pinar, Musa 25, 38
Pyo, Sungsoo 38
Quazi, Hesan A. 53
Rasheed, Abdul A. 32
Rasyid, Hasnil 43
Reddy, Narendra 51
Reid, David McHardy 41
Richardson, Antoinette 39
Robins, Fred 48
Rolando, Pena-Sanchez 42
Rosenstein, Joseph 32
Sadik, Mira W. 38
Saee, John 43
Saeed, Mohammad 33
Sahin, Sule Onsel 30, 46
Samli, A. Coskun 29, 32, 35, 52
Samsunlu, Aysegul 34
Sarvan, Fulya D. 21, 22, 34, 52
Satıcı, Oğuz 22
Savani, Sharmila 30
Saykewicz, Jan Napoleon 21, 30, 52
Schwaiger, Paul 22
Semercioz, Fatih 31
Sezen, Bulent 48
Sharma, Soumitra 23
Shein, Vladimir 48
Sheremeta, Pavlo 44, 52
Singh, Gurmak 46
Sriram, Ven 26
Suder, Asli 29
Tai, H. C. Susan 29
Tanil, Gamze 38
Tarim, Mehves 34, 44
Tas, Oktay 31
Tat, Hakan 29
Tatoglu, Ekrem 43, 48
Tekelioğlu, Yavuz 21
Teker, Suat 45
Tempone, Irene 27, 39, 51
Thanyalakpark, Kessara 31
Topcu, Y. Ilker 51
Torlak, Omer 51
Toskay, Tunca 21
Tran, My-Van 51
Trevisan, Italo 28
Tsarenko, Yelena 51
Tuna, Okan 42
Ucar, Yasar 21
Ulengin, Burc 30, 46
Ulengin, Fusun 30, 40, 45, 46
Unsal, Fahri 45
Unsal, Hilmi 22
Uray, Nimet 45
Uysal, Muzaffer 23, 27, 38
Vengesayi, Sebastian 25
Vincze, Zsuzsanna 30
Vukonic, Boris 23
Wasilewski, Nikolai 48
Weaver, K. Mark 39
Weir, David T. H. 27, 43
Whiteley, Alma 46
Wolniak, Radoslaw 32
Wong, Y. H. 26
Wood, Elliot 46
Yam, Richard C.M. 33
Yamak, Sibel 46
Yanik, Serhat 36
Yazici, Selim 36
Yeung, Matthew 41
Yeung, Starboard T.H. 40
Yilmaz, Cengiz 28, 41, 48
Yoshikawa, Toru 32
Yuan, Ling 33
Yucelt, Ugur 48
Zacca, Robert 34
Zaim, Selim 34, 44
Zain, Nordin 36
Zehir, Cemal 46, 47
Zhang, Shiquan 46
Zhuplev, Anatoly 30, 44, 48

LIST OF COUNTRIES REPRESENTED
IN THE IMDA ELEVENTH WORLD BUSINESS CONGRESS

1. Australia
2. Belarus
3. Botswana
4. Bulgaria
5. Canada
6. China
7. Croatia
8. Fiji Islands
9. Finland
10. France
11. Italy
12. Japan
13. Korea, Republic of
14. Kuwait
15. Lebanon
16. Malaysia
17. Malta
18. New Zealand
19. Nigeria
20. Pakistan
21. Poland
22. Romania
23. Russian Federation
24. Saudi Arabia
25. Singapore
26. South Africa
27. Sweden
28. Thailand
29. Turkey
30. Ukraine
31. United Arab Emirates
32. United Kingdom
33. United States of America
34. Yugoslavia

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INTERNATIONAL MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT ASSOCIATION

Twelfth Annual World Business Congress
Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
July 2 – 6, 2002

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Integrating conservation practice into religious teachings in Indonesia

August 22, 2010 Leave a comment

Final Report

Integrating conservation practice into religious teachings in Indonesia

June 2007 – August 2008

1.1. Project Partner Meeting

For the community outreach pilot project, the first partner meeting was held on 21 August 2007 in Padang, West Sumatra. The meeting was attended by various stakeholders that included: a local NGO (QBar, our main project partner), Department of Forestry (provincial agency for West Sumatra), University of Andalas (Faculty of Law and Faculty of Agriculture), State Islamic Institute of Imam Bonjol Padang and provincial journalists. The meeting aimed to introduce the project partners and set up a social network and also garner supports from the various stakeholders in order to then implement the project. All invited stakeholders supported the project and look forward to collaborating with it in the future. From this initial meeting, a small advisory group was established to subsequently run the project.

2.1. Document Islamic Teachings on Nature Conservation
The activities included:
(1) A meeting with Conservation International held in August, 2007. In this meeting, reading materials regarding to islam and biodiversity conservation accessed. CI also shared its experiences in developing Fiqh Al Bi’ah with pesantrens in Indonesia. Collaboration to support the implementation of project was agreed.
Some important points from the series of discussion:
• The concept of Islamic principles in nature conservation is the use of Ihya Al-Mawat system which is reviving the neglected field by using reclamation way and or functioning the area to be productive. There is also Harim system, which is the protected area especially for water sources, and Hima system, which is the area that is protected for public interest and natural habitat conservation.

(2) Series of focus group discussion held in 3 nagari (sub districts ) during Septermber 2007. The meeting involved local ulama (religious leaders) and community members to gather local values and perceptions with regards to islam and conservation. The series of FGDs was also held to obtain inputs and support from local communities on the outreach activities that integates islamic values in promoting biodiversity conservation.
Some important points from the series of FGDs:
• In Minangkabau society (West Sumatra), the concept of customary law and system is higly based on islamic values under the term ’Adat Basandi Sara, Sara Basandi Kitabullah’ means that customary system is based on syari’ah law and syariah law is based on the Qoran. Therefore, custamary system and islamic values is an interconnected concept. In additon, it is also advised by indigenous leaders that Minangkabau communities should learn from their natural environment.
• There are three important elements in the Minangkabau customary institutions that responsible for natural resources management called as ’tigo tungku sajarangan’ include: ulama to promote sustainable natural resources management; ninik mamak (customary council) to monitor and manage the utilization of natural resources; and cadiak pandai (knowledgable people) to teach local communities about good natural resources management. These three elements should work hand in hand to ensure sustainable natural resources management.
• Concept of protected areas or Hima (in arabic term) is also found in the Minangkabau society, that is called as hutan larangan (sacred forest). Some communities also have devised and maintained customary rules regarding to natural resources use and management. If the community members want to utilize the natural resources in the area, they have to obtain a permit from ninik mamak (indigenous leaders appointed by community members)

3.1. Develop Curriculum and Reference Material
This activity was started in June to September 2007. Curriculum for training of indigenous and conservation leaders was developed. Reference materials also gathered that include several topics, for instance:
– Islamic perspective on biodiversity conservation
– Islamic law and natural resources management
– Ecological aspect in Syariah
– The importance of planting trees in Islamic perspective
– The Qoran: creation and biodiversity conservation
– Fiqh Al Biah (Environmental Fiqh)
– Raising awareness on islam and conservation.
The reference material used for the training for conservation and religious leaders

3.2. Establish Small Working Group & Evaluate Curriculum
This working group was established after the initial partner meeting. Members of this working group include: Syafrial (State Islamic Institute of Imam Bonjol, Padang), Kurnia Warman and Bachtiar Afna (Faculty of Law of Unand), Fachruddin (CI), Abidah (Greenlaw Indonesia), Jomi Suhendri. S dan Naldi Gantika) (Qbar). The working grou[p has worked together to develop a curriculum of training for religious and conservation leaders. With regard to the curriculum evaluation, a workshop will be organized to evaluate the curriculum to be held sometimes in April 2008.

3.3. Training Religious and Conservation Leaders
Two trainings for Religious and Conservation Leaders was organized in Padang, West Sumatra inviting local ulama, teachers of Islamic junior high school (Madrasah Tsanawiyah) and community members from two Nagari (Ampiang Parak and Kambang) in the Pesisir Selatan District, West Sumatra. The trainings aimed to:
– Integrate conservation values in Islamic teachings;
– Enhance capacity of participants to facilitate community meetings and to promote the integration of conservation values in Islamic teachings in the local level
Topic of the training includes:
– Identify and explore verses in Al Qur’an related to conservation and environmental management;
– The concept of Hima and Harim;
– Fiqh Al Bi’ah (environmental Fiqh);
– Discuss Indonesian biodiversity resources and the urgent need to promote and take action regarding to biodiversity conservation
– Explore environmental problems at the local levels and develop action plans to solve these problems using knowledge gathered during the training;
– Participatory mapping to identify potential local site of Hima/Harim
The training deployed participatory approach using several methods: group discussions, participatory mapping, lecturing that was followed by intensive discussions, and so forth. In the end of the training, participants were able to develop action plans to follow up the training. Some example of their action plan activities include:
• to hold khutbah (speech during friday prayer) on islam and environmental conservation) in several local mosques;
• To disseminate these ideas in some adat (customary councils) meetings;
• To support the development of a local library based in Nagari as well as provide materials to schools and pesantren library, particularly on environmental related materials.

First training:
The first training was held on October 23-25 attended by 8 participants form Nagari Ampyang Parak that included ulama, ninik mamak (member of adat council), teachers of a modern pesantren and a junior high school as well as Qbar member. Participants from Nagari Ampyang Parak were really enthusiastic with the training and hoped that this initiative could be continued. Participants of Nagari Ampyang Parak were really interested to apply concept of Hima in their areas but in a small scale basis. They informed that Kampung Tanjung Pinang could be a potential area to apply this concept. Local people have started to plant various trees along the watershed area (customary forest area) since they experienced drought last year.
The participants:
1. Salman MT from alim ulama element, Nagari Ampiang Parak, Pesisir Selatan District
2. Muas, S.Ag from teachers element, Nagari Ampiang Parak, Pesisir Selatan District
3. A.R. DT. Batuah from ninik mamak element, Nagari Ampiang Parak, Pessel District
4. Narus Bidin from ninik mamak element, Nagari Ampiang Parak, Pesisir Selatan District
5. Amir Syarifuddin from ninik mamak element , Nagari Ampiang Parak, Pesisir Selatan District
6. Bachtiar Afna, Academician from Andalas University in Padang
7. Syafrial, Academician from IAIN Imam Bonjol

Second training:
The second training was held on 27 – 29 November 2007 attended by 8 community members from Nagari Kambang that included: local ulama, ninik mamak (member of adat council), youth, a teacher of junior high school. Action plans were also developed by each participants based on their knowledge, experience and expertise.
The participants:
1. Idris Sutan Ibrahim from alim ulama element, Nagari Kambang, Pessel District
2. Haris Musrinda from teachers, Nagari Kambang, Pessel District
3. Muslim DT. Pando Basi from ninik mamak element, Nagari Kambang, Pessel District
4. R.A.Rj. Bagindo Sati from ninik mamak element, Nagari Kambang, Pessel District
5. Asrul from young generation, Nagari Kambang, Pessel District
6. H. Amiruddin from alim ulama element, Nagari Kambang, Pessel District
7. Martias NR Batuah from ninik mamak element, Nagari Kambang, Pessel District
8. Kamaruddin Kadra from alim ulama element, Nagari Kambang, Pessel District
9. Qbar (Lili, Naldi, Inas, Tri Astuti and Nurul)

Picture 1. An ulama present communities’ action plan

Picture 2. A participant drawing map of his village to design the implementation of Hima

Picture 3. Group photo of first training

3.4. Monitoring and Evaluation
Monitoring activities have been held on 12 – 14 February, 2008 in Nagari Kambang and Nagari Ampyang Parak, Pesisir Selatan District. The methods used were semi structure interviews and participant observant.
Some result of the monitoring activities:
– Some previous participants have promoted the integration of conservation values in Islamic teaching during several informal discussions with community members
– Some previous training participants also delivered ‘islam and conservation’ during Friday prayer speech (khotbah)
– It was noted that most community members have minimal understanding on Islamic teaching with regard to good environmental management and biodiversity conservation, therefore, further efforts to promote this values were recommended.
– It was also suggested that the distribution of reading materials on the related subject to Islamic schools (elementary school, junior and senior high school) and outdoor activities (so called ‘tadabur alam’) was also consider important to raise awareness among students on islam and conservation.
– Previous training participants also noted the importance to involve Islamic institutions such as MUI (Indonesian Ulama Council) and Muhammadiyah to be leverage the impact of integrating conservation values in religious teachings in Indonesia.

3.5. Workshop on “Evaluating and Monitoring”
The activities have been held on 25 – 26 August 2008 in Asrama Haji (Pilgrimage Hostel) in Padang. The participants invited in the workshop were the community from Nagari Kambang, Ampiang Parak and Lakitan. The workshop aimed to sharpen the result of monitoring and evaluating that has been done in field after the training and to formulate the follow-up plan in the implementation of Islam and Conservation next. In this workshop, the activity plan that will be implemented in nagari after the implementation of Islam and natural resources conservation that has been done for six months in three nagari in West Sumatra will be formulated.

3.6. The Seminar of Islam and Natural Resources Conservation Activities Result
The activities have been held in 27 August 2008 in Asrama Haji in Padang. These activities aimed to inform the stakeholders about Islam and Nature Conservation and to receive inputs from stakeholders about the implementation of Islam and nature conservation activities. The activities was participated by the community of Nagari Ampiang Parak, Lakitan and Kambang, students, NGO and community organization in West Sumatra. The first speaker of this seminar was Jomi Suhendri. S (Qbar) who conveyed his paper about “The Implementation of Islam and Natural Resources Conservation Program in Three Nagari (Nagari Kambang, Ampiang Parak and Lakitan) in Pesisir Selatan District”. The second speaker was Bachtiar Afna, SH (LKAAM of West Sumatra) who conveyed his paper about “The Implementation of Traditional Values in Nature Conservation in West Sumatra”. The third speaker was Drs. Syafrial (lecturer of IAIN Imam Bonjol in Padang) who conveyed his paper about “Islamic Teaching in Nature Conservation in West Sumatra”. The inputs of these activities were to keep on the activities of Islam and natural resources conservation in West Sumatra by expanding the area.

Categories: Uncategorized

WORKSHOP ON ISLAMIC RISK MANAGEMENT

August 22, 2010 Leave a comment

JOINTLY ORGANISED BY

Hawkamah, the Institute for Corporate Governance
Level 14, the Gate, P.O. Box: 7477 Dubai, UAE
Tel: +9713622551 Fax: +97143622552 Website: http://www.hawkamah.org
AND

Amanie Islamic Finance Learning Centre
No, 44, Level 41, Emirates Towers,
Sheikh Zayed Road,
Dubai, United Arab Emirates

Phone: +971 4 319 7688
Mobile: + 971 5 092 27652
Fax: +971 4 330 3365

DATE:
26TH MARCH 2009
VENUE:
Lecture Room 2 Level 1, the Gate, P.O. Box: 7477 Dubai, UAE
THEME:
“Towards Better Understanding of Islamic Risk Management”

Course Objective

The objective of this workshop is to provide participants with a comprehensive understanding of the Islamic risk management. The workshop will allow participants to examine the unique risks involved in Islamic finance particularly in the aspect of Shariah compliant risk management tools, scope of risk and overviews of Islamic prudential standards of International Financial Services Board, rating of risk for Islamic financial institutions (IFIS) and Islamic financial products from rating agency perspective. The workshop content will be drawn heavily from the key issues of the day, in particular those which raise supervisory and management effectiveness questions.

Benefits for Attending

The workshop offers comprehensive module on Islamic risk management which has been designed by experienced and renowned experts peculiarly in providing Shari’ah advisory services and structuring of Islamic financial products both local and international market. The workshop will enable participants to understand the unique risk facing Islamic banks and the risk management techniques involved in Islamic finance industry.

Who Should Attend?

Risk Managers
Central Bankers
Banking Regulators
Bankers
Legal Advisors
Shariah Scholars
Internal Shariah Reviewers or officers
Asset and Fund Managers
Accountants & Auditors
Tentative Program
0830hrs Opening Remarks by Mr. Nickolai Nadal, Director of Hawkamah

0900hrs Scope of Risk for Islamic Financial Institution (IFIS) and Overviews of Islamic Prudential Standards of IFSB: Dr. Syed Musa Al Habshi

- Risk Management Framework, Capital Adequacy & Shariah Governance, Types of Risk exposures of IIFS
– Impact of Profit Sharing Investment Accounts (PSIA) on capital adequacy requirement
– Role of Shari’ah Review on governance of Shari’ah compliant activities

1030hrs Tea Break

1100hrs Application of Risk Management Tools and Standards for IFIS: Dr. Syed Musa Al Habshi
– Application & Impact of Risk Management Tools
– Importance and need for Risk management tools for Islamic financial transactions
– Issues on Shari’ah acceptance of risk management tools Potential Impact of risk management tools on IIFS

1230hrs Lunch

1400hrs Shariah Compliant Risk Management Tools – The Role of Islamic forwards, option and swaps: Dr Mohd Daud Bakar
1515hrs Tea Break

1545hrs Risk Management and Corporate Governance in Islamic Financial Institutions: Mr. Zulkifli Hasan

1615hrs Panel Discussion on Islamic Risk Management:
Amanie: Dr. Mohd. Daud Bakar
DIFC: Mr. Nik Norishky Thani
Hawkamah: Mr. Nickolai Nadal

1700hrs End of Workshop
Fees
Normal fees are USD1, 000 and 20% discount will be given to group registration of 3 or more and Hawkamah members.
About the Speakers
Dr. Mohd Daud Bakar
Dr. Mohd Daud Bakar is currently the Managing Director of Amanie Islamic Finance Learning Centre (DIFC Incorporated) Dubai. He received his first degree in Shari’ah from University of Kuwait (1988), PhD from University of St. Andrews, United Kingdom (1993) and external Bachelor of Jurisprudence at University of Malaya (2002). He has published more than 30 articles in various academic journals and presented more than 200 papers in various conferences both local and abroad. He is now Chairman of the Shari’ah Advisory Council at the Central Bank of Malaysia, member of the Shari’ah Advisory Council at the Securities Commission of Malaysia, (Malaysia), Accounting and Auditing Organization for Islamic Financial Institutions (AAOIFI) (Bahrain), Dow Jones Islamic Market Index (New York), Unicorn Investment Bank (Bahrain), Financial Guidance (USA), BNP Paribas (Bahrain), Bank of London and Middle East (London), Islamic Bank of Asia (Singapore), Noor Islamic Bank (Dubai), Morgan Stanley (Dubai), Dubai Bank (Dubai) and in other financial institutions both local and abroad. He has been involved in advising Islamic funds and Islamic Sukuk both local and globally. In 2005 he has been awarded the Islamic Banker Award of 2005 by the Association of Islamic Banking Institutions Malaysia

Dr. Syed Musa Alhabshi
As principal consultant of Amanie Business Solution, Dr Syed has been involved in Islamic financial product design and development, Professional module design and development of Islamic finance courses and programs as well as spearheading research for the Islamic Financial Services Industry. He actively conducted training in the area of Accounting, Risk and Governance for Islamic Financial Institutions, Islamic Finance and Banking in public seminars and in house training programs for various financial institutions, international audit firms, supervisory agencies and rating institutions in London, United Arab Emirates, Mauritius, Brunei, Malaysia, Singapore and Indonesia.
In setting the direction for the industry he had been appointed as a technical consultant with Centennial Group International where he was involved in developing Islamic Financial Services Board (IFSB) Prudential Standards. He had also served as a member of Accounting, Auditing and Governance Standards Board of Accounting Auditing Organization for Islamic Financial Institutions (AAOIFI). In Malaysia he is currently a member of Malaysian Accounting Standards Board (MASB) Working Committee of Islamic Financial Reporting Standards.
As an academic Dr. Syed Musa Alhabshi was an Associate Professor and Dean of Faculty of Business Administration, Tun Abdul Razak University (UNITAR) till February 2007. In postgraduate education he designed and developed doctoral and masters degree curriculum as well as graduate programs in both UNITAR and International Islamic University, Malaysia (IIUM). His teaching experience spans from undergraduate, professional to postgraduate programs in the areas of accounting and finance with special focus in Islamic finance and accounting. He supervised doctoral students in Islamic Finance and has presented papers in both local and International Conferences as well as published papers in academic journals and related academic literature which includes areas on Performance and Efficiency of Islamic Financial Institutions and Foreign Investments, Accounting, Auditing, Governance, Risk Management, Performance Measurement and Zakat particularly for Islamic Financial Institutions. In addition his previous employment as audit assistant in Coopers & Lybrand as well as a police inspector in Singapore provides early exposures to the demands of commercial and social environment.
His early education was from Singapore where he obtained a Diploma in Business Studies from Ngee Ann Polytechnic and later pursued and obtained first class honors degree in Bachelor of Business Administration (1989) from International Islamic University (IIUM), as well as conferred Bank Islam Malaysia Overall Best Student Award. He then proceeded to obtain Doctor of Business Administration (1994) (Accounting and Finance) from Strathclyde University, UK.

Nick Nadal

Nick Nadal is the Director at Hawkamah Institute of Corporate Governance, in charge of developing programmes for family owned enterprises, non listed companies, banks and financial institutions, capital markets, media and academia on corporate governance. Prior to joining Hawkamah, he was the Program Officer for Middle East and North Africa programmes at the Centre for International Private Enterprise, a non-profit affiliate of the U.S. Chamber of Commerce, building linkages with and supporting regional business associations, developing and conducting training programmes on association governance and developing programmes to advance entrepreneurship, economic journalism and corporate governance in the region.

Nik Norishky Thani
Nik Norishky Thani is Executive Director of Islamic Finance, at the Dubai International Financial Centre (DIFC), Dubai, United Arab Emirates. He has over a decade’s experience in advising and structuring Islamic financial instruments, in particular Islamic Sukuk. Prior to DIFC, he was the Head of Islamic Capital Markets for MIMB Investment Bank Malaysia and Bank Islam Malaysia Berhad. He was previously attached with Aseambankers Malaysia Berhad and Commerce International Merchant Bankers (CIMB), Malaysia.
Nik Norishky Thani was a Fulbright scholar at Georgetown University, Washington DC where he focused on Islamic law and finance for his Master of Law (LLM) and graduated top of his class with Distinction and Dean’s List. Subsequently, he was a fellow at the Center for International Environmental Law, a Geneva-based international body that promotes sustainable economic development. He also underwent the Program of Instruction for Lawyers at Harvard Law School in Boston, Massachusetts. Nik Norishky Thani is a past winner of the Petronas scholarship, and holds a law degree (LLB) from the University of Cardiff, United Kingdom.
Zulkifli Hasan
He has worked extensively in Islamic finance industry as an advocate and solicitor, in-house counsel for Bank Muamalat Malaysia Berhad and member of Rules and Regulations Working Committee for Association of Islamic Banking Institutions Malaysia. As an academician, he has developed excellent research skills as senior lecturer at Faculty of Shari’ah and Law and hold various academic positions such as legislation editor for the Malaysian Journal of Shari’ah and Law, Shari’ah panel for the Institute of Fatwa Management and Research for Islamic Science University of Malaysia, ad-hoc reviewer for the International Journal of Business and Finance Research, the Institute of Business and Finance Research, USA as well as a member of the Advisory Editorial Board of the Shari’ah Law Reports. He has published numerous articles in various academic journals and presented many papers in various conferences both local and abroad. He obtained his first degree in Bachelor of Laws from International Islamic University (2001) and received his second degree in Bachelor of Shari’ah (2002) as well as Master of Comparative Laws (2004) from the same university. Currently, he is doing his Ph.D at University of Durham, United Kingdom.

Islamic Banking A Performance Analysis

August 22, 2010 Leave a comment

M. Raquibuz Zaman,* Ithaca College
Hormoz Movassaghi, Ithaca College

Source: The Journal of Global Business,
Volume 12, No. 22, Spring 2001, pp. 31-38.

Acknowledgment: This paper is being made available through the kind permission of the author. He has written extensively on Islamic economics and finance. To learn more about his works, you can visit http://www.ithaca.edu/faculty/zaman/publications.htm#journals.

This study reviews the growth of Islamic banking since its inception nearly four decades ago. It examines the major products/services offered by various Islamic banking institutions (IB) as well as analyzing such institutions’ financial performance based on the latest data available. The study concludes that some of the practices and the financial instruments used by the Islamic banks do not seem to conform to the traditional Islamic principles, and it offers suggestions for improvements.

Introduction

From its humble start in Egypt in 1963 and its sporadic progress in 1970S, the Islamic banking has grown notably in size and number in the 1980s and 1990s. According to the latest published figures by International Association of Islamic Banks, there were 166 Islamic banks and financial institutions worldwide at the end of 1996 with total assets of $137 billion, deposits exceeding $100 billion, paid-up capital of $7.3 billion, and net profit of $1683 million [Timwell 1998]. These figures exclude the funds managed in accordance to Islamic law (sharia) held by conventional banks in Muslim and non-Muslim/Western countries. Indeed, an increasing number of Western banks have established subsidiaries and/ or specialist divisions to offer corporate finance and investment banking services for tapping the deposits of high net worth individuals. The list of these Western financial institutions includes such well known names as Citigroup, ANZ, Grindlays, JP Morgan, Deutsche Bank, ABN AMRO, Goldman Sachs, Chase Manhattan, NatWest, Societe General, and HSBC among others [Siddiqi 1999].

Islamic banks operate in over sixty countries, though mostly concentrated in the Middle East and Asia. In most of these countries, the banking system is dominated by conventional banking institutions with Islamic banks operating alongside. In three countries, however -Iran, Pakistan, and Sudan -the entire banking system has been converted to Islamic banking. Islamic banking is noted as “the fastest growing segment of the credit market in Muslim countries that have Islamic banks: their market share has risen from 2 percent in the late 1970s to about 15 percent today, as measured by assets in the banking system” [Aggarwal and Yousef 2000]. And by some estimates, funds under Islamic management are increasing at the rate of 15-20 percent a year [The Banker 2000], with some banking sources suggesting the total value of Islamic funds may well be approaching $200 billion [Frenchman 1998].

The main objectives of this paper are to review the growth of the Islamic banking on a global basis, assess its performance based on the latest financial data available, discuss its salient products/services, evaluate them for likely departures from traditional Islamic principles, and offer suggestions for improvement based on the experience of the authors and evidence provided by other recent studies in this area.

Islamic Banking: Origin, Scope, and Growth

The first modern experiment with Islamic banking was undertaken in Egypt under cover, for fear of being labeled as a manifestation of Islamic fundamentalism, which was anathema to the government in power. It took the form of a saving bank based on profit-sharing in the town of Mit Ghamr, lasted until 1967, by which time there were nine such banks in the country. These banks neither charged nor paid interest, invested mostly in trade and industry, directly or in partnership with others, and shared profits with depositors [Ariff 1988]. The 1970s heralded the arrival of a new age in Islamic finance witnessing the establishment of the Nasr Social Bank in 1971 (Egypt), Philippine Amanah Bank in 1973, the Dubai Islamic Bank in 1975, the Kuwait Finance House, the Faisal Islamic Bank of Sudan, and the Faisal Islamic Bank of Egypt, all in 1977, the Bahrain Islamic Bank in 1979, and the Qatar Islamic Bank in 1981, to mention a few [Ariff 1988, Wilson 1995, Edward 1999]. By the end of 1996 the number of Islamic banks, IBs, rose to 166 with a total paid-up tier-one capital of $7.3 billion, and total assets of $137 billion [Timewell 1998]. Moreover, if one excludes the Iranian and Pakistani IBs, the countries that operate under the Islamic system of banking (along with Sudan), only 40 percent of the paid-up capital and 30 percent of total assets are commanded by those from other countries. These percentages do not tell the whole picture. The 19 Gulf Cooperative Council, GCC, states command 18 percent of the total paid-up capital, and 13 percent of total assets of all IBs. In other words, 10 Iranian, 46 Pakistani, and 19 GCC IBs totaling 75 out of 166, command 78 percent of total paid-up capital and 83 percent of total assets for the IBs. These numbers appear impressive if one ignores the size of a single large commercial bank in many developed economies of the West [Business Week July 13, 1998]. Thus, it is quite obvious that IBs are relatively very small and a few of them are not even profitable [Timewell Op. Cit.].

Table 1 shows the number of IBs by region, their capital, total assets, and capital-to-asset ratios for the year-end 1996. Of the 50 financial institutions in South Asia, 5 are in Bangladesh (total capital of $20.6 million, total assets of $594 million), 1 is in India (total capital of $1.2 million, total assets of $3.5 million), and the remaining 46 are in Pakistan. Of the 35 institutions in Africa, Algeria, Djibouti, Gambia, Guinea, Mauritania, Niger, South Africa, Senegal, and Tunisia have 1 bank each, and the remaining 26 are in Sudan. Total capital of those 9 countries’ institutions is $102 million with assets of $376 million representing roughly 48 and 19 percent respectively of those of all Africa. Of the 30 IBs in Southeast Asia, 3 are in Brunei, 4 are in Malaysia, 1 is in the Philippines, and the remaining 22 are in Indonesia. Two Malaysian Banks-Bank Islam Malaysia Berhad and Lembaga Tabung Haji-together account for $3.3 billion of the total assets of $3.8 billion for the entire region.

Middle East is defined here as Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Turkey and Yemen. Egypt has 4 IBs (total capital of$337 million with assets totaling $4. billion), Iran has 10 (total capital of $32.4 billion with assets totaling $50.2 billion), Iraq has 1 (capital $402 million with assets of $9.9 billion), Jordan has 2 (capital of $23.5 million

TABLE 1
ISLAMIC BANKS AND FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS AT YEAR-END 1996 (in $ million)

Region # of Banks Capital Total Assets Total Deposits Net Profit Capital to Asset in % Net Profit as % of Total Assets
South Asia 50 962 45,201 27,042 350 2.1 0.8
Africa 35 213 1,951 603 39 10.9 2.0
Southeast Asia 30 136 3,801 1,572 184 3.6 4.8
Middle East1 24 4,060 67,142 54,288 373 6 0.6
GCC2 19 1,340 18,084 16,494 686 7.4 3.8
Europe & America 8 559 952 1,164 54 58.7 5.7
Total 166 7,270 137,131 101,163 1,686 5.3 1.2
1 -Middle East includes Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Turkey, and Yemen.
2- GCC stands for Gulf Cooperation Council, consisting of Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and United Arab Emirate (UAE).
SOURCE: International Association of Islamic Banks, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, quoted by Timewell (1998).

with assets of $871 million), Lebanon has 1 (capital of $7.7 million with assets of $21.6 million), Turkey has 4 (capital of $33.8 million with assets of $1.2 billion), and Yemen has 2 IBs with a total capital of $12 million. It should be pointed out that about 49 percent of all assets of IBs in the world are commanded by this region and this is principally because of Iran, whose entire financial system is based non-interest bearing transactions and instruments.

The various states constituting the Gulf Cooperation Council, GCC, have 19 IBs of which 10 are located Bahrain, the de facto center of financial activities for the GCC. Of the 10 IBs, data are incomplete for 2. Except for Faysal Islamic Bank of Bahrain E.C., the rest of them have capital less than $100 million each. Bahrain Islamic bank with assets of $376 million is the largest, with the Faysal Islamic Bank a close second with $356 million in assets. Kuwait has three IBs (total capital of $276 million with assets of $4.9 billion), Qatar also has three (capital of $78 million with assets of $1.3 billion), Saudi Arabia has two (capital of $453 million with assets of $10.5 billion), and the United Arab Emirates has one Islamic banking institution with capital of $136 million and total assets $1.9 billion.
The IBs in Europe and America are 8 in numbers shown in Table 1. Of these, one is in the Bahamas ( capital of $15 million with assets of $26 million), one is in the Cayman Islands (capital of $300 million with assets of $388 million), one is in Switzerland (capital of $14 million and assets of $73 million), one is in United Kingdom (capital of $182 million and assets of $385 million), and four are in the U.S., of which data are available only for two (capital for the two totals $49 million with assets of $60 million). These eight IBs are essentially investment banking, credit and fund management outfits as can be seen from their combined capital-to-asset ratio of 58.7 percent.
In general, the IBs of the various regions except Africa seem to have inadequate capital by the basic standard of capital adequacy. The worst situation is in South Asia where Pakistan dominates the number and assets of the IBs. Like Iran, Pakistan declared that its banking is to be based on the Islamic system, and it does not seem to be running them efficiently. The next precarious region is Southeast Asia where Indonesia dominates the IBs. Most of the IBs in Indonesia are very small-only three of them have capital between $100 and $162 million with combined assets of $2.3 billion. In general, return to assets (net profit as percentage of total assets) of the IBs seem to be very low in South Asia and the Middle East where most of them are located. Table 2 sheds more light on this.

Table 2
FINANCIAL POSITION OF THE TOP 20 ISLAMIC BANKING INSTITUTIONS AT YEAR-END 1996 (in $ millions)
Region Rank by Assets Capital Total Assets Total Deposits Net Profit Capital to Asset in % Net Profit as % of Total Assets
Bank Melli Iran 1 656 19,297 18,617 53 3.4 0.2
Iraqi Islamic Bank for Develop. & Invest 2 402 9,900 10,900 NA 4.0 NA
Halib bank of Pakistan 3 72 9,827 5,684 21 0.7 0.2
National Bank of Pakistan 4 73 9,348 6,081 90 0.8 1.0
Al-rajhi Bkg & Ivest. Corp.-Saudi Arabia 5 400 8,608 6,051 322 4.6 3.7
Bank Tejarat, Iran 6 326 8,544 6,978 23 3.8 0.3
Bank Sedarat, Iran 7 542 7,055 466 0.5 7.7 –
Bank Mellat, Iran 8 346 6,535 4,967 NA 5.3 NA
United Bank, Pakistan 9 49 5,088 3,704 9 1.0 0.2
Kuwait Finance House 10 169 4,732 3,767 271 3.6 5.7
Muslim Comm. Bank Pakistan 11 45 4,071 2,816 3 1.1 –
Agricult. Bank of Iran 12 233 3,024 1,001 11 7.7 0.4
Allied Bank of Pakistan 13 20 2,558 1,493 4 0.8 0.2
Islamic Int’l Bank for Invest. & Develop, Egypt 14 134 2,358 1,494 34 5.7 1.4
Agricult. Develop. Bank of Pakistan 15 104 1,982 81 6 5.2 0.3
Dubai Islamic Bank, UAE 16 136 1,935 1,754 16 7.0 0.8
Faisal Islamic Bank of Egypt 17 100 1,900 1,508 85 5.3 4.5
Lambaga Tabung Haji, Malaysia 18 NA 1,877 1,817 145 NA 7.7
Bank of Industry & Mine, Iran 19 729 1,778 147 88 41.0 4.9
Bank Islam Malaysia Berhad 20 53 1,442 1,278 15 3.7 1.0

NA = not available
— = insignificant percentage.
SOURCE: International Association of Islamic Banks, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, quoted by Timewell (1998)

Table 2 presents data on financial positions of the Top 20 IBs for the year-end 1996. It appears from the data that the IBs in Pakistan and Iran, the two countries officially under Islamic system, fared rather poorly compared to the other IBs operating under dual banking systems. Only an Iranian bank, Bank of Industry and Mine, which performed relatively well, is a very specialized bank with a capital-to-assets ratio of 41 percent. The banks in GCC, with the exception of Dubai Islamic Bank, showed relatively higher return to assets ratios among the Top 20 IBs. One Malaysian bank, Lembaga Tabung Haji, had the highest return to assets for the year-end 1996 among this group. Probably, this picture is completely changed in the aftermath of the crash of the financial markets in the South East Asian region in 1997.

To gauge the relative performance of the IBs in terms of returns to assets, we examined around 200 banks worldwide with total assets ranging between $1.5 billion and $20 billion–the same range as the top 20 IBs in Table 2. For the year-end 1996, we found that the mean return was 1.53 percent, with a median of 1.22, and these ranged between — 12.43 and 16.451. Twelve of our top twenty banks performed well below the averages, for two we have no information, and only six IBs were above these averages. The June 1998 ranking of world’s banks by Moody’s Investor Services show that the banks in IBI countries are in either vulnerable or very weak financial condition with rankings of Ds and Es, respectively [The Wall Street Journal 1998].

The better performance of the IBs in the dual banking system countries (i.e., IBs working side by side with predominantly modern banking and financial institutions) calls for an explanation. It seems as though the need to compete with the regular banks in attracting depositors’ money, pressures the IBs to essentially follow the practices of those banks under Islamic garb and try to manage their portfolios more carefully so that their customers and investors do not get disillusioned [see for example the study of IBs and conventional commercial banks in Turkey [Kuran 1995]. As we discuss the actual practices of IBs in the next section, this point will be made clearer.

Products/services of Islamic Banking Institutions

It would be helpful, at the outset, to review some of cardinal elements of economic transactions according to Islam, which laid the foundation of the Islamic banking system.

The most salient characteristic of such system is the prohibition of riba (often translated as usury or interest), a pre-determined -fixed or variable -charge levied for the use of a loaned commodity be it real or financial asset.

That riba is unequivocally banned in Islam is borne by four specific references in Islam’s holy book, Quran, and several ahadith -narrations attributed to prophet Mohammad. For example, Quran states, ” Believers! Do not consume riba, doubling and redoubling. ..” 2 (Ch. 3, verse 130), and “…God has made buying and selling lawful, and riba unlawful…” (Ch. 2, verse 274). Prophet Mohammad condemned not only those who take interest but also those who give it, record it, or witness it, saying that they are all alike in guilt. Indeed, not only Islam, but also Judaism and Christianity ask their followers to shun usury to avoid hell fire [Homer 1977]. The common thread running through all such condemnations of riba is its exploitative nature and not the concept of profit, which is lawful in Islam if justly and fairly earned.

As such, while there is considerable debate among Muslim scholars as to the exact nature of this prohibition and exactly what constitutes a usurious transaction3, there is a common perception that ban on riba is tantamount to ban on interest, be it paid or received. Hence, the various financial instruments developed by Islamic banks have been based on two principles: the profit-and-loss sharing (PLS) principle and the mark-up principle [Errico and Farahbaksh, 1998, Aggarwal and Yousef 2000]. The financial contracts offered by the IBs can be classified into five basic categories: (1) non-interest bearing demand deposits (checking accounts); (2) mudaraba, (3) murabaha, (4) musharaka, and (5) ijara.

Conventional checking accounts in modern commercial banks are non-interest bearing deposits, and since IBIs shun interest rate based dealings, most of them offer such demand deposit accounts. Ideally, IBs should not be charging any fees on checking accounts as they are free to employ the depositors’ money, subject to the reserve requirements, if there are any, into earning assets [Siddiqui 1978]. In practice, however, this is not always the case. Depending on the size of the deposit, service charges and fees get collected to meet operating “costs”.

IBs offer savings and time deposits in the form of investment accounts under the system of mudaraba. The depositors of such accounts share profits and/or losses of the institutions under an agreed-upon formula [Siddiqui 1986]. The depositors in mudaraba accounts are the suppliers of capital, rabb al-mal, who entrust their funds to the bank, mudarib, in the tradition of Western style investment banking, subject to dealings with only non-interest bearing instruments [De Belder and Khan 1993]. The mudarib, acting as money manager or agent, invests the money and then distributes the profits and/or losses on the basis of the agreed-upon contract. The following conditions must be met:

1) Profits to be shared must be proportional to the funds contributed to the mudaraba account and these cannot be in lump sums or in guaranteed amounts.
2) The loss to the depositor (contributor of funds) cannot be more than the amount of deposit.
3) The mudarib does not share in the losses, except for the time and efforts put into the management of the mudaraba funds or in cases of mudarib’s negligence.

The third principle leaves it wide open for an unscrupulous or careless money manager to engage in questionable transactions leading to losses to depositors, or worse–even failure of the financial enterprise. This is especially problematic in the Muslim countries where there is a general lack of transparency in economic transactions, and where periodic public disclosure of financial performance of firms to their stakeholders, are essentially non-existent.

Siddiqui ( 1986) cites the use of four other forms of mudaraba ventures by the existing IBs. In one case, two-tier mudaraba, the depositors and the bank combine their funds to invest in ventures such as mutual funds and then share profits and/or losses. Another variation of the mudaraba account is that an outside entrepreneur comes to the bank and borrows depositors’ (and the bank’s) money to invest in a venture. The bank and the entrepreneur become partners and share in profits and/or losses. The examples Siddiqui provides to illustrate the cases of mudaraba accounts deal with a 20 percent profit or loss on the invested amount and the way they are distributed among the parties. In this particular type of mudaraba, the entrepreneur has to return the principal amount borrowed and share equally in the profits and losses. It is not clear, however, what would happen if the entrepreneur lost the funds borrowed completely. There are two other variations of these types of accounts. The jurists are not all in agreement as to the conditions that satisfy a particular transaction in a mudaraba [Naqvi 1993].

The mudaraba accounts are popular with the IBs partly because they assume very limited liability and risk while earning rather hefty margins. As currently practiced, they simply collect “profits” (estimated ahead of time) from the borrowers. Suppose an individual wants to borrow $100,000 for building a single-family home. The IBI agrees to lend the money at an agreed upon “profit” rate of 12 percent per year. However, the borrower receives a check for only $88,000 and is asked to pay back the full amount of $100,000 at the year-end. This mudaraba account yields the equivalent of 13.64 percent to the bank. If the “profit” rate were named “interest” rate, the borrower would still pay the 13.64 percent effective rate. If the borrower could not pay back the loan because the project failed for whatever reason, it is not clear how the IBs will treat the loan and the defaulting borrower.

Similar problems are faced by depositors and/or subscribers of capital to the IBs. If the institutions fail to invest their depositors’ and shareholders’ money judiciously, there is no recourse to recover some of the funds lost. The failure of the Ar-Ryaan investment banking outfit in Egypt devastated the poor Egyptian subscribers, some of whom lost their life’s savings.

The third instrument, murabaha (or more specifically, bai-mujal murabah -cost plus financing), used by the IBs consist of transactions where the institution buys a product (e.g., a car or a machinery) on a client’s behalf and then resells this with a mark-up to a client, the borrower [DeGelder and Khan, Op Cit., Chapra 1985]. Thus, an automobile selling at a price of $20,000 may be bought by the IBI and resold to a client at $25,000, to be paid back in monthly installments (or a lump sum at the end of the loan term) over a 2-year period. The implied rate of interest is 11.21 percent for this transaction. If the buyer of the car went to a conventional bank and borrowed $20,000 at a rate of 11.21 percent interest for buying the car directly from the dealer, s/he would pay a total of $22,418.59 (monthly installment of $934.11 multiplied by 24 months), instead of the $25,000 charged by the IBI. The additional sum of $2,581.41 for the same car for the privilege of calling interest rate a profit rate cannot be justified on any ground.

Other variants of murabaha transaction are al-bay’ bithaman ajil where a bank allows deferred payment within an agreed period, and bay’ salaam where a buyer pays an agreed price in advance for commodities that will be delivered at a future date [Chapra, Op. Cit., Siddiqi 1999]. In order to justify murabaha transactions, IBs have come up with elaborate contract requirements between the bank and the seller of the merchandise, and between the bank and the buyer of the product [De Belder and Khan, Op Cit., Edwards, 1999]. These contracts detail the rights and responsibilities of each party including financial terms of the contract. The title to the property is retained until the debt is paid off just like in conventional banking. Borrowers with deep religious feelings may accept murabaha transactions, but average consumers or business clients would notice the higher implied costs and the striking similarity with conventional discount loans! [see Abdul Gafoor 1995, ch. 4, section titled "Uneasy questions of morality" for further discussion of such dubious practices].

The fourth instrument used by IBs is musharaka, which is a form of equity financing through joint ventures. Unlike the case of mudaraba, here the bank not only participates in the supply of capital to the venture, but also in its management. Thus, the IBI assumes the role of an entrepreneur as well as that of a financier [Chapra, Op Cit., 1999]. Like mudaraba and murabaha transactions, musharaka also requires elaborate written contracts defining the conditions under which the parties are to operate. For an IBI to become an efficient partner in projects under musharaka agreement while performing the role of a depository institution and that of a financial intermediary seems to be unrealistic. Even the well-trained bankers in the modern financial institutions of the West seldom perform such varied tasks for their clients! If the return on assets and the size of net profits are any indication of the performance of financial institutions, then surely the IBs are not up to par with the modern financial institutions.

The fifth instrument used by the IBs is ijara or leasing. Two types of leases are used. In one, the lessee pays the lessor installment payments that go towards ultimate purchase of the equipment by the lessee [Wohabe 1997]. This type of lease/purchase agreement is known as ijara Wa-iqtina [Martin 1997]. The second type of lease maintains the ownership of the lessor as per the lease contract. DeBelder and Khan (1993) cite the provisions of a model contract between the lessor (the IB) and the lessee in Pakistan. These provisions seem to have been drawn from the practices of modern finance companies, only these are more favorable to the IBs. For example, the provision that “The lease can be terminated at any time by the Lessor after twelve months…”, or “…current Pakistani business practice results in monthly lease rentals generally working out to be equal to installments of principal plus about an amount equivalent to interest of 22 percent per annum” (p. 6 of the electronic version). The demand for lease financing seems to have prompted the IBs to come up with contract instruments that satisfy their religious councils and yet earn them returns equivalent or better than those earned by conventional finance and banking institutions.

Conclusion

The foundation of the Islamic banking system is based on the prohibition of interest from transactions. The IBs, under the guidance of their religious councils (usually such councils differ among themselves on the Islamicity of various transactions) have developed various financial instruments discussed above. Despite their intention to avoid interests, most of the transactions indeed involve use of fixed percentages of profits (and presumably, losses) that are nothing but interest under a different name.

The financial instruments are based on contracts made by the various parties. It is argued that as long as all conditions are written down and known to the participants in the contract, it does not matter whether the financial institution collects “profits,” fees and commissions ahead of time or later. From the various references cited in the paper, it appears that the IBs set their “profit” rates for each contract that reflect the going interest rates plus, usually, some premium. The Annual Reports of Bank Islam Malaysia Berhad for 1994 through 1996 show that the rate of profit for investment accounts (similar to time deposit) to the depositors goes up consistently as the time length of deposits increases. For interest-based banks, this should not be surprising because the depositors would expect to be compensated for maturity risks. However, for an Islamic bank based on “profit” sharing, how is it possible that all long-term investments are more profitable than the ones with shorter durations? These “profit” rates seem to be prefixed just like interest rates of conventional banks, or “quite comparable with the rates of return offered by conventional banks”! [Ariff, 1988]. In the same vein, Aggarwal and Yousef (2000), based on their own case studies of banks in Jordan, Malaysia, Egypt, and Iran, as well as other studies that they review, find that Islamic banks rely much more heavily on markup (debt-like) financing than on PLS (equity-like) financing. Only in Iran, they note, is there a significant PLS component to new flows of financing; that most financing does not appear to be long term in nature4; and the evidence on whether or not Islamic banks provide financing to capital intensive sectors of the economy, such as, industry , to be mixed at best. Large banks, they note, use murabaha financing more frequently than do smaller banks and offer more financing to agriculture/industry.

The prohibition of usury (riba) in Islam is to ensure economic justice and fair play by providing the stronger partner in transactions from taking advantage of the weak one. This can be achieved if the lender receives a return that covers the costs of funds and provides a return to shareholders commensurate with earnings that a silent partner can muster from the joint ventures in business. That is, the return must be in proportion to actual earnings from the borrowed funds, minus the compensation to the borrower as the entrepreneur and manager of the undertaking. Of necessity, this return will vary over time. As a result, the stipulated profits to be distributed will also vary from one period to the next (whether monthly, quarterly, semi-annually or annually). Whether this is called interest rate or profit does not make any difference to the nature of payments by the borrower and receipts to the lender. The ideal Islamic transactions (i.e., transactions that establish economic justice) will be the one where rates of payments and receipts closely resemble the ever-changing costs and returns. Flexible interest rates that adjust quarterly, or as soon as costs and profits can be estimated, would go a long way toward the abolition of usury than the current methods of ascertaining “profits” by the IBs. Until this is done, it is not feasible to establish standard banking practices across the Muslim countries. Such absence of the institutional framework needed to create the type of security and standardization required by the international banking system is noted as one of the major limitations constraining the growth of Islamic banking [Proctor 1997, The Banker 2000]. At present, religious scholars of different countries differ on the suitability of one instrument or another.

The conventional banking institutions are not the answer for the Muslims. What are needed are institutions that charge or pay interests which are not only flexible, but also reflect actual costs of and returns from operations. Thus, a true IBI could not offer long-term CDs on fixed rates, nor could it provide fixed-rate mortgages or installment loans. The ideal rates will vary with the changing business and economic conditions so that neither the depositors nor the borrowers and investors face undue economic hardships from financial transactions. To make this possible, there is an urgent need for qualified and trained people, a free press and unobstructed flows of information. All these are wanting in today’s Muslim states.

Note

1 The data were collected from the World Scope of the Disclosure Data Base, June 1998, and the estimates were made by using the Minitab statistical package.

2 According to Tabari (Jami, no date, V .4:49), riba in the pre-Islamic period consisted of doubling and re-doubling of the principal amount of commodities lent over a period of time. When a borrower, at the appointed date could return the original amount borrowed in full, no additional amounts were charged to him. However, if he failed to pay in full, the lender would allow the borrower to pay back next year in double the quantity borrowed originally. If again, the borrower could not pay back the next time, the loan would be extended for another year for double the amount that was due at the end of the second year. Similarly, al-Zamakhshari (al-Kashshaf, no date, :234) points out that even a small debt could consume the wealth of a debtor because of repeated doubling of the original amount of goods borrowed arising out of the inability of the debtor to pay back. Afzal (1996) details the various interpretations of riba by classical as well as modern Islamic scholars/jurisprudents and goes on to show how the controversies arose since the early time of Islam.

3 Despite the interpretation of riba as doubling and redoubling of the principal lent, the Fuqaha extended the scope of riba to cover all transactions that call for any increase over the amount lent, and at any time any faqih (a religious scholar) gives contrary opinion is declared a heretic. Among those who do not believe all transactions involving interest are usurous are Sanhuri (1954-1959), al-Saud (1985), Tantawi (1989), Salus (1991), Suhail (1936), Ali (1994, commentary on Quran Chapter 2, Verse 275, commentary no.324), Shah (1967), and Rahman (1980:41), to name a few.

4 Such focus on short term project is also noted by Abdul Gafoor [1995] as well as Edward [1999] and, at times, has been attributed to the shortage of trained personnel with expertise in assessing long-term projects [Iqbal and Miakhor, 1987] or absence of backup institutional structures such as secondary capital markets for Islamic financial instruments [Ariff 1988].

References

Abdul Gafoor, A.L.M., Interest-Free Commercial Banking, ch.4.1995, available at http://www.islamic-finance.com.
Afzal, 0. “Riba: Usury or Interest or Both”, a Conference paper for the Islamic Chamber of Commerce and Industry (ICCI), San Jose, California, November 7-9, 1996.
Aggarwal, R.K., and Yousef, T., “Islamic Banks and Investment Financing”, Journal of Money, Credit, and Banking, 32, I (February 2000): 93-120.
Ahmad, M., Business Ethics in Islam, Academic Dissertations-5, Islamabad, Pakistan, The International Institute of Islamic Thought, 1995.
Ali, A.Y., The Holy Qur’an: Text, Translation Commentary, Washington, D.C., The American International Printing Company, 1946.
al-Saud, A.M., “Bain al-Faida wa al-Riba,” AI-Shuruq al Islami, (April 1985): 18 -20.
al- Tabari, A.J.M, Jami’ al-bayan ‘an ta ‘wil ay al-Quran, English translation of the
abridged version by Cooper, J., New York, Oxford University Press, 1987.
al-Zamakhshari, M.I.U, al-Kashshaf ‘an Haqa ‘iq al-tanzil wa-‘uyun al-aqawil fi wujuh al-ta ‘wil.
Anwar, M., Modelling Interest-Free Economy: A Study in Macroeconomics and Development, Herndon, Virginia, The International Institute of Islamic Thought, 1987.
Ariff, M., “Islamic Banking”, Asian-Pacific Economic Literature, 2, 2 (1988): 48-64.
Bank Islam Malaysia Berhad, Annual Report, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 1994, 1995, and 1996.
Chapra, M.U., Towards a Just Monetary System, London, The Islamic Foundation, 1985.
DeBelder, R.T., and Khan, M.H., “The Changing Face of Islamic Banking”, International Financial Law Review, 12, II (1993): 23-29.
Disclosure Data Base, World Scope, June 1998.
EI-Gamal, M.A., “Can Islamic Banking Survive? A Micro- Revolutionary Perspective”, Working Paper, Department of Economics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, Feb.21 , 1997.
Edwards, W., “Islamic Banking”, Princeton Economic Journal, First Quarter, 1999.
Errico, L. and Frahbaksh, M. ( 1998), “Islamic Banking:Issues in Prudential Regulations and Supervision”, IMF Working Paper, March 1998.
Faridi, F.R., Essays in Islamic Economic Analysis, edited volume, New Delhi, Genuine Publications (P) Ltd.1991.
Frenchman, M., “Growth on a Global Scale”, Middle East, 275, (Feb. 1998): 27-29.
Homer, S., A History of Interest Rates (Second Edition), New Brunswick, New Jersey, Rutgers University Press, 1977.
Iqbal, Z. and Mirakhor, A., Islamic Banking, IMF Occasional Paper # 49, Washington, D.C., 1987.
Ibn al-‘ Arabi (no date ), Ahkam al-Quran, Beirut: Dar-al-ikzat al-‘ Arabia, I (1968): 24.
Khan, M.S. and Mirakhor, A., “Islamic Banking: Experiences in the Islamic Republic of Iran and in Pakistan”, Economic Development and Cultural Change, 1990.
Kuran, T., “Islamic Economics and the Islamic Subeconomy”, The Journal of Economic Perspectives, 9, 4, (Fall 1995): 155-173.
Martin, J., “Islamic Banking Raises Interest,” Management Review, (Nov. 1997): 86, and (1997): 25- 29.
Mirakhor, A., “Progress and Challenges of Islamic Banking,” Review of Islamic Economics, 4, 2 (1997): 1- IJ.
Muslim, I., Sahih Musli (Volume III), translated into English by Siddiqi, A.H., Lahore, Pakistan: Sh.
Muhammad Ashraf, 1990.
Naqvi, S.R., History of Banking and Islamic Laws, Karachi, Pakistan: Hayat Academy, 1993.
O’Sullivan, E., “Islamic Banking: A Market in Search of an Industry”, Middle East Economic Digest, 38, 34 (1994): 7-12.
Proctor, D., “Islamic Banking: AN Expanding Market”, Institutional Investor, 31,2 (1997): B18.
Rahman, F., Major Themes of the Quran, Chicago, Bibliotheca Islamica, 1980.
Salus, A.A., al-Rad ‘ala Kitab Mufti Misr, Cairo: Dar al- Manar al-Hadithah, 1991.
Sanhuri, A., 1954-1959), Masadir al-Haqfi al-Fiqh al-Islami, 6 parts in 2 volumes, 1954-59, no other information available.
Shah, y., Chand Ma’ ashi Masail our Islam, Lahore, Idara- I Thaqafat-i Islamiya, 1967.
Siddiqi, M., “The Growing Popularity of Islamic Banking”, Middle East, 291 (June 1999): 33-35.
Siddiqui, M.N., Some Aspects of the Islamic Economy, Second Edition, Lahore, Pakistan: Islamic Publications Ltd.,1978.
Siddiqui, M.N., Model of an Islamic Bank, Chicago: Kazi Publications, 1986.
Suhail, I., Haqiqat al-Riba, 1936″ no other information available.
Tantawi, M.S., et. al., Arbah al-bunuk baina al-Halal wa al-Haram, Cairo: Dar al-Ma’arif, 1989.
The Banker, “Islam: The New Mover”, June 2000: 67-68.
Timewell, S. “A Market in the Making,” The Banker,148, (1998): 57-61. London.
Wall Street Journal, “Rating the World’s Banks,” The Wall Street Journal, (August 14,1998): A13.
Wilson, R. “Going Global”, The Banker, March 1995, London.
Wohabe, D., “Why Islamic Leasing is Popular,” The American Journal of Islamic Finance, (Summer 1997): 11-12.
Wohlers-Scharf, T. (1983), Arab and Islamic Banks: New Business Partners for Developing Countries, Paris, OECD Development Center Studies, 1983.

_________________________________
*M. Raquibuz Zaman is Charles A. Dana Professor of Finance & International Business and Chairman, Department of Business at Ithaca College. His publications are in the fields of foreign direct investment, financial markets, trade and development, and Islamic economics.

Hormoz Movassaghi is associate professor of Finance & International Business in the School of Business, Ithaca College. His research interests are in the areas of foreign direct investment, international trade, export behavior of small and medium sized companies, banking, and e-commerce.

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Categories: Islamic Banking

ISLAMIC BANKING MEETS “CONVENTIONAL” BANKING: A SURVEY OF RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN BANKING IN PAKISTAN

August 22, 2010 Leave a comment

Isobel Lobo, Benedictine University
Frank Bonello, University of Notre Dame

In 1985, Pakistan declared that interest had been eliminated from banking. Its religious court ruled otherwise in 1991. The Supreme Court upheld the ruling and directed the government to bring a number of banking laws into conformity with Islamic injunctions by June 30, 2002. As the deadline approached, however, in a surprising last minute reversal, it remanded the case back to the religious court for reconsideration. Granted a reprieve, the country appears headed towards a dual banking system.

A Synopsis of the Elimination of Interest and the Evolution of Interest-Free Banking
Islam prohibits riba which is generally taken to include the interest banks pay and receive. Pakistan began planning for an interest-free banking system in 1977. It followed a cautious, and gradual transition that started with the acceptance of profit/loss sharing (PLS) deposits by the nationalized commercial banks in January 1981. The transition was declared complete in July 1985 when bank assets and liabilities (except for foreign loans and foreign currency deposits), were converted to various non-interest bases. The country’s central bank, the State Bank of Pakistan (SBP), provided the banks inter alia with a list of approved modes of finance and a method for calculating rates of return on the banks’ PLS deposits.
A number of “qualitative deficiencies” were, however, found to characterize the procedures used by the banks. [Institute of Policy Studies]. Recognizing this, the terms interest-free or noninterest-based (NIB) banking, rather than Islamic banking, have commonly been used to describe the system in place since 1985. One of the main shortcomings of the noninterest-based system is the banks’ almost exclusive reliance on a single mode of finance – mark-up with or without buy-back arrangements – that closely resembles interest, and their virtual exclusion of any form of PLS or partnership-based finance (e.g. musharaka or mudaraba) that many Muslim scholars of religion and economics consider more truly reflects the spirit of the Quranic prohibition of riba. In 1992, for example, mark-up based finance accounted for over eighty percent of the finance extended by the nationalized commercial banks (who at the time accounted for about 90 percent of bank assets), while their musharaka finance was insignificant. Another shortcoming is the fact that banks are (still) allowed to invest in (interest-paying) government securities.
As one writer concludes, the elimination of interest “was carried out without serious regard to Islamic legal doctrine, leaving the interest-based banking system fundamentally unchanged, but covering it with an Islamic varnish.” [Ray]. The elimination of riba (interest) had not been carried out with regard to the true spirit of the prohibition. [Makhdoom]. Moreover, the minimal nature of the change was apparent to most people. [Gieraths].
Key Judicial Rulings on the Banking System From 1991 to 2002
Monetary and fiscal issues had been excluded from the jurisdiction of Pakistan’s religious court, the Federal Shariat Court (FSC) up to June 26, 1990. On November 14, 1991, after hearing 115 petitions challenging twenty banking and fiscal laws, the Court found that provision for interest in these laws came under the definition of riba and was, therefore, repugnant to the injunctions of Islam. It set a deadline of June 30, 1992 after which the various provisions would cease to have effect.
The Shariat Appellate Bench (SAB) of the Supreme Court of Pakistan upheld the FSC’s ruling on December 23, 1999. The Bench explained its opinion of the modes of finance that appear in the different laws under consideration. Unlike the FSC, the Bench noted that a sale on mark-up (murabaha) is permissible if it is based on the genuine sale of a commodity. Mark-up may not be charged on a money loan. It endorsed the use of some modes of finance (including lease and hire-purchase in approved forms) while emphasizing musharaka and mudaraba as true alternatives to interest Its judgment indicates that: (i) any amount over the principal in a contract of loan or debt is riba forbidden by the Quran; (ii) the prevailing interest-based financial system has to be subjected to radical change to bring it into conformity with Islamic injunctions; and (iii) provisions for payment of interest in eight specific laws (on money lending) would cease to be have effect from March 31, 2000 and all other laws considered in the judgment would be ineffective from June 30, 2001.
The Appellate Bench suggested the following measures be taken to transform the existing system: (i) austerity measures to curtail government expenditure; (ii) laws to regulate government borrowing powers; (ii) laws to ensure transparency and freedom of information; (iv) establishment of an institution to control “white collar and economic crimes; (v) establishment of credit rating agencies; (vi) establishment of evaluators to scrutinize feasibility reports; and (vii) establishment of special departments and a Shariah Board within the central bank (to scrutinize and evaluate procedures and products).
The Bench directed the government inter alia to establish a Commission for Transformation of the Financial System in the SBP to prepare a strategy, and to constitute task forces in the Ministries of Finance and Law, for preparation and approval of model financing agreements, and for conversion of the government’s domestic borrowing into project-related financing (inter-government loans and central bank finance were to be interest-free). The SAB admitted it would be difficult to implement the prohibition of interest in the area of foreign loans. It directed the government to renegotiate existing loans, to avoid foreign debt, and to structure any necessary future foreign borrowings on the basis of Islamic modes of finance. The Bench set deadlines for the government to comply with each of its instructions.
On December 29, 2000 the government issued a prompt and categorical reassurance that banking transactions would continue to be protected and that Pakistan would honor its foreign debt commitments. Despite this, the SAB’s ruling cast uncertainty over the country’s dealings with international lenders. [Bokhari 2000]. During the period between the FSC’s judgment in 1991 and the SAB’s decision to uphold it in 1999, all financing arrangements in the country contained force majeure clauses referencing the possibility of the riba judgment being finally upheld. [Raja]
In 2001, the Shariat Appellate Bench extended its earlier deadline to June 30, 2002. The United Bank appealed the SAB’s verdict and it was joined by the government early in 2002. Some of the country’s conservative religious groups sent their own lawyers to defend the earlier ruling. [BBC].
On June 24, 2002 the SAB reversed its own decision of 1999 (which had upheld the FSC’s ruling of 1991) and remanded the case back to the FSC for re-determination. It has been suggest that revised national priorities may explain the SAB’s reversal of its own ruling. [Shah and Wasti]. A constitutional lawyer notes that it is significant that prior to the SAB’s reversal, the President of Pakistan had removed from office a member who had been on the bench since 1980. [Raja].
In arriving at its decision, the SAB took note of a number of points raised by the counsels for United Bank Limited and the Federation. The counsel for United Bank contended: that the SAB had not properly distinguished between usury, interest, and riba; that usury is a kind of riba; that what is prohibited is not what is reasonable and fair, but what is doubled and multiplied; that Quranic verses explaining the prohibition mainly contrast riba with sadaqat (almsgiving); that banks cannot be made to give alms to industrialists; and that the business of banking is covered by the term “bai,” an approved method of finance, which includes sale, business, investment and so forth.
Counsel for the Federation argued that the FSC had no jurisdiction to declare riba illegal or impermissible: the Constitution makes it the duty of the Federal Government (not the FSC) to eliminate riba. He stated also that, in pursuance of the SAB’s judgment of 1999, the government had formed a Commission and two task forces to direct the transformation of interest-based government borrowing to Islamic modes of finance, to effect a transition in the financial sector, and to establish a legal and regulatory framework for an Islamic economy. In an affidavit to the SAB, the government stated that after its best efforts to find ways to implement the SAB’s directives, it had found that implementation was neither practical nor feasible, and if attempted would pose great risk to Pakistan’s economic stability and security.
The SAB took note of a number of contentions of other counsel for the Federation including inter alia the arguments (i) that the “impugned judgment amalgamated legal and moral aspects of riba” in violation of injunctions in the Quran and the Sunnah and against the opinion of eminent jurists; (ii) that the SAB’s failure to define the word qarz (which is involved in almsgiving) rendered the impugned judgment against Islamic law since the word “loan” is not the exact translation of qarz; (iii) that exploitation is an essential ingredient of riba; (iv) that the present system of bank accounts and investments in various government savings schemes do not involve riba; (v) that the views of certain jurists and scholars on riba and banking practice had been ignored; (v) that the SAB ought to have asked the FSC to decide whether indexation was permissible; (vi) that the SAB had applied the prohibition to non-Muslims although this was not the issue before it; and (vii) that the Islamic banking system suggested in the judgment under review was a misnomer and that (except for Musharaka) all the other recommended modes of finance involve riba in disguise.
The Deputy Governor of the State Bank of Pakistan filed an affidavit with the SAB stating that after taking steps to promote Islamic banking and after considering all other practical problems of transforming the financial system, it was the considered judgment of the Bank that
“a parallel approach will be in the best interest of the country. This means that Islamic banking is introduced as a parallel system of which a beginning has already been made … .This approach will eliminate the risk of any major costs/damage to the economy, give a fair chance to Islamic banks to develop alongside conventional banks, and will provide a choice to the people of Pakistan, and the foreigners doing business in/with Pakistan, to use either of the two systems.” [SAB]
In remanding the case back to the Federal Shariat Court, the SAB directed the FSC to re-determine the issues after thorough research, and after comparative study of financial systems in other Muslim countries and to give a definite finding on all the issues involved (which the FSC had not done in 1991). It asked the FSC to make its determination
“in the light of the contentions of the parties noted above and the observations made which are germane to the controversy. Besides the points … , the parties would be at liberty to raise any other issues relevant to these cases and the Federal Shariat Court may also, on its own motion, take into consideration any other aspect which may arise or may be found relevant … .” [SAB]
Towards A Parallel Banking System: Establishing an Institutional Structure and a Regulatory Framework for Islamic Banking
In December 2001, even before the SAB heard the appeals, the central bank took a step towards promoting a parallel banking system that would offer consumers a choice by announcing criteria for the establishment of private sector Islamic commercial banks. The criteria covered eligibility conditions, licensing requirements, guidelines on set up, Shariah compliance and other operational matters. In September 2002, after the SAB’s reversal of its earlier judgment, an amendment was enacted in the Banking Companies Ordinance (the major banking law), making it possible for commercial banks to establish Islamic banking subsidiaries. The banks were also allowed to apply for permission to set up Islamic banking branches in the country. On January 1, 2003, the central bank issued Policies for the Promotion of Islamic Banking. In it, the central bank enunciated its strategy of promoting Islamic banks, Islamic banking subsidiaries of existing commercial banks, and stand-alone branches of existing commercial banks that engage only in Islamic banking.
In September 2003, the central bank established within itself an Islamic Banking Department to regulate and promote Islamic banking. This department is responsible for the licensing, supervision, regulation, Shariah audit, and training the personnel of Islamic banks and Islamic branches. The central bank established a Shariah Board within the department to ensure Shariah compliance, and to advise banks on modes, procedures, laws and regulations for Islamic banking. The Board includes three religious scholars, a banker and a lawyer. The central bank also arranged for an accounting firm to conduct Shariah compliance audits of Islamic banks, to create a Shariah audit manual, and to train State Bank officers. Further, the central bank initiated an Islamic Banking Awareness Program to train banking and other personnel and a Learning Program to learn from the experiences of other Muslim countries.
To establish either an Islamic commercial bank, an Islamic subsidiary of an existing commercial bank, or an Islamic banking branch of an existing commercial bank, permission must first be sought from the Director of the Islamic Banking Department (IBD) of the central bank. The proposed institution must also appoint a Shariah advisor in accordance with the “Fit and Proper Criteria” issued by the central bank’s Shariah Board, and the advisor must be approved by the central bank (the institutions may also appoint a Shariah Committee if they so choose). To prevent conflict of interest, the central bank mandated that a bank’s Shariah advisor must not serve in the same capacity at any other Islamic banking institution. This restriction does not apply to the central bank’s nomination of a Shariah advisor to its own Shariah Board. Islamic commercial banks and Islamic subsidiaries of (conventional) commercial banks are subject to prevailing banking and other laws and to the rules and directives of the central bank. Islamic banking branches of commercial banks are required to comply with all the directives and guidelines of the central bank, particularly those applicable to Islamic banking.
Criteria specific to the establishment of an Islamic commercial bank include capital adequacy requirements, standards for integrity of sponsors and directors, measures for broad-based ownership and measures directed against interlocking ownerships of banks and other institutions. Their financial transactions must be in accordance with the injunctions of Shariah. The application for permission from the IBD must indicate the modes of finance proposed to be used to raise resources and extend finance.
According to IBD Circular No. 2 of 2004, an Islamic commercial bank inter alia: is a public limited company; must be listed on the stock exchange; must offer at least 50 percent of shares to the general public; must have a minimum paid-up capital of Rest. 1 billion and maintain a minimum capital adequacy ratio of 8 percent of risk-weighted assets; and must have at least seven sponsor directors who subscribe at least 15 percent of total paid-up capital and retain their shares for at least three years (they must obtain the central bank’s approval if thereafter they choose to dispose of their shares). The sponsors may make foreign capital investment which is non-repatriable (dividends are repatriable). In addition, not more than 25 percent of the sponsor directors can be from the same family (as defined in the Banking Companies Ordinance). The directors cannot serve as directors of any other financial institution (nor can any one group own more than one bank). The proposed bank must begin operations within six months of permission and must open at least five branches within twelve months.
Existing commercial banks (who meet the central bank’s guidelines on capital adequacy and) who wish to establish subsidiaries to carry on Islamic banking must also apply to the IBD for permission. These subsidiaries are also public limited companies, and are considered to be Islamic commercial banks. Like the latter, the chief executive officer of a subsidiary of an existing commercial bank must be approved by the central bank. (In addition, each director of the subsidiary must be cleared by the central bank.) Applications for permission to establish both Islamic commercial banks and Islamic subsidiaries of existing commercial banks must submit risk management guidelines and plans for internal control. At least 51 percent of a subsidiary’s shares must be subscribed by the parent commercial bank and no more than 49 percent may be offered to the public.
Finally, existing commercial banks (including foreign banks) may apply to the central bank for a license to open stand-alone Islamic banking branches to offer Shariah compliant products and services. The applicant bank is required to maintain a minimum “Islamic Banking Fund” of Rs. 50 million funded by allocation from its head office (or 8 percent of the risk-weighted assets of its Islamic banking branches, whichever is higher).
In making its decision, the central bank will consider the financial strength of the bank. The applicant bank must inter alia indicate the number of Islamic banking branches it proposes to open in the next financial year and their location, the deposits, finance, investment, and other products and services proposed to be offered, how it will segregate the funds of its Islamic banking branches from the funds of its commercial banking branches, the accounting policies to be followed, and the profit and loss sharing mechanism.
After the central bank’s approval, the applicant bank must set up an Islamic Banking Division at its head office in Pakistan to control the Islamic Banking Fund and inter alia to ensure that all the central bank’s directives are followed including, for example, the statutory cash reserve and liquidity requirements. The Islamic branches have to meet the same cash reserve requirement as conventional banks i.e. 5 percent of their time and demand liabilities. They are, however, required to maintain a liquidity reserve of only 6 percent of their liabilities with the central bank – instead of 15 percent for the conventional banks – until such time as Shariah-compliant approved securities are developed. The central bank’s guidelines list the systems and control guidelines to be followed. For example, while the applicant bank may authorize some of its existing branches to sell Islamic banking deposit schemes, these branches must transfer the funds raised to the Islamic banking branch on the same day and must not receive or pay interest on such services. They may, however, receive a reasonable fee or commission on sale of deposit schemes.
On April 15, 2005, the central bank issued a press release communicating the “Essentials and Model Agreements for Islamic Modes of Finance” approved by its Shariah Board to “ensure compliance with minimum Shariah standards by banks conducting Islamic banking in Pakistan,” and to serve as guidelines which will eventually be enforced as prudential regulations for Islamic banks. The central bank also provided model agreements for the modes. Individual banks could, with the approval of their Shariah advisor, adapt these to suit the products they design. The main features of the approved modes are described below.
The seven Islamic modes of finance include: Murabaha, Musawama, Ijara (leasing), Salam, Istisna, Musharaka and Mudaraba. Only the last two modes involve sharing in profits and losses. For each of the five cases not involving profit (loss) sharing, the Shariah Board approved the stipulation of a penalty for late payment or default in the agreement. The penalty is expressed in terms of percent per day or per annum as an interest rate would be. The Shariah Board’s guidelines (and the model agreement forms) note, however, that the penalty will go to the bank’s charity fund and cannot become a source of further return to the bank. The bank may, however, ask a court for award of solatium, which is determined “on the basis of direct and indirect costs incurred, other than opportunity cost.” Furthermore, the bank is allowed to sell any collateral or security it holds (without court intervention). All of the agreements approved by the Shariah Board contain provision for insurance of assets under the Islamic concept of Takaful when this is available (and with a reputable insurance company until this time).
The Shariah Board defines murabaha as a sale of goods for cash or on a deferred payment basis. The seller is required to disclose the cost of the goods and a margin of profit is included in the sale price of the goods — which once determined cannot be changed. The financier bears the risk for the period between the purchase of the good (by the bank’s agent) and its sale to the buyer (the bank’s client). As noted earlier, much controversy surrounds the use of Murabaha. The Shariah Board’s guidelines therefore include caveats: murabaha contracts cannot be rolled over (although the repayment date can be extended with no increase in the sale price), and buy-back arrangements are prohibited.
A Musawama is defined like a Murabaha except that the seller is not obliged to reveal his cost. Ijara is a permissible lease arrangement. A Salam is an advance payment against deferred delivery of goods. The approved guidelines note that it can be made with respect to homogenous units of goods (traded by counting, measuring or weighing) but not, for example, in precious stones or cattle heads each unit of which is different. A salam cannot require the seller to buy back the goods. The bank is allowed, however, to enter into a parallel salam contract with a third party under given conditions. In an istisna (which is a mode of sale), the buyer (bank) places an order to manufacture a commodity to be delivered at a future date. If the seller fails to deliver the goods in the stipulated period, the price can be reduced by a specified amount per day as agreed upon. The bank (as buyer) is allowed to enter into a parallel but independent istisna contract with a third party in which it is the seller.
Musharaka is defined as a relationship to share profits and losses of a joint enterprise. All partners make an investment and share profits as agreed in the contract and losses in proportion to their capital. A managing partner may (under a separate agreement) receive a fee. Assets are jointly owned in proportion to capital contributed. Like earlier definitions of this form of financing, the definition approved by the Shariah Board is silent on the extent of the partners’ liability (i.e. whether limited or unlimited). In fact, the circulated model agreement for a musharaka includes a clause stating that the agreement shall not be deemed to create a partnership or company and that in no way has the client any authority to bind the bank. The model agreement also contains a clause (as in the other modes of finance) for payment of penalty for default of a payment due. The penalty (as in the case of the other modes) is expressed as a percentage per day (or per annum) and is to be used by the bank for charitable purposes only.
A Mudaraba is an arrangement in which one person (e.g. bank) contributes money and the other, the Mudarib (who may be a natural person, group of persons, legal entity or corporate body) contributes his efforts. Profit is divided in the proportion contracted for and losses (except in the case of fraud, negligence or willful misconduct) are borne by the party providing the funds (bank) and are limited to this amount. Mudaraba contracts may be multi- or single purpose, open-ended or closed, for a fixed period or perpetual, restricted or unrestricted. The Mudarib may be permitted by the financier to invest his own funds in the business as well. In this case, the financier may not receive a share in profits that is greater than the ratio of his capital to total investment, and losses are shared in proportion to the capital invested. Neither the model agreement nor the guidelines for a mudaraba include provision for penalty, solatium or damages. The model agreement for a mudaraba indicates that it is not deemed to create a partnership — just as the model agreement for musharaka does.
The central bank constituted a committee with the Institute of Chartered Accountants, Pakistan to develop accounting standards for Islamic modes of financing. The committee has prepared the standard on Murabaha and is working on the Ijara and Musharaka standards.
In August 2004, the chairman of the Shariah Board expressed his appreciation of the proactive role being played by the State Bank of Pakistan in promoting Islamic banking in the country. He observed that the current regulations governing Islamic banking are in line with the best and the most progressive regulations being followed in countries like Bahrain and Malaysia. In a speech earlier that year, the director of the Islamic Banking Department described the central bank’s introduction of Islamic banking side by side with “traditional banking” as a hybrid of the Malaysian and Bahrain models. The central bank has collaborated with the Bahrain Monetary Agency on Islamic banking regulations and on sukuks (Islamic bonds or government securities). It also arranged an orientation program on Islamic banking and insurance (Takaful) with the central bank of Malaysia. It is actively involved with other Muslim committees and forums on Islamic banking and finance.
Islamic Banking in Pakistan: Performance and Issues
The Meezan Bank, which was the first bank to be issued an Islamic commercial banking license in Pakistan, was already operating as an investment bank. It converted and began functioning as an Islamic commercial bank in 2002 and has 25 branches today. The bank has a paid up capital of Rs. 1.7 billion contributed by local and international financial institutions (from Kuwait, Bahrain and Saudi Arabia). According to its website, the bank strives to find “commonalities with the conventional banking system” while not compromising on Shariah rulings. Meezan Bank has a Shariah board staffed with Islamic scholars who also serve on the boards of Islamic banks in other countries. It recently introduced a new account, the Meezan Islamic Institution Deposit Account or MIIDA for Islamic financial institutions needing an outlet for their excess liquidity. Meezan Bank uses the deposit pool to provide financing on Islamic modes mainly on the basis of Murabaha and Ijara. The bank also issues a long-term deposit certificate for Pension Funds. Twenty percent of gross profit on the deposit pool goes to certificate holders. In September 2005, Meezan Bank’s Shariah Board approved of diminishing musharaka-based Islamic financing for medium and long term financing of plant and machinery and non-commercial vehicles. The Board also declared day trading (as currently practiced) unIslamic and approved an alternative product for futures trading.
Two other Islamic banks were issued licenses in 2005: Al-Baraka Islamic Bank, which is a foreign bank that converted to Islamic banking, and Bank Islami Pakistan, which was licensed on March 31, 2005. In addition, there are 29 Islamic banking branches of conventional banks (including two foreign banks) operating in the country. Al-Baraka offers a number of deposit accounts including PLS savings deposits, incentive accounts, khazana accounts, term deposits, AMI accounts, and foreign currency savings accounts.
According to the central bank, at the end of March 2005, the share of Islamic banking in overall banking in Pakistan was only about 1.6 percent. During the first quarter of 2005, the total assets of these banks in Pakistan had increased by 13.6 percent to Rs. 50.2 billion and their deposits had risen by 10 percent to Rs. 33.3 billion. Murabaha dominates as their preferred mode of finance (53%) followed by Ijara (28 percent), Diminishing Musharaka (8 percent), and Musharaka (1 percent). The central bank took up and resolved the issue of double taxation on murabaha transactions with the Central Board of Revenue. Savings deposits account for the largest share in the deposits of the Islamic banking institutions (47 percent), followed by fixed deposits (28 percent) and non-remunerative current account deposits (24 percent). The central bank is working on the creation of an Islamic inter-bank market once there is a sufficient number of Islamic banks.
Government securities that conform to Islamic principles are not widely available in Pakistan. The first Pakistani International Bond, the Sukuk Al-Ijara was launched in the international capital market at the beginning of 2005 and was heavily oversubscribed by conventional and Islamic institutions (resulting in a foreign inflow of $600 million). Meezan Bank, the first domestic Islamic bank was the local structuring advisor for the Sukuk issue and the government hopes that the issue will spur the creation of domestic Islamic capital and money markets.
According to the central bank’s strategic plan (2005-2010), a two-pronged approach will be followed to promote Islamic banking as a parallel and compatible system: attract international banks of quality to locate in Pakistan and nurture domestic professional Islamic bankers. The central bank also plans to design and implement new tradable instruments necessary for Islamic banking treasury operations. [SBP, Strategic Plan]. In addition, the plan briefly mentions the future enactment of new laws in the area of Islamic Banking.
The IMF believes that despite legal ambiguities regarding the process Islamization of the financial sector, the establishment of new Islamic banking institutions is likely to continue. It recommended inter alia close monitoring of the Islamic financial institutions, development and standardization of Islamic banking products and financial instruments, and the development of a specific framework for risk management and lender of last resort arrangements for the Islamic banking sector. The IMF regards the central bank’s vision of Islamic banking and conventional banking operating parallel to each other as appropriate since this set-up affords users a choice compatible with their religious beliefs and fits in with the country’s position as an emergent market that is integrated into the global economy.
The “conventional” banking system in Pakistan is the system in place since the transition to non-interest based banking. Banking in Pakistan has, however, undergone substantial reform in the last decade and more reform is envisaged. For example, the central bank’s strategic plan calls for a deposit insurance scheme. The structural changes already made include the privatization of four of the five nationalized commercial banks, the divestiture of a portion of the shares of the fifth bank, central bank autonomy, liberalization of the financial sector, and increase in the minimum capital requirements for banks from Rs. 500 million to Rs. 1 billion. The IMF noted improvements in financial soundness indicators as non-performing loans have fallen and profitability indicators such as return on assets and equity have begun to approach international norms.
According to central bank data, local private banks continue to dominate commercial banks in the private sector in terms of share in total assets (87 percent) although foreign banks are more numerous (20 versus 14). Foreign banks account for about 34 percent of profits of all commercial banks in the private sector although they only account for about 15 percent of deposits and 16 percent of advances.
The macroeconomic environment in which the banks operate has improved. The government of Pakistan’s data estimates real GDP growth at 8.4 percent in the fiscal year ended June 30, 2005 (making Pakistan the second fastest-growing economy after China). Indicators of social and living conditions are also better. The country’s public (and external) debt burden declined to the lowest level in decades. The inflation rate (9.3 percent) is high, however, and the current account just turned deficit after three years of surpluses.
Closing Thoughts
There are about 300 Islamic banking institutions operating in some 70 countries with assets estimated at over $250 billion growing at the rate of about 15 percent per annum. The market is largely untapped, according to an article in Global Finance since the majority of Muslims still use conventional products. For example, Malaysia has 15 million Muslims, and nine Islamic financial institutions, but only 10% of total banking assets are held in Shariah compliant accounts.
Malaysia and Bahrain served as models for Pakistan’s dual banking system. In Malaysia, separate Islamic legislation and banking regulations exist side-by-side with those for the conventional banking system. The legal basis for the establishment of Islamic banks is the Islamic Banking Act (1983) which empowers the central bank with supervision and regulatory powers over Islamic banks. According to its central bank, Islamic banks in Malaysia offer over 40 financial products and services. An Islamic interbank money market began functioning in 1994. Takaful, an Islamic insurance system, began in 1985. Malaysia has set up a dedicated high court to try Islamic banking and finance cases.
Bahrain also has a dual banking system and the largest concentration of Islamic financial institutions in the Middle East region. It hosts a Liquidity Management Center and the International Islamic Financial Market, and its monetary agency has introduced a prudential and reporting framework that is specific to Islamic banking and finance. According to Pakistan’s central bank the interpretation and Shariah position of contracts (e.g. sale and purchase of debt instruments and grant of gifts on savings and financial papers) is different in Malaysia. Another source supports this view, “there is a certain polarization between the schools of thought centred in Asia and those centred in the Middle East with a general perception that the Middle Eastern schools of thought are more conservative in their views. This has a material effect on the acceptability of some Islamic investment products structured in Asia and offered to investors in the Middle East.”
The Federal Shariat Court’s re-determination of the case is widely expected to take several years and the IMF notes that “there remains a degree of legal uncertainty about the ultimate basis for banking activities in Pakistan.” In a letter of intent to the IMF, the government and the central bank, however, regard the Supreme Court’s decision as having cleared the way for the pursuit of “an evolutionary approach to Islamic finance, through encouraging the development of Islamic banking alongside traditional financial institutions.” Implicit in this view is the acceptance of the fact that interest is involved in the current operation of the traditional institutions. The central bank’s numerous explicit references to “interest” and interest rates” in its reviews and annual reports acknowledge the existence of interest in banking operations. It appears from the government and the central bank’s statements and actions that they implicitly believe (or hope) that the FSC will allow “traditional financial institutions” to continue functioning. It is not clear, however, whether these institutions will be able to revert to their original existence as truly conventional banks paying and accepting interest and forsaking the present unwieldy and burdensome trappings of an “interest-free” system.

References
Agence France Presse. “Islamic Banking Booms in Pakistan.” January 30, 2005.
Anonymous. “Islamic Finance: Provenance and Prospects.” International Financial Law Review. May 1, 2004.
Ayub, Muhammad. Islamic Banking and Finance: Theory and Practice. Karachi, Pakistan: State Bank of Pakistan, 2002.
BBC News (World Edition). “Pakistan Reverses Islamic Banking Law.” June 24, 2002. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/2062679.stm
Bokhari, Farhad. “Still Taking an Interest.” The Banker. (February 2000). Vol. 150, no. 888, pp 56-57.
Bokhari, Farhad. “The Outlook for Islamic Banking.” The Banker. (May 2005).
Gieraths, Christine. “Pakistan: Main Participants and financial Products of the Islamization Process.” Islamic Financial Markets. Ed. Rodney Wilson. New York: Routledge, 1990. 171-196.
Government of Pakistan, Letter of Intent, Memorandum of Economic and Financial Policies, and Technical Memorandum of Understanding. October 16, 2002. http://www.imf.org/External/NP/LOI/2002/pak/03/index.htm
Hawser, Anita. “Players Vie for a Prime Slice of a Promising Market.” Global Finance. September 2005.

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Hume, James. “Islamic Finance: Provenance and Prospects.” International Financial Law Review. (May 2004). Vol. 23 no. 5, pp. 48-50.
Husain, Ishrat. “Evolution of Islamic Banking.” Posted on December 2, 2004 on http://www.meezanbank.com.
IMF and World Bank. “Technical Note: Condition of the Banking System.” Financial Sector Assessment Program: Pakistan. October 2004. IMF Country Report No. 05/157. (May 2005).
Institute of Policy Studies. Elimination of Riba from the Economy. Islamabad, Pakistan: IPS, 1994.
Makhdoom, Tipu Salman. Correspondents’ Reports. Jurist. (2000). http://jurist.law.pitt.edu/world/pakcor1.htm
Nomani, Farid. “The Problem of Interest and Islamic Banking in a Comparative Perspective: The Case of Egypt, Iran, and Pakistan.” Review of Middle East Economics and Finance. (April 2003). Vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 37-70.
Pakistan Press International. “Islamic Banking System Being Opted in 70 Countries.” February 26. 2004. http://web.lexis-nexis.com/universe/
Raja, Salman Akram. “Islamization of Laws in Pakistan.” South Asian Journal. (October-December 2003.)
Ray, Nicholas Dylan. Arab Islamic Banking and the Revival of Islamic Law. London: Graham and Trotman Limited, 1993.
Shah, Syed Ahmad Hassan and Wasti, Aarij. “Shariat Appellate Court Remands Riba Judgment, Gives New Life to Modern Banking in Pakistan.” Middle East Executive Reports. (January 2002). Vol. 25 no. 1.
Shariat Appellate Bench, Supreme Court of Pakistan, June 24, 2002. http://www.scp.com.pk
State Bank of Pakistan. “State Bank’s Shariah Board Approves Essentials and Model Agreements for Islamic Modes of Finance.” Press Release. April 15, 2005. Islamic Banking Department.
State Bank of Pakistan. IBD Circular No. 2 of 2004. Islamic Banking Department.
State Bank of Pakistan. Strategic Plan 2005-10. http://www.sbp.gov.pk
The Council of Islamic Ideology, Report of the Council of Islamic Ideology on the Elimination of Interest from the Economy. Islamabad: 1980.
Thomson, Judith. “Developing Financial Law in Conformity with Islamic Principles: Strict Interpretation, Formalism or Innovation?” Deakin Law Review. (1999/2000). Vol. 4, no. 2. pp. 77-91.
Yousefi, Mahmood. “The Autonomy of the Central Bank Interest-Free Banking and Monetary Management in Iran.” Journal of Emerging Markets. Vol. 3, no, 1. Spring 1998. pp. 79-98.

Questions and Answers on Islamic Doctrine

August 22, 2010 Leave a comment

Part One:

Questions and Answers on
Islamic Doctrine

Translated by
Munzer A. Absi with contributionm from
Ahmad Sheik Bangura

Interrogating Islam:

Questions and Answers on Islam

Abha Communities Centre
Abha-Saudia Arabia

A
Introduction

Praise be to Allah, God of the people, Lord of them all. Creator of all creatures, the Luminous Truth, who created man of mud, the angels from lustrous light, and the ginn from blazing fire, who sent prophets, and made of paradise a home for the faithful, and fire the end for the blasphemous. The prayers and the peace of God be on the last of His prophets, who was dispatched as an envoy of mercy to all creation, heralding the rightful religion, and pointing out the straight path. He called on people to follow God, dilegently toiled for this aim, established minarets and centres for knowledge, salvation, profusion and justice. He solidified the verdicts of Islam among the best nation ever created, and formed the most righteous society that ever appeared on earth.

I proceed
To guide people to worship the One God in the manner He advocates and condones is one of the most sublime pursuits, the loftiest objectives and the noblest activities. Such is the occupation of peophets, and messengers, peace be upon them, for the sake of which they were dispatched, and in the pursuit of which they faced injury, affliction, armed conflict, hostility, comabt and false charges. Such were natural consequences of the clash between truth and falsehood, virtue and vice, and righeteousness and waywardness. Promulgators and religious scholars are the prophets’ heirs. Each enjoys a share of the burden of prophecy in proportion to his knowledge and achievement. They suffer as much as did their predecessors—injury, accusation and skepticism. At present we note that each one devotes himself to one or another of the aspects of the da’wa (the call to Islam), and undertakes to propagate it among people. Each adopts the method that suits his mission. Some are occupied in writing and authorship; others undertake preaching and oratory; a third party follows up instruction and pedagogy; while some are preoccupied in matters connected with charity and alms.

A number of promulgators channel the da’wa to non-Muslims with a view to guiding them to salvation and deliverance, both here and hereafter. For this purpose they adopt whichever ways and means conducive to the realization of these and similar objectives, and consequently make use of appropriate procedures and measures. This category of promulgators stood up to such an ardous task, faced what others had to face, and what once had been the lot of the prophets, that is falsification of the creed, acustion, neglect, repulse and indifference to the faith they preach. Examples of such devoid ways are posing questions implying skepticism, protest suggesting disrespect, and queries promoting unequivocal answers, requests masking objections aimed at rejecting, defying and denying truth. Such are qualities in our times where diseases of skepticism, hedonism and sensual urges have become deeprooted, and are being taught and propounded, sanctified by centres of learning and mass media, and backed by forces buttressing and protecting them. In this tumultuous vortex, and unfavourable atmosphere, a group of highly revered Muslims took up the task of inviting some newcomers to the Arab peninsula, who belonged to other faiths and ideologies. With the grace and guidance of God, some converted; others, however, on the brink of conversion and about to witness the light, drew back on account of doubt and hesitation, residua of their sombre past, and remains of doubts and misgivings. Instead, they resisted those who sought to clear up such clouds with satisfactory replies and sufficient data.

Like other proponents of virtue, these promulgators, too, need backing of knowledge and sagacity to repel doubt, unmask falsehood, reveal truth and illustrate proof. With all these and other objectives in mind, this book has been formulated, through the efforts of a number of revered religious leaders and distinguished men of learning and virtue, having applied themselves to strenuous studies, research and dialogue.

Before delving into the depths of this book and tackling queries and responses, it is pertinent to introduce a number of issues which might raise certain ambiguities responsible for protests among whoever has not been vouchsafed the comfort of faith in his heart. Some of these issues are as follows:

1. CULTURAL BACKGROUND:
Man is likely to be influenced by such a background which takes years to consolidate and crystallize prejudicing his judgements and decisions which are likely to run counter to the judicious criteria conducive to sound vision. Consequently, such a man may have his path refracted and aim wide of the mark or at best be undecided as to which is true and which is false. Take for instance someone who is living in a jungle or on a distant mountain among people who believe in pagan fables and lead a retarded life as to patterns of behaviours, ethical premises and the rest of the living activities. Suppose, further, that suhc a man moved into an intellectually developed community offering sophisticated ideas, systems and ways of living. As soon as such set of ideas and modes of behaviours clash with the symbols of underdevlopment prevalent in the jungle, we expect such a man to undergo a serious reassessment of the earlier hocus-pocus culture which once governed his earlier primitive life, and a close scrutiny of the unprecedented patterns he never knew under the law of animalism, anarchy and licentiousness.

Would this reassessment, this scrutiny, be valid? Would such a person reach any set of truths or gain any benefits? Many are those who protest to Islam on vindicative grounds, or through devious and indirect ways. They resemble the underdeveloped man of the jungle when assessing the values of a highly advanced academic centre against his native cultural background. Such people project their prefigured vision of Islam without committing themselves to an academic methodology or a true dialectic which should distinguish right from wrong, true from false.

A Christain for example brings in defective a priori arguments concerning God Almighty and His prophets, then begins to pose questions which accord with these fallacious presuppositions. He says, for instance, that Muslims assume that they worship One God while they actually commit themselves, in the manner the Christians do invoke the Trinity (the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost) in as much as they say “In the Name of God, the Merciful, the Compassionate”.

Similar assumptions are also propounded, which are built on erroneous assumptions and faulty cultural backgrounds. It is incumbent on man to look for truth through authenticated evidences and proofs, and not be dominated by prior cultural precepts. He has to examine such a culture under the microscope of truth, and reality, on grounds of proof and evidence.

Because of the domination of prior cultural backgrounds—whether old or contemporary—we meet with wrong questions based upon equally defective data. All talk about freedom and equality is but one more clear example of such a category of vitiated questions. It is possible even to argue that most questions promoted by ostensible openmindedness or masked skepticism belong to this category. Therefore, we have found it imperative that we should illustrate this issue and rectify the thought of those who tackle Islam as if it was a refractory religion or a number of erroneous theories, the product of human minds and unpropped by a true scientific methodology.

2. FREEDOM:
Here we are up against one of the most recurrent quibblings motivated by skepticism or the wish to destabilize Islamic faith. It is only one among many samples induced by wrong cultural backgrounds resulting in equally erroneous judgements.

The modern world is infatuated by the so called “freedom” which is considered the cornerstone of civilization, justice, distinction, progress and promotion. This is so because Europe had long emerged from despostism and injustice which prevailed before the French Revolution. It came in the wake of an extended period of confiscation of the rights and the freedom of the small man and the individuals who were unable to werest their rights. The church and its advocates were the mightiest and most tyrannical agents who solidified the foundations of domination among the classes of the society and its individuals. They were foremost in justifying the corrective measures adopted by the ruling classes.

People in Europe staged more than one revolt, basically the French Revolution which propounded the slogans of Liberty, Fraternity and Equality. Organizations and directives, motivated by egocentric ambitions, exploited the slogan of liberty, expanded its implications, magnified its range, making use of people’s ignorance and regression, and rendering them victims to the heonistic sensualism, voluptuousness and mental degenerecy.

The conspiracy of unconditioned, unbridled, and uncontrolled liberation proved a volcano ejecting its lava and submerging logic, ethics, as well as people’s interests on both the individual and the collective planes. The giants of corruption among the Jews and their stooges exploited exploited this uncontrollable morbidity among peole. They enkindled the fire, extended its periphery further and further. Soonl it comprehended all creeds, ethical values and behavioural control, through descrating all sanctities, disfiguring all religions and moral precepts. It stamped out all religious and deterrents in individuals and societies alike under the banner of the novel religion and the worshipped god in flagrant challenge of the One Supreme God. They called this new deity “Liberty and Liberalism”.

The aim behind these seditious manoeuvrings was the obliteration of the dignity and the humanity of man and the transformation of such a being into a terrible monster, a ranging beast. Man would corrupt, destroy and trample down all principles, values, morals and virtues, and all under the maligned liberty.

Men ranged as far afield as their instincts took them, infatuated by these placards, each wading in corruption and self-demoralization with utmost energy and drive. The wayward in thought and creed used the slogan of liberty to crush the sound beliefs, raise doublts in their validity, and circulate atheism, nihilism, and deviant capricious creeds.

So did the rebels against settled systems—social, administrative, political, etc. They used the slogan of liberty to destabilize societies, sidetrack institutions through fraudulent schemes, monopolies, ususry, speculations, intriguing parties and by rigging elections.

As the slogan of liberty widened in scope and surreptitiously dominated the minds and hearts of the majority of people, every control examplified in profound creed, sound religion, and every judicious restriction of behaviour, values, conventions, or authorities, were deemed, among the worshippers of such unbridled liberty, enemies to man, detrimental to self-esteem, despots that impede his rights.

Thus stiffened the coils of this sinister conspiracy to such an extent that a disinterested favour or good turn was anathema, anathema a good turn. Analogously, the corrupter was pictured as a reformer, the reformer a corrupter. A highly perceptive man, rationally minded, and sagacious, one possessing moral integrity, would be thought of as a cocooned, underdeveloped, and a reactionary, while the sensualist imbecile is deemed shrewd, civilized and progressive. An investigation of the sort of liberty which fascinates humanity in our times reveals that it has become a slogan raised to justify licentiousness, corruption and anarchy.

A close scrutiny of the true identity of “liberty” would convince us that there can be no absolute freedom, limitless or unbound, because man has got an innate disposition to commitment to, and control by, specific laws which he is constrained to implement. Should man find no outer commitment to curb his actions he would still impose upon himself specific issues wherewith he would bind himself in response to his inherent desire for self-commitment. His individual life can never do away with a commitment to a definite discipline. There are times for waking up, going to bed, partaking of food, working and rest. These activities govern his individual life. As to social patterns, man is not without taut relations binding him to his family and society. It is common knowledge that the life of society is not devoid of specific systems governing social, political and economic relations as well as behavioural and moral patterns.

In short, it is onconceivable to visualize either an individual or a social life devoid of regulations, control or commitment. All these are restrictions to uncontrolled liberty. They should go to prove that there can be no absolute liberty in the sense of being free from all restrictions. This being so, the call for unshackled liberty becomes none other than a call for something non-exixtent, even in the actual life of its exponents. It is a deceptive slogan implying fraud and confusion, for an unconditional liberty does not and cannot exist, because it does not inhere in the nature of man whom God created with an innate disposition to restraint. What lies behind this continuous yelling, this clamorous call for freedom? In a word, it is a response to a call for egotism, propounded by “…and who is more astray than one who follows his own lusts, devoid of guidance from Allah?” (Holy Qur’an: 28: 50). Among the so called “progressive peopl,” freedom of thought is concomitant with atheism, denial of religion, God’s inspiration, and the Call. Among the “liberals” it denotes skepticism as to the religion of God and His prophets, as well as practising moral degeneracy, sensous anarchy, injustice to the folks, plundering the wealth of countries, self-deception, manipulating the minds of poepl, practising monopoly, economic, legal and political maneouvering, and all the atrocities that come under the mask of “liberty.” Such misdemeaners are rife under the slogan of freedom of thought, while the real objective is self-interest, caprice, sensuality, ad base desires. The ultimate target is to realize private claims. The intellectual aspect is none other than a screen to conceal their bondage to wantonness and sensualism, under the ostensible claim of being intelletually emancipated.

3. EQUALITY:
This is one more contemeraneous slogan through which infiltrated the stench of agnosticism in the minds of a substantial number of people as well as the problems in their lives, owing to the clashes among the individuals and the classes of society, motivated by their void claim to eqaulity.

This motto brought in various misconceptions and forms of deception among people. With the expansion of its boundaries and the enlargement of its content, this motto has grown into a colossal attraction for mankind, specially as it has now culminated, among thinkers and authors, into a mainspring of human principles, a basis of advancement, modernism and supremacy.

Under the canopy of this deceptive banner the storms of injustice, coercion and aggresison were launched, and the unemployed and the indolent ranged ahead, claiming equality with the diligent, assiduoud, and persistent workers. The ignorant claimed to be treated on a par with the connoisseurs and the learned. And the trash and subversive stretched out and claimed equality with the prestigious in all walks of life. Analogously, the dependent failures claimed equality with the successful and the hardworking. Thus criteria dimmed and tottered, and the controls of life got mixed up. A number of countries witnessed revolts which disrupted all stability. Others saw the rise of organizations and associations that claimed unjustly grounded equality regarding the laws of God. These laws which regulate the life of man and are the permanent cosmic premises whereupon are based the principles of distinction and meritorious priority.

A profound and a practical scrutiny of the issue of equality would reveal that it runs counter to identicality. And existence presents us with no two absolutely identical entities in all facets. It is, therefore, unjust to equalize intrinsically competitive entities or reasons. Distinction—a cosmic law—exists in all things, animate as well as inanimate, in the floral as much as in the faunal, worlds, including man.

Iron is distinct from gold, so is myrrh in relation to the palm tree. So is a hog dissimilar to a stag. Consequently, an ignorant person is not to be equated with the connoisseur, nor is the quick-witted with the daft, nor, again, the useful with the harmful.

Whether we apply intellectual or practical standards of judgment and discrimination we cannot equalize all races, species or individuals. In actual fact, each is distinct from the other. Therefore, contemporary theories, systems and philosophical principles have failed to establish equality among people. Two obvious examples are socialism and communism. This is not to exclude democracy. It, too, abounds in all sorts of the current injustice represented in the name of equality, but it is sugar-coated by a colossal propaganda and the media as well as by an embellished web of democratic intrigues.

A call for absolute equality runs counter to the principles of justice. It is a contradiction to the reality of things, an invalidation of the issue of distinctiveness which God has ingrained in His creation. To adopt such a call for assumed eqaulity results in verdicts being based on prejudice and life being steered away.

No doubt humanity lived and is living through various manifestations of despotism, injustice and tyranny, represented by individual and social classes. Therefore, people sought that principle of equality which has lately been propounded. They assumed that it would be a saviour from such injustice and oppression, but such an action resembles escape from Scylla to Charybdis.

It would have been more pertinent to adopt the principle of justice based on the dictates of the truth, including observation of the practically existent and deeply rooted facets of distinctness and priorities, qualities referred to by God in His dictum:
“It is He who has made you (His) agents, inheritors of the earth: He hath raised you in ranks, some above others: that He may try you in the gifts He has given you: for your Lord is quick in punishment: yet He is indeed Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful” (Holy Qur’an: 6: 165).

This is the type of distinction wherewith God Almighty examines man to grant him that grace and that charity destined to him. He said:
“Of the bounties of thy Lord We bestow freely on all these as well as those: the bounties of your Lord are not closed (to anyone). See how We have bestowed more on some than on others; but verily the Hereafter is more in rank and gradation and more in excellence” (Holy Qur’an: 17: 20-21).

Owing to such difference in God’s bounty to people the Almighty enjoined the faithful not to covet others’ grace:
“And in no wise covet those things in which Allah hath bestowed His gifts more freely on some of you than on others: to men is allotted what they earn, and to women what they earn: but ask Allah of His bounty. For Allah hath full knowledge of all things…” (Holy Qur’an: 4: 32).

In view of this difference God granted man the right to preside over woman. It is a distinction based on qualities of physique, creation, ability, disposition, as well as bodily, intellectual, and emotional qualification. He granted each sex an appropriate function that qulifies him/her for the social role in a proper manner:
“Men are the protectors and maintainers of women, because Allah has given the one more (strength) than the other, and because they support them from their means…” (Holy Qur’an: 4: 34).

Therefore, equality between rivalries for precedence is both unjust and impracticable. It is a transgression, a contradiction to the intellectually evidenced, a violation of actual considerations. In the revered Book there are proofs regarding equality of different things. Indeed, the Holy Qur’an illustrates that such equality is neither proper nor will it last, nor, again, can it be acceptable. We read:
“…Say: ‘Are those equal, those who know and those who do not know? It is those who are endued with understanding that receive admonition’.” (Holy Qur’an: 39: 9).

“Say: ‘Not equal are things that are bad and things that are good, even though the abundance of the bad may dazzle you…’.” (Holy Qur’an: 5: 100).

“The blind and the seeing are not alike. Nor are the depths of darkness and the light. Nor are the (chilly) shade and the (genial) heat of the sun. Nor are alike those that are living and those that are dead…” (Holy Qur’an: 35: 19-22).

“Verily, for the righteous, are gardens of delight, in the presence of their Lord. Shall We then treat the people of faith like the people of sin? What is the matter with you? How judge you?…” (Holy Qur’an: 68: 34-36).

Seeing that distinction and priorities exist, then justice does require inequality. However, as regards things which are equal in reality they have rightfully to be equal in assessment. For example people are equal in creation. They all descend from Adam, a creature from dust. They are also equal in being servants to God, as well being under constraint to worship the One God.

Equality also extends to immunity of individual rights from being unrighteously infringed. Such rights pertain to body, finance, chastity, mind and soul, etc. Men are equal in recognition of their rights and preservation of their belongings, as well as in the right to litigation and legal proceedings in case of prosecution or defence.

Analogously, men are equal in the right to ownership, buying and selling, dealing in their possessions, the right to work, acquisition and learning whatever they need to learn with a view to promoting their living conditions here and hereafter. Such are occasions for equality, and justice expresses itself in the pursuit of the above fields. Similarly, where people are different, justice requires inequality; for justice is placing a thing in its proper perspective, affords each man his rights while inequality would be to give the undeserving what another has a right to, or making both share the same right, in which case it is an unjust action and a violation of rights.

4. SUBSERVIENCE TO GOD ALMIGHTY:
Man cannot afford to disengage himself from two issues: first, submission to some power that is superior and more potent than his own beings. Secondly, following in the footsteps of another. These are amongst basic foundations in man; they constitute the major stimuli to man’s actions, sensations and relations. Their presence in man is a must, like love, hate and volition.

Therefore, God directed man’s actions in such a way as to secure his guidance, righteousness and hsppiness, pursuant to these issues. God argued that in no way can man rescue himself except by his sound orientation in the pursuit of these targets. He indicated such an orientation and provided such evidences, proofs and bases as to boast and enhance this orientation. As for the first issue, God delivered man from subservience to whatever causes misery and chargin. He oriented man to serve His Almighty Self alone, thus securing honour, self-esteem, prestige and happiness. Should man refuse, he will never get rid of slavery. Rather, he will get lost in a labyrinth of vain, evanescent and mock idols, thereby lose prestige and fall into ignominious humility.

This is an inevitable issue from which there can be no deliverance in any way. It exists in reality. Its imperative nature stems from the fact that in man inheres a need and an impoverishment for some sort of service. He is torn between two issues, either to serve God, in which case he is monotheistic, obedient, happy here and hereafter, or worship something other than God, some mock idol among diverse deities, viz. caprice, voluptuousness, money, hedonism, laws, conventions, parties, indeed any of the excesses that are today cherished, adopted and obeyed.

Such being the reward—and it is so in reality—in no way can man reach a state of well being except in subservience to his Creator, the All Potent, the dominant Power over him and all things. Should he abide by this true worship, man is promoted up the scale of human perfection. His life acquires an exalted value other than that whereto falls the one who worships other than God Almighty. The more righteous man’s subservience to God, the greater are his rewards. Thus the true Muslim is keen on cherishing the quality of serving God, an act which means complete acquiescence and resignation to God’s commands and admonitions, without protest or doubt because he has become confident that no deliverance or success can be gained except by practising such a service, following up its pathway which eventually leads him to satisfying God Almighty, the penultimate objective of each man who has faith in God.

One of the fundamental cornerstones of this subservience is that the believer in the sole Diety of God proceeds under the canopy of obedience, implementing all that God requires, whether or not he realizes the aim or the moral behind this, because when he has testified that there is no deity other than God he has thereby committed himself to absolute acquiescence that harbours no perplexity, hesitation or swerving. Such a composite and complementary action illustrates the meaning, the importance, and the urgency of an undivided allegiance to God.

No wonder that whoever fails to understand such glorious meanings as they are would protest thereto and experience doubts for his mind cannot emerge from the deep depth of ignorance and wayward servilities. As regards the second issue, God has set an example in the person of the revered prophets who are the best and most perfect of men. To follow in their footsteps is the way to the good, to virtues and delight. They are the lifeboats among the waves, the terrors and the darkness of the human example since olden times. This being inevitable, God made faith in His prophets concomitant with faith in His Almighty Self.

An obvious proof is that the first pillar of Islam is the testimony that there is no deity execpt God, and that Muhammad is His messenger. One of the results incumbent upon God’s commandments is that the prophet (pbuh) is the practical example of applying absolute service to God Almighty. Consequently, he should be the model and the example that imperatively must be followed by every Muslim. Thus become complete all the symbols of service and imitation without one straightforward track that guides man to the grace of God and paradise.

Whoever fails to understand such exhortations resembles an idiot, born blind, unable to comprehend whatever beauty coulours possess. Analogously, the one who fails to realize the composite meaning and the plenteous consequences of service is bound to pose questions like: why kiss the black stone in the Ka’ba? Why immolate on the immolation day (during the pilgrimage)? Why pray four cycles at midday and three times in the evening? Such and similar questions stem from the heart of whomsoever fails to grasp the truth about worship, neither does he taste its sweetness, fruits or man’s dire need for them.

We request God’s guidance and succour in what pleases and satisfies Him. May the prayers of God and His peace be upon our prophet and his family and companions.

Chapter 1:

Belief in Almighty God

Question 01: So long as the three principal religions have emanated from God, why should differences appear as to the essence of God among their adherents? Why should a Christian or a Jew be required to abandon his religion and adopt Islam?

Answer 01: There is no doubt that the three religions acknowledge one source, God. They all agree as to the uniquness, the absolute omniscience and omnipresence of God, to the exclusion of any parallel power to be worshipped. All agree as to attributing to God all perfection and excluding all defects and blemishes. Whatever differences may appear is sporadic extraneous, accretious developing over the ages from distortions interpolated by members of both Judaism and Christianity. Herein came differences as to the essence of God. The difference, therefore, is between Islam, which God entrusted His prophet with, and other religions which have been distorted and adulterated. The difference is not between authentic religions, rather, it is between a true religion and others that have been invalidated and turned away. The latter category has been manipulated by vicious hands which misdirected them.

When we call upon a Jew or Christian to discard his/her religion and adopt Islam, we are in reality asking him/her to revert to the true religion which has been preached by all prophets. Should an impartial thinker consider Islam in relation to other religions, he/she is bound to acknowledge the radical difference between both categories. He/she is likely to find in the former the truth and monotheism, while the latter would reveal innovations and polytheism. Moreover, Islam advocates justice and tolerance, while the others imply racism and discrimination. In the one there are moral commitment and decency; in the other, disintegration and corruption.

Question 02: What is the penultimate reason behind the creation of man? Does God need man’s worship?

Answer 02: Man has been created in order to worship God: “And I (God) created not the jinn and mankind except that they should worship me (alone)” (Holy Qur’an: 51: 56). The Primary incumbency on man is to know God through His oneness, and thence to worship Him truly. Secondly, man is required to act his role as God’s vicegerent on earth, so as to enjoy bliss both here and hereafter. Indeed, his/her need to acknowledge the supremacy of God exceeds his/her need and drink: “O mankind! It is you who stand in need of God. But God is rich, worthy of all praise” (Holy Qur’an: 35: 15).

God is above the need for man’s worship. He does not benefit from man’s devotion, nor would He be adversely affected by man’s blasphemy. From beginning to end the story of man’s existence on earth, no matter how many are its incidents, is an ordeal, a test, whether for him/her as an individual or for all humanity. Man’s performance in this test determines either his praise and reward or reproof and punishment.

Question 03: You Muslims claim that you worship One God, while in actual fact you resemble the Christians who say “In the name of the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit,” for you say “In the name of God, the Mercifu; the Compaasionate.” How would you account for this resemblence?

Answer 03: In the Christian creed, God is the Creator. The Son is Jesus the Deliverer. And the Holy Spirit is His life or one of His creations chosen by Him as a messenger and/or prophet imparting God’s inspiration or cosmic order to whoever He wishes. Whatever the mission carried out by the Holy Spirit, the Christians believe in the above powers as three entities, three aspects, three qualities. They say: “Oneness in Trinity and Trinity in Oneness.” They are all phenomena of one God, etc. Therefore, the One God, they claim, consists of three separate categories, which they call the Trinity. As a matter of fact, God, as they take Him, is not one but three. In the Qur’an God says: “Surely, disbelievers are those who said: ‘God is the third of the three (in aTrinity)’.” (Holy Qur’an: 5: 73). The verse means that God the Creator is the third in relation to the Son and the Holy Spirit.

As for the Muslim dictum “In the name of God, the Mercifu, the Compaasionate,” it means three names of God which exceed ninety nine, all denoting one Entity. A name is not separate from the named. The Being named and described is not to be conceived except by His names and qualities, unlike the case of the Christian Entities, for they are three dimentional, but separate, the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit.

Question 04: How can you claim that your God is Mercifu and Compasionate, while He created evil in the world, expressed in illnesses, volcanoes, toxics, earthquakes, hatred, etc.?

Answer 04: The answer to this question is threefold:
1. God almighty is a universal God, the God of all creation. This is obvious in the following verse: “And your God is One (God), there is none who has the right to be worshipped but He, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful…” (Holy Qur’an: 2: 163).

2. Undoubtedly, God’s mercy is comprehensive. It encompasses all creatures under its canopy. The evidence is clear: “…And My Mercy embraces all things…” (Holy Qur’an: 7: 156). Such a spacious clemency expresses itself in bestowing upon His creation so much bliss: material sustenance, the gifts of sight and hearing. Indeed, such blesisngs are countless.

3. Whatever adversities may befall man in this world, like pain, illness, poison, earthquakes, volcanoes, etc., are not exclusively evils. They are mixed blessings. For some who are harassed by such evils they are a punishment for their disobedience or heresy, while for some others they are a reminder, a nudge, to awaken them from their slumber. They also indicate the absolute power of God, His ability to deal with His creation, the sphere of His dominion, in the ways He deems just and wise. All that God decrees emanates from His compassion, wisdom and justice.

Question 05: Does God allow prostration to any power or creature other than Himself? If the answer is negative how can we account for the prostration of Jospeh’s brothers and parents before him?

Answer 05: Initialy, it is to be maintained that there are two kinds of prostration:
1. Expressive of worship and favour-seeking, which is permissible only to God. If it is practised to appease some other power, this is polytheism.

2. Indicative of man’s desire to glorify an absolute power, in which case the action of prostration is not polytheistic. Kneeling down and/or prostration before human beings as a way of showing respect or greeting was quite acceptable in earlier creeds. But it has been abrogated in Islam. Joseph’s brothers did not worship him. They bent down before him in a expression of esteem and reverence. Such a posture was permissible in their creed, but abolished and abrogated in Islam. Abdullah ibn Abi Awfa was reported to have said that on coming from Sham (currently greater Syria) Mu’az ibn Jabal knelt down before the prophet (pbuh) whereupon the prophet enquired what the man meant. In explanation, Mu’az said that in Sham he had seen people bending down before their bishops and patriarchs, so he thought it would be fit to do so in front of the prophet. In response the prophet denied this by saying: “Muslims may not bow down to anybody except God…”.

It was obvious that Mu’az’s postutre before the prophet implies reverence, a sentiment he noted in the case of the faithful, but in no way does it denote worship, which is exclusive to God. When the prophet knew that Mu’az’s posture did not denote worship, he still exhorted him not to perform such an action. Consequently, abrogation was applied to kneeling down and prostration in glorification of human grandeur.

It is true that Joseph’s father and brother prostrated before him, and equally true that God almighty enjoined the angels to prostrate before Adam, but in neither case did the posture imply worship, rather it meant a gesture of honour and recognition of merit.

Chapter 2:

Belief in Prophets and Missions

Question 06: What is the indisputable evidence that the teachings of Muhammad have all come from God?

Answer 06: There are numerous irrefutable evidences indicating that such teachings originated from God almighty. Here are some:
1. All that has been enjoined, and denied, can be found highly propitious and useful to all mankind, everywhere and at any time. They are commensurate with the sound mind and the chaste insight. Examples are commandments on solidifying family ties, preserving superior moral qualities, avoiding usury and all misdemeanors. All that the prophet (pbuh) has been told in inspiration has been proved valid. Such material falls in two categories:

A. Pertaining to the past. These are corroborated by former books as well as authenticated evidence confirmed by science and modern discoveries, e.g. finindgs in geology as the era of the deluge, in archeology as the relics from the epochs of Thamud and the Pharaos.

B. Pertaining to the future. Certain incidents were predicted by the prophet, e.g. the fire which blasted Medina in 654 hijra, the good offices performed by Hasan ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib in reconcilating between two major factions of Muslims, the gathering of the Jews in Palestine today, the emergence of nudist women who earn their living in immodest ways, and the spread of ususry, corruption, murder, etc.

C. Evidences derived from the prophet’s own life and morals, a study of both of which can only cofirms that such actions can never emerge except from one who is both true and honest. Whoever considers God’s support of His prophet (pbuh), the victory over his enemies, and the spread of his religion, must come to the conclusion that this prophet was sustained by God and that all he preached had come from the Almighty.

D. Some contemporary scientific discoveries support the prophet’s tenets, e.g. stages of the life of the embryo, the way in which milk comes into being in the mammals, the existence of the aquarian barrier between two adjecent seas, the fact that the Dead Sea is the nethermost place on earth, etc.

E. The miracles performed by him: these were simultaneously witnessed by both his followers and antagonists, e.g. the fissure of the moon surface, the springing of water from his fingers, the healing of the sick, etc. His greatest miracle remains the glorious Qur’an that has proved the authenticity of its contents over the ages.

Question 07: Who is the prophet?

Answer 07: He is a man chosen by almighty God, inspired by Him, and enjoined to proclaim the call to the people he was sent to.

Question 08: How can prophet Muhammad (pbuh) be the imam (leader) of all the prophets when he is the last messenger?

Answer 08: Preference is God’s own prerogative. It is exclusive to such and not to others, in accordance with His emmiscience and wisdom. Preference has no relation with precedence or antecedence in time. Moses and Jesus are are among the latter batch of prophets, still they are the best among all those who preceded them except Noah and Abraham (peace be uponh them). Furthermore, prophet Muhammad’s religion, in terms of creeds and the morals, conforms to those preached by the previous prophets. As for the rules of these religions, the prophet (pbuh), by commandments from almighty God, nullified some, modified others; altered some, and augmented others. Accordingly, his call has become more comprehensive, more perfect, hence has dominion over precedences. The one in charge of such a call deserves being an imam to those who preceded him. Those were made to pledge to the be faithful to him and support him, almighty God says:
“And (remember) when God took the covenant of the prophets, saying: ‘Take whatever I gave you from the book and hikmah (understanding of the laws of God), and afterwards there will come to you a messenger (Muhammad) confirming what is with you; you must, then, believe in him and help him.’ God said: ‘Do you agree (to it) and will you take up my covenant (which I conclude with you)?’ They said: ‘We agree.’ He said: ‘Then bear witness; and I am with you among the witnesses (for this)’.” (Holy Qur’an: 3: 81).

Such favours prove that he is the best.

Question 09: What evidence proves that Jesus was not a God, but only a messenger from God?

Answer 09: Jesus Christ (pbuh), following both the Gospels and the Qur’an, was born of the virgin Mary, who was just like any other human being. It is common knowledge that whoever is born cannot be deified. Jesus Christ was a human being who used to eat and drink just like anybody else. He was susceptible to hunger, grief and/or merriment. He experienced all the paraphernalia pertaining to human life. His miraculous creation from no father is no stranger than that of Adam, a being who was both fatherless and motherless. This is an evidence of God’s omnipotence. Jesus Christ was no more than a servant to, and messenger of God, who revealed the scripture in order to promulgate it and carry out His call. On the day of judgement Jesus Christ is not to be judged because of those who deified him in exclusion of God or thought of him as parallel. In the Qur’an we have a mentioning of this, where in the hereafter God will ask Jesus if he had asked his followers to deify him, whereby Jesus will answer God by saying: “If you punish them, they are your slaves, and if you forgive them, verily, you, only you, are the all-Mighty, the all-Wise” (Holy Qur’an: 5: 118). Here is one more reply to the one who seeks an evidence as to the deification of Jesus Christ, while he has none of the qualities of God. Whatever miracles he performed emanated from God, just as He supported other prophets.

Question 10: In what way was Jesus Christ a Muslim, as well as all the other prophets?

Answer 10: There is no doubt that all prophets (peace be upon them), beginning with Adam and ending in Muhammad, preached one religion—the worship of God alone and disregarding all other powers. This is something advocated by Islam. God says: “Truly, the true religion with God is Islam” (Holy Qur’an: 3: 19). About Abraham (pbuh), God says: “Abraham was neither a Jew nor a Christian, but was a true Muslim (hanif: monotheist—a worshipper one God alone) and he was not a mushrik—a polytheist” (Holy Qur’an: 3: 67). On the question of the disciples of Jesus, God says: “And when I (God) inspired al-hawariun (the disciples of Jesus) to believe in Me and My Messenger, they said: ‘We believe. And bear witness that we are Muslims’.” (Holy Qur’an: 5: 111). Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) confirmed this in his saying: “Prophets are paternal brothers; their mothers are different, but their religion is one.”

Question 11: If people have managed to distort the message of Christ, is not this sufficient evidence that he failed in his mission? If he was great, how could God allow his call to peter out into failure?

Answer 11: Christ (pbuh) cannot be said to have failed in his mission. God supported him with astounding miracle and convincing arguments. Whatever distortion has befallen the scripture preached by Christ, it must have happened after his ascention to heaven. Failure and disintegration are the works of the followes who fell a prey to whims and caprice. In this connection God says:
[And (remember) when God will say (on the day of reurrection): ‘O Jesus, son of Mary! Did you say unto men: ‘worship me and my mother as two gods besides God?’ He will say: ‘Glory is to You! It is not for me to say what I had no right (to say). Had I said such a thing, You would surely, have know it. You know what is in my inner-self though I do not know what is in Yours; truly You, only You, are the All-Knower of all that is hidden (and seen). Never did I say to them aught except what You (God) did command me to say: worship God my Lord and your Lord. And I was a witness over them while I dwelt amongst them, but when you took me up, You were the Watcher over them; and You are a Witness to all things’.”] (Holy Qur’an: 5: 116-117)

Question 12: Seeing that God’s message to humanity is one and the same, why was it partitioned among more than one prophet and not revealed in one package?

Answer 12: The message entrusted to all prophets is one and the same. It finds expression in a call for the worship of the one God and the avoidance of false dieties, God says: “And verily, we have sent among every ummah (community/nation) a messenger (proclaiming): ‘Worship God (alone), and avoid taghut (all false deities)’.” (Holy Qur’an: 16: 36). God almighty also said: “And We did not send any messenger before you (Muhammad) but We revealed to him (saying): ‘None has the right to be worshipped but I (God), so worship Me (alone and none else)’.” (Holy Qur’an: 21: 25). As for the multiplicity of the prophets, it has been caused by various motives:

1. So that people in any age may not have the pretext as to have been ignorant of God’s commandments. God says: “Messengers as bearers of good news as well as of warning in order that mankind should have no plea against God after the (coming of) messengers.” (Holy Qur’an: 4: 165).

2. Specifying individual laws for each nation which shall conform to its nature and circumstances. God says: “…To each among you, We have prescribed a law and a clear way…” (Holy Qur’an: 5: 48).

3. The differences among languages and their multiplicity, required entrusting more than one prophet/messenger, each speaks the language of a certain nation. This is obvious in the Almighty’s words: “And We sent not a messenger except with the language of his people in order that he make (the message) clear for them” (Holy Qur’an: 14: 4).

Question 13: Is the Muslim entitled to blend his/her faith with other faiths or creeds?

Answer 13: In no way should a Mulslim adopt other creeds or principles which conflict with the fundamentals underlying the Islamic doctrine. Monotheism runs counter to polytheism, nor does sunna (prophet’s words and deeds) agrees with innovations. Likewise, the love of God is incompatiable with the love of some other power, etc.

Question 14: Why were the first batch of prophets sent to certain geographical areas and not others? How can we judge those areas which received no prophets? Why were they left without the word of God?

Answer 14: Judging by the accounts given by the prophet’s hadiths (sayings) God sent to various folks 124,000 prophets, while God’s messengers numbered 314. Such a large number of prophets and messengers prove that not one nation or area went without one (or some). In this regard God almighty says: “…And there never was a nation but a warner had passed among them” (Holy Qur’an: 35: 24). And again, He also says: “And verily, we have sent among every ummah (community/nation) a messenger (proclaiming): ‘Worship God (alone), and avoid taghut (all false deities)’.” (Holy Qur’an: 16: 36).

Question 15: Why should Muhammad (pbuh) be considered the last prophet while Jesus Christ will reappear?

Answer 15: Muhammad (pbuh) is actually the last of all prophets, according to what he siad. The descent of Jesus Christ (pbuh) from heaven is not a new mission. It is a return whose aim is to reinforce Islam and its shari’a (Islamic laws and rules) our propeht called for, and the last celestial techings. This is clear in his words: “The coming of Jesus is imminent. He will come as a just ruler, destroy the cross, and nullify the poll tax. There would be so much money that no one would accept charity.” In another long hadith, he says: “…He (Jesus Christ) will call peope to Islam and God would abolish all religions leaving Islam alone.”

It is quite obvious from the above evidences that whatever Jesus Christ preaches is nothing but Islam and the law of Muhammad (peace be upon them both). He will even pray behind a Muslim. The prophet says: “How will you be when the son of Mary (Jesus Christ) descends among you, while you are praying behind an imam (a prayer leader) from among you?”

Muslim scholars referred to the return of Jesus Christ (pbuh) at the end of time. They mentioned that his return will be especially significant to:
1. Empashize the facts of Islam as preached by prophet Muhammad (pbuh);

2. Reply to the claims of the Jews and the Christians as to his death, crucifixion.;

3. His return indicates the approach of the end of his life and his his burial.

4. The prophet’s report about Jesus Christ must be the truth, because it is something that had been revealed to him from God.

Question 16: How can you claim that Jesus did not die while his death is actually mentioned in Surrat Al-Imraan (Chapter 3 of the Holy Qur’an)?

Answer 16: No verse in the Qur’an relates the death of Jesus Christ (pbuh). The term used in the chapter ‘wafaat‘ does not refer to death as much as it refers to departure from earthly existence. His appointed time on earth had elapsed. Accordingly, God says: “And (remember ) when God said: ‘O Jesus! I will take you and raise you to Myself and clear you of those who disbelieve…’.” (Holy Qur’an: 3: 55). This can be paraphrased thus: I have teken you body and soul. The term wafaat can also be used to indicate sleep. God says: “It is He who takes your sould by night (when you are asleep), and has knowledge of all that you have done by day…” (Holy Qur’an: 6: 60).

Contrary to what the Chrstians claim, the Qur’an confirms that Jesus Christ (pbuh) was not killed. God raised him up to Himself: “…For Surely, they killed him (Jesus) not. But God raised him up (with his body and soul) unto Himself…” (Holy Qur’an: 4: 157-158). The truth of the matter is that Jesus was ascended alive and will come back alive.

Question 17: How can you prove that Jesus Christ was not crucified?

Answer 17: This question can be answered from different angles:
1. There are many ambiguities surrounding the issue of Christ’s crucifixion in the canonical Gospels. How was the Crucifixion carried out? For how long did Jesus hung on the cross? What are the precise dates? Who carried the cross? What was his prayer while he was on the cross? How do you explain his cry of despair? Who were the witnesses? What happened after the crucifixion? There is no consensus on these questions. So much of the crucifixion story is based on mere conjecture.

2. The issue of crucifixion is based on the belief in the original sin and redemption by blood. This issue contradicts common sense, and it is irreconcilable with God’s justice and mercy. How can the innocents be held accountable for the actions of the guilty?

3. Finally, the Qur’an has unambiguously refuted the Bible’s crucifixion story. God says: “…They killed him not, nor crucified him, but the resemblance of Jesus was put over another man, and those who differ therein are full of doubts. They have no knowledge, they follow nothing but conjecture. For surely, they killed him (Jesus) not. But God raised him up (with his body and soul) unto Himself. And God is ever all-powerful, all wise” (Holy Qur’an: 4: 157-158).

Chapter 3:

Belief in the Divine Scriptures

Question 18: You always say that the Old and New Testaments contain fabrications. Why then do you sometimes use them as references when it is convenient for you?

Answer 18: I would like to clarify that Muslims believe that books were revealed by God to His prophets; and among these are the Torah, the Gospels, David’s Psalms, and the Qur’an and accounts of prophet Abraham’s life. Their belief in these reveations is a fundamental aspect of islamic teachings. Therefore, the Muslims believe that, generally speaking, the Torah and the Gospels are divinely revealed. But people who follow these revelations have introduced fabrications in them. God has revealed this fact to us in the Qur’an. Therefore not all of the Bible is fabricated. And not all that Jews and Christians claim to be true of the Bible is wholly from God. As a result Islamic scholars have articulated a sound position regarding these books which can be summerized as follows:
1. Whatever is in acordance with the Qur’an, we believe in and quote for the benefit of those who follow these scriptures.

2. Whatever contradicts the Qur’an, we reject, knowing that it is a fabrication. We do not quote it, and do not believe in it.

3. We maintain silence over what neither agrees nor contradicts Qur’anic teachings. This is due to our fear of refuting what may be well true or accepting what might be false.

The latter attitude is imposed by the teachings of the prophet (pbuh), who said: “Do not give credence to what the people of the Book (Jews and Christians); and do not refute it outright.” Therefore, when we quote te Bible, we are in fact quoting what finds support in the qur’an, and not arbitrarily.

Question 19: Why do you believe that the divine reveltions were not preserved in the same way that you claim the Qur’an was?

Answer 19: God made the preservation of earlier scriptures the responsibilities of the followers of these books. God says: “…For to them was entrusted the protection of God’s books, and they were witnesses thereto” (Holy Qur’an: 5: 44). But they were negligent of this; distorted the books with their interpolations and the reversal of some facts. This is not a total loss, because God intended another scripture whose teachings and principles will serve the good of man and under all conditions.

God did not give the responsibility of protecting the Qur’an to man. He pledged to protect it Himself, knowing that this was the last revelation to mankind. This is the absolute necessity that it be preserved intact. God says: “Verily, it is We Who have sent down the dhikr (the Qur’an) and surely, we will guard it (from corruption)” (Holy Qur’an: 15: 9). Due to this divine pledge, the Qur’an has been preserved. It is impossible for anyone to do to the Qur’an what was done to previous scriptures.

Question 20: To what extent, do you think, are the present Gospels authentic?

Answer 20: The present Gospels, as attested by Christian scholars, were written by historians. They are therefore not totally authentic. Parts of these books are authentic, others are fabricated. The falsehood in them supercedes the truth, espacially in those parts which deify Jesus Christ (pbuh) and make him the son of God. The Muslim accepts what is in accord with the Islamic teachings and rejects what contrdicts them. He is silent over aspects that are not clearly in agreement or disagreement with Islamic teachings.

Question 21: How can you tell a true religion from a false one?

Answer 21: All the religions that God revealed through His prophets are true. Any discernible corruption in these religions is a result of human interpolation. People had been entrusted with the preservation of these religions, but failed to fully care for this trust. We can mention here a few criteria that can help distinguish a true religion from a false one.

1. Examine the core contents of the religion both in terms of the foundational texts and how they have been transmitted from generation to generaion. See if there is internal consistency in the texts. Do the prescriptions of the religion uplift man or oppress him?

2. Examine the methods of transmission in terms of their reliability and the claims of transmision.
3. Look into the life of the founder of the religion (the prophet), if applicable.

4. Look into the lives of the disciples of the prophet.

5. Is the religion monotheistic or ploytheistic?

6. Are the religion’s teachings in clear contradiction with known facts about the world?

Question 22: Can Muslisms read scriptures, other tha the Qur’an? Explain with regards to the prophet’s position on this question?

Answer 22: The prophet (pbuh) once showed displeasure when he saw Umar ibn al-Khattab reading the Bible. Umar asked the prophet: “Sometimes we hear fine words from the Jews, can we write some of these words?” The prophet replied: “Are you confused about your religion, just as the Jews and the Christians are about theirs? I have brought you a crystal clear teaching. Had Moses been alive, no doubt he would have been my follower.” In the beginnig of the prophet’s mission he disallowed his disciples from meddling with Torah for fear of confusing it with the Qur’an, which was being revealed. The Qur’an having, been completely revealed, the prophet told his disciples to teach about the Jews. The prophet says: “Do not believ the people of the Book or disbelieve them, but say ‘We believ in God and that which has been sent down to us (Holy Qur’an: 2: 136)’.” The study of different sacred texts can only strengthen a Muslim’s faith. What is true in these faiths has been confirmed by the Qur’an; and falsehood in them had likewise been made manifest in the Qur’an.

Question 23: Where in the Bible was the prophet’s name mentioned?

Answer 23: In John 14: 16. “And I will pray the Father, and he shall give you another Comforter, that he may abide with you for ever” (John: 14: 16).

Parclete means “Muhammad” or “Ahmad.” The statement that the “Parclete will remain with us forever points to the eternal validity of Muhammad’s religion, book and way of life. God vowed to protect and preserve them. This is what is meant by “He will remain with you forever.”
Question 24: Why did God reveal the Qur’an in Arabic, rather than in another language? What is the wisdom behind this choice?

Answer 24: It was God’s choice to reveal Qur’an in Arabic, just as it was his choice to reveal previous scriptures in other languages. God does as He pleases. No one has the right to question His will; He can question the actions of His creatures. The wisdom behind the choice of Arabic to be the vehicle in which the Qur’an was revealed can be summed up in the follwoing points:
1. The prophet through whom the Qur’an was revealed was an Arab, and Arabic was his language. How could God have revealed to him a scripture in a foreign tongue?

2. The past people to whom the prophet was sent were Arabs. Had the book been revealed in other than their language, that would have given them a pretext to reject it. They would have accused him of absurd innovations and would have refused to heed his call.

3. Arabic os best equipped to articulate the nuance of the revelatin.

Chapter 4:

Questions on Sects and Schools of Thoughts

Question 25: If only those who follow Muhammad will be admitted into paradise, what about the generations who lived before his advent?

Answer 25: Those who lived before the prophet’s mission fall into two groups:
A. Those who worshipped God, the One, and kept his laws as revealed through a succession prophets. They will be rewarded or punishe according to their own deeds. Ultimately, they will enter paradise.

B. Those to whom a divine scripture was not revealed. They will be tested by God on the day of reckoning. Those who, then, manifest obedience to God will enter paradise, and those who manifest disobedience will enter hell.

Question 26: What are the differences and similarities netween Sinnism and Shi’ism? Are there other sects that are considered belonging to the fold of Islam?

Answer 26: Both Sunnis and Shi’as believe in God, His angels, His scriptures, His prophets, the day of judgement, fate, and the pillars of Islam, generally speaking.

Sunnis and Shi’as differ in some respects which include:
1. The Shi’as believe in the inerrancy and infalliablity of the imams coming from the prophet’s family.

2. Their belief that imams are divinely inspired, but to a lesser degree than prophets.

3. Their practice of tactical dissimulation in their dealings with their adversaries, whereby they believe that they are allowed to hide their beliefs.

4. The practice of mut’a, or temporary marriages. From a sunni perspective such marriages constitute adultry. There are many hadiths condemn this practice.

Undoubtedly, many other sects claim to belong to the fold of Islam. The mainstream Islamic population considers such sects in relation to their closeness to, or distance from, the teachings of mainstream Islam.

Judaism and Christianity are not accepted as viable religions after the advent of Islam. Islam has superseded them God says: “And whoever seeks a religion other than Islam, it will never be accepted of him, and in the hereafter he will be one of the losers” (Holy Qur’an: 3: 85).

Question 27: Since Muslims have been allowed to build a mosque in Rome, why should not Christians be permitted to build churches in Arabia? Also, why are non-Muslims banned from entering Mecca and/or Medina, while Muslims have access to the Vatican?

Answer 27: Rome is just like any other place in the world. There is no particular sacredness attached to it. Building a mosque in Rome, therefore, should not be considered unusual. The prophet of Islam specifically proscribed the existence of two faiths in the Arabian penninsula. Hence, there are no churches in the penninsula. The Arabian penninsula is the bedrock of Islam, its nursery and the home of its sacred sites.

We can compare the Vatican and Mecca only to a certain extent. In the Qur’an, God explicitly conferred sacredness to Mecca. The Vaticsn enjoys no such status even from a biblical point of view. In fact only the Cathoic denomination in Christendom attaches a special importance to the Vatican. Moreover, every country in the world has visa and entry regulations. Only those fulfilling such conditions are admitted. The only condition for entry to Mecca is to verify the Oneness of God and the belief in the prophethood of Muhammad (pbuh).

Question 28: If Islam is viable for all times and places, why is that Muslims are the world’s most backward people today?

Answer 28: It is a fact that Islam is valid for all times and places. Islamic civilization flourished for many centuries, especially at a time when the rest of the world was steeped in ignorance and backwardness. The west learnt a great deal and benefitted from the Islamic culture. The west built upon this past at the time Muslims became materialistic and lost their spiritual and civilizational focus. The backwardness of contemporary Muslims is the fault of Muslims not of Islam. Their backwardness is due to their deviation from Islamic teachings. However, Muslims still have the potential and the ability to achieve civilizational greatness. They have the elements of strength and progress. God gave us teachings to follow, and granted us geographical, natural and human resources. If we build upon these assets, we can enter into new renaissance, provided that we adhere to the teachings of Islam. Indeed the future belongs to the God-conscious. Islam’s future is bright. And It is a known fact that the achievement of a given system can only be sustained if the right people continue to work for it.

Question 29: Muslims claim to love Jesus, honour him, and believe in his message. Why then do they prefer Muhammad to him? Jesus is after all not only a messenger, but also the son of God.

Answer 29: There are two parts to this question:
A. We, as Muslims, truly believe that Jesus, son of Mary, is one of the prophets belonging to the eleveated category of ulu al’azm prophets (possessors of steadfastness). Muslims love him, honour him and do believe in his message. However, Muslims consider him to be a servant to God and not a son of Him.

B. It is up to God to establish hierarchy among his messengers based on His divine wisdom. He made prophet Muhammad (pbuh) special in certain repects. He is the seal of the prophets. His message completes and abrogates all that came before him. He was also known as God’s intimate. Also, he was sent to all of the creation.

Question 30: Some Christian missionaries claim that Islam is not a rvealed religion. It is a distorted derivative version of Judaism and Christianity. Please comment.

Answer 30: What these missionaries are claiming is simply a misleading conjecture. While the prophet was preaching the new faith, the Jews and the Christians were, at the same time, practising their own religions. The new faith clearly contradicted Judaism and Christianity in very fundamental issues. Islam contradicted such beliefs held by Christians and Jews such as: ascribing human qualities to God (Jews witness that Uzair is the son of God). Their claim that Jesus was an illigitimate child and that they killed him. They also ascribed major sins to the prophets. They also claimed themselves to be the chosen people of God, His children and His beloved. The Christians claimed that Jesus is the son of God; that God is one person in a trinity and their belief in Jesus’s crucifixion and death. They also believe in the original sin an the Jesus’s atonement from the sins of mankind. The prophet’ teachings strongly refuted such beliefs. And in their stead he taught radical monotheism, God’s transcendence, and that He neither had a spouse, nor an offspring.

Islam also taught that all prophets were free from committing major sins. Also, the blessed Virgin Mary was not an adultress, and her son, Jesus, was God’s servant and messenger. He was neither crucified nor killed. The doctrine of trinity is false. The atonement for sins is also false. Jews are not a chosen people, rather all humans are God’s creation and equal in His sight except for those who manifest faith and God-consciousness.

Islam also brought many new rules which contradict with those of Judaism and Christianity. How then can one hold that Islam is a distorted copy of Judaism and/or Christinaity?

Question 31: Christians are civilized and rational. They therefore look critically at their scriptures. Muslims, on the other hand, avoid such practice. Do not you think that this shows regressive thinking and lack of rational thought?

Answer 31: This question calls for a multifaced answer:
1. The claim that Christians are civilized and rationa is counter-factual. How can a progressive man believe in superstitions, obscurist dogmas? How can we account for the moral decay through which their societies are passing?

2. It is not a civilized theory, nor it is progressive to criticize God.

3. The Christian’s criticism of their scriptures is due to the fact that these books have been distorted and changed. They have been added to and removed from. As a result some of these teachings clearly contradict reason, the facts and the common sense. The critical approach towards these scriptures is therefore only normal. Nonetheless, such criticismdid not clarify the issues as much as it obscured them and made many people lose faith in God.

4. The Qur’an and the prophet’s tradition are both divinely revealed. They are authentic. They do not abuse human reason, or contradict the facts of science. No critical approach in this case is, therefore, useful or warranted. No matter how educated a man is, he/she is still a created being. Human criticism of God is therefore an irrational proportion.

Man has to receive all that is authentically revealed by God with humility and submissiveness. Man needs to practice the revelation and live his life accordingly. Following such an attitude is not putting contraints on the mind, rather, it frees the mind to explore reality within what is humanly possible.

Question 32: Where do Jews and Christians stand today? Do you, Muslims, consider them believers or non-believers?

Answer 32: This question calls for a two-faced answer:
1. Their religious doctrines include a degradation of God’s ststus, as well as what amounts to insulting Him. These doctrines imply attributing partners to God, and ascribing to Him human biological qualities such as having an offspring, procreating, getting tired, oblivion, weeping and regretting. God’s prophets are also degraded by imputing to them major moral defects. All the above in addition to other contradictory and fabricated issues exist in their books. To Muslims, whoever holds such beliefs is a disbeliever without doubt.

2. Sincet the commandment of Muhammad’s prophetic mission, it has become incumbent upon all human beings to believe in his message. Anyone who has heard the call of Muhammad to embrace Islam and refute it is a disbeliever and will dwell in hell.

Question 33: Is Islam ready to accord to Christians in Mulsim countries the kind of freedom that Muslims enjoy in Christians countries? Can Christians enter mosques? Can they freely express their religious views? And can they freely proselytize?

Answer 33: Islam has historically granted to Christians living in Musim countries far more rights in than the rights Muslims have enjoyed in Christian countries. These rights and freedoms include:
1. The Christians’ right to retain their faith and pay some tax (jizya) in return for their protection.

2. They are granted security in terms of their lives, their properties and their religious institutions.

3. Islam forbade alcohol for Muslims, but allowed it for non-Muslims. This ruling also applies for the consumption of pork.

4. A dimension of this tolerance is Islam’s prescription of moderation and sound reason in their dialogue with Christians and Jews. God says: “And argue not with the people of the scripture (Jews and Christians) unless it be in (a way) that is better (with good words and in good manner)” (Holy Qur’an: 29: 46).

5. We call Jews and Christians living in Muslim dominions as ahl al-dhimmah (the protected people). The full designation is dhimatu al-Lah was ‘ahdihi wa ri’ayatihi (people under the protection, covenant and care of God). Muslims are forbidden from harming them. Instead they are urged to maintain good relationship with them. The prophet Muhammad (pbuh) taught: “Whoever verbally insults a dhimmi (a jew or a Christian living in a Mulsim country) will be flogged in the hereafter with whips from hellfire.”

Can you say, then, that Muslims in Chritians countries enjoy the same privillages as accorded to Christians in Muslim countries? Even today, Muslim girls living in the west are being deprived of their right to wear their Muslim clothes at school.

As regarding admission of Christians and Jews in mosques, see answer to question 120.

Finally, Muslims, convinced as they are of the false nature of Jewish and Christian teachings, how can they be expected to allow the spread of such techings in Muslim communities?

Question 34: It was said that God created all human beings equal, in rights and responsibilities. Why there is then disparity in the religious rights of Muslims, on the one hand, and Jews and Chriastians on the other?

Answer 34: It is said:
1. Absolute equality between human beings is logically and practically groundless. Human beings are not equal. Islam simply advocates justice. God says: “Verily God enjoins justice and the doing of good…” (Holy Qur’an: 16: 90).

2. Undoubtedly a Mulsim cannot be equal to a non-Muslim, because God is pleased with those who have embraced the truth of Islam, not withstanding the prohibition of forced conversion to Islam. Muslims enjoy equal status in the sight of God: “The believers are nothing but brothers (in Islamic religion)…” (Holy Qur’an: 49: 10). Anyone who rejects this teaching cannot be deemed equal to those who embrace it.

God decrees the following: “Is he who walks prone (without seeing) on his face, more rightly guided, or he who (sees and) walks uprighly on the straight way (Islamic monotheism)?” (Holy Qur’an: 67: 22). Based on these divine revelations, it becomes inonceivable to equal Muslims and non-Muslims: “Shall We then treat the Muslims like the mujrimun (criminals, disbelievers)? What is the matter with you? How judge you? (Holy Qur’an: 68: 35-36).

Question 35 (A): If one of the spouses embraces Islam while the other remains Christian, is their marriage still islamically valid?

Answer 35 (A): If God guides the husband to Islam, then it is his duty to invite his family to Islam. If it is the wife who embraces Islam, while the husband remains Christian, she should invite her husband to Islam with wisdom and beautiful exhortations. Should he still refuse to become Muslim, then she is obligated to sever their marital relationship. A husband is practically the leader in any family, and it is unacceptable for a believer to be subjected to the leadership of a non-Muslim.

Question 35 (B): When the man is Muslim and the woman is a Christian, can the wife take the children to church?

Answer 35 (B): As stated above, the newly converted Muslim husband should invite his Christian spouse to the path of Islam. Should he fail to persuade her, he must not allow their children to practice any religion beside Islam.

Question 36: Why is it prohibited for non-Muslims to be buried in Muslim symmetries?

Answer 36: In Islamic understanding death is simply a transition from one life to another. Out of respect and honour, Muslims upon their departure from this life should be assigned a special place of burial. Being dead, man can no longer take care of himself. It is therefore incumbent upon the living to look after his comfort and needs. It is expected of Muslims to visit the departed in the symmetries and make supplications on their behalf and ask God for their forgiveness. When Muslims are buried with non-Muslims, the sanctity of the dead is compromised. Islam proscribes the making of supplications on behalf of those who have ascribed partners to God.

Question 37: God says “Let there be no compulsion in religion”. How can we reconcile this teaching and the principle of killing Islam’s apostates?

Answer 37: No one should be compelled to become Muslim, as the statement above instructs. If one after knowing about the true religion of Islam, chooses any other path, one is accountable to God with regards to one’s choice in life. However, once any one freely makes a choice to become a Muslim, this choice becomes a perpetual commitment to Islam and the community of Muslims. Betrayal of that commitment is treasonable and calls for the death penalty. Islam is not only a religion in the conventional sense, it is also a community. One who seeks membership in a new community, such as a nation, is obligated to protect the interests of that community or nation. Failure to do so, is an act of treason.

Whoever freely enters Islam becomes obligated to abide by the legal statutes of Islam, one of which regards apostasy. This stern measure is designed to discourage opportunistic adventurism that places security of the Muslim community in peril. This measure, thus, protects the interests of Islam and the security of the Muslim community.

Question 38: Does God reward one who believes in Him without necessarily following any particular religion? If there is indeed such a reward what then would be the importance of following a particular prophet? If this is not the case, does it mean that it is mandatory to follow one religion such as a monotheistic creed?

Answer 38: It is not possible for one to believe in God and worship Him as He would like to be worshipped without following a prophet. Consequently, there is no recompense for any one who does not follow the religion, which God has chosen for His people, and revealed to them, through a prophet. Faith in God is acceptable only if its object is God and God alone, and if it is based on authentic teachings of a prophet. All prophets preached Islam which is monotheism, observing of God’s laws, and assenting to the revelation which God sent through them.

Question 39: Some person says “He is Christian, but he believes in total submission to God”. Will this save him from God’s wrath?

Answer: 39: True and total submission to God implies obeying all the commandments of almighty God and observing all His prohibitions, and believing the prophet and the teachings that he brought. God sent His prophet Muhammad (pbuh) to all mankind and has shut all accesses to Him, leaving only one open: Islam as taught by the prophet Muhammad (pbuh). The submission of the person mentioned above is neither genuine nor complete. If it were genuine, he would have been one of the followers of prophet Muhammad (pbuh). And that would have sufficed for his salvation.

Question 40: We Christians have many denominations, and so do you Muslims. You have Shi’as, Druzes, Isma’iliyyas. Why all these sects, and what are the differences between them?

Answer 40: Sectarian divisions occurred in Islam as they occurred in previous religious communities. The prophet (pbuh) had predicted this phenomenon by stating that his community will split up, but only one sect will be on the right path, that is the people of the prophet’s way, the orthodox community (ahl al-sunnah wal jama’a). They will remain true to the path of the prophet and his companions. As for the other sects, which developed in the Islamic world, they have, generally speaking, deviated from the truth. The reasons for this

1. Ignorance about the religion, whims and ethnocentrism.
2. Conspiracy against its people.

Our stance towards these sects depends on how much they have deviated from the truth. Accordingly, we place some of these sects, such the Druze and Isma’ilis, beyond the pale of Islam.

Question 41: Why do you believe that you are the people of truth, while the rest are pagans and have strayed away from the truth?

Answer 41: The case is not a matter of mere claims of superiority, as much as it is an issue of sound common sense, and conclusive proofs which confirm the absolute truth in Islam’s claims, which call for pure monotheism.

Jews for example believe in Yahweh, to whom they attribute qualities that are denigrate God’s majesty. They say for example that He has a son named Uzair, [“And the Jews say: ’Uzair (Ezra) is the son of God’.”] (Holy Qur’an: 9: 30). How can we attribute a son to Him when non of His creation resembles Him? They also ascribed miserliness to Him, God says: “The Jews say ‘God’s hand is tied up’ (i.e. He does not give and spend of His bounty” (Holy Qur’an: 5: 64). They also attributed to Him qualities that are incmopatiable with His majesty, perfection, and power.

Then came the Christians and claimed likewise, that Jesus Christ (pbuh) is the son of God. They also attributed divinity to Jesus and his mother. God says in the Qur’an:
[And (remember) when God will say (on the day of reurrection): “O Jesus, son of Mary! Did you say unto men: ‘worship me and my mother as two gods besides God?’ He will say: ‘Glory is to You! It is not for me to say what I had no right (to say). Had I said such a thing, You would surely, have known it. You know what is in my inner-self though I do not know what is in Yours; truly You, only You, are the All-Knower of all that is hidden (and seen). Never did I say to them aught except what You (God) did command me to say: worship God my Lord and your Lord. And I was a witness over them while I dwelt amongst them, but when you took me up, You were the Watcher over them; and You are a Witness to all things’.”] (Holy Qur’an: 5: 116-117).

Then Islam came with pure monotheism. God says:
“Say ‘He is God, (the) One. God is self-sufficnet. He begets not, nor was He begotten. And there is none co-equal or comaprable unto Him’.” (Holy Qur’an: 112: 1-4).

He also says:
“There is nothing like Him; and He is the All-Hearer, the All-seer” (Holy Qur’an: 42: 11).

The religious wars erupted in Europe as a result of the unresolved doctrinal controversies surrounding the person of Jesus. In Islam there are no controversies as to who God is, His names, His essence, and His attributes. The Qur’an’s call remains ever relevent: “Surely, in disbelief are they who say that ‘God is the Messiah, son of Maryam (Mary)’.” (Holy Qur’an: 5: 17).

Our refutation of Christian teachings in this regard are not based on personal whim or malice. We are simply stating God’s judgement on the matter. Whoever ascribes partners to God has rejected faith. God says:
“And verily, this is my straight path, so follow it, and follow not (other) paths, for they will separate you away from His path. This he has ordained for you that you may become the pious” (Holy Qur’an:6: 153).

Question 42: What is Islam’s position with regards to nationalism?

Answer 42: It is natural to love one’s country and people, as long as it does not lead to unjust dealings with other nations and peoples. A Muslim is also expected to show compassion and concern for people outside his country.

Nationalism, according to the contemporary proponents implies a kind of identity based on nationhood without reference to religious considerations. This understanding is clearly false. Nationalism, tribalism and regionalism had great influence on the lives of the people. When Islam came it refined these concepts and set rules and regulations to them, these include: no blind allegiance to nationality, race, country, and skin colour. Loyalty is first and foremost to God, and to His prophet and the community of believers wherever they may be. Love to one’s country must now be defined by the supreme allegiance to God’s religion.

Question 43: Is the one dies defending his country considered a martyr?

Answer 43: Intention is a vital issue here. Whoever is killed while defending his country with the intention of upholding the truth as revealed by God is a martyr. Whoever dies defending his country with the intention of safeguarding his honour and wealth is a martyr. However, if one dies while fighting to gain personal wealth and fame is not a martyr. One has to be a Muslim and be driven by Muslim ideals to be a candidate for martyrdom. The prophet says: “Whoever fights so that God’s word remain supreme is indeed striving on the path of God.”

PART TWO

Questions and Answers on
Islamic Jurisprudence:
Wisdom & Purposes

Translated by
Ahmad H. Al-Hout

Chapter 1:

Islamic Jurisprudence: Wisdom and Purposes

Question 44: What is the meaning of Islam?

Answer 44: Islam is total surrendering to almighty God’s command and obeying Him in all of His legislation and rules whose basis is the well-known five pillars: The two words, prayer, zakat, fasting and pilgrimage.

The perfect form of Islam is achieved when the Muslim’s life is completely involved in Islam. almighty God said: “[Our sibghah (religion) is] the Sibghah (religion) of God (Islam) and which Sibghah (religion) can be better than God’s? And he is the All-Hearer, the All-Knower. (Holy Qur’an: 2: 138) and ‘Say (O Muhammad) Verily, my prayer, my sacrifice, my living, and my dying are for God, the Lord of all that exists’.”) (Holy Qur’an: 6:162).

Question 45: What does faith mean?

Answer 45: Faith is the absolute belief in God, whose location is the heart. It is associated with the saying of the tongue and the observation of the senses. The basis of this faith is the belief in God, His angels, books, messengers, the doom’s day, fate (both good and evil) are all from almighty God. Therefore, the saying of the tongue indicates this absolute belief in those fundamentals and rules. The perfect action can best be testified by the implementation of Islam in the private and public life.

Question 46: What is the meaning of “perfect worship”?

Answer 46: This means “to worship God as if you were seeing Him; as you cannot see Him, He sees you”, as Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) related. It is a high degree of emotional feeling to the Muslim when dealing with God as if he were seeing Him before his own eyes in terms of ability, greatness, authority and power, mercy, assistance and generosity. One who feels these divine qualities and other ones in all his conditions, will be whole-heartedly sincere and good in all his acts, behavior, manners, and will not be affected by his materialistic and personal interests and benefits. When Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) was asked by `Uqbah bin Nafi’ about the perfect manners, he said, “O `Uqbah, visit those who refrained from visiting you, be kind to whoever deprived you, and do not harm those who have harmed you.” This kind of honesty makes the self of the Muslim pure, immaculate privately and publicly, whether one is alone or with others, in times of prevention and bounty, in loyalty, and in integrity—indeed, in all matters, small and big, it is a self that believes in God and attached to Him while looking at him all the time. If man’s eye may sleep sometimes, it believes, nevertheless that God’s eye does not sleep and continues to see him, that is perfect worship (ihsan).

Question 47: When did man known faith for the first time? Did people in ancient times believe in almighty God, or were they unbelievers, as anthropologists claim?

Answer 47: Belief in God is deeply rooted in the human nature. It is intrinsic in people. Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said: “Every child is born intrinsically believing in God, but his parents make him a Jew, a Christian or a Magi,” i.e. every newborn is born with spontaneous belief in almighty God and surrendering to him. Islam has its own concept about the beginning of creation and human evolution. The gist is that almighty God created Adam from earth and soul was then blown into him. Next Eve was created from Adam. Then marriage began and people multiplied and populated the earth.

Adam was the first believer. He recognized God’s power and greatness. Therefore, when he sinned, he soon regretted and asked God to pardon him: he prostrated before Him implored for reconciliation and forgiveness. Almighty God said; “They said ‘Our Lord! We have wronged ourselves. If you forgive us not, and bestow not upon us Your Mercy, we shall certainly be of the losers”(Holy Qur’an: 7: 23). Almighty God has already said to them: “And We said; ‘O Adam! Dwell you and your wife in paradise, and eat both of you freely with pleasure and delight, of things therein as wherever you will, but come not near this tree or you both will be of thewrong-doers.’ Then Satan made them slip therefrom (paradise), and got them out from that in which they were. We said: O get you down, all, with enmity between yourselves. On earth will be a dwelling place for you and an enjoyment for a time.” Then Adam received from his Lord Words. And his Lord pardoned him (accepted his repentance). Verily, he is the One Who forgives, the Most Merciful.”

It is clear from the holy verses that Adam was a true believer in God. He lived in Paradise with his spouse, then he sinned because of the insinuations of Satan. But Adam soon repented, and God accepted his repentance. This incident indicates that faith occurred before disobedience, unbelieving and polytheism took place. Prophet Muhammad confirmed this fact by saying: “God created people to be intrinsically believing, but they were deceived by the devils.” This means that devils ornamented polytheism for people and they deviated from the right path.

Question 48: Since no one has able to see God, and since no dead person was resurrected to tell us what happened to him after death, how could we believe in any religion?

Answer 48: This question is based on the material world, where sense becomes the reference to determine the facts of the universe. Fundamentally, this basis is a void one. In this life we believe in many things without being able to see them or feel them tangibly. We do not know for example the essence of the soul, its secrets, and where does it inhabit our bodies? So far this field has been immune to scientists and scientific laboratories, fine radiology and microscopes, which biologists and doctors use. We absolutely believe in the presence of the soul although we do not see it. We also believe in the existence of many other things like magnetism, electric current, air and many other things, which we do not touch physically.

All religions are based on miracles, which God performs on the hands of the prophets. Ordinary human beings cannot perform these miracles. Only prophets could carry out these actions in order to confirm the fact that they are true emissaries of God. All prophets were sent to people and performed miracles in front of them, so that they believed them. These are well-known historical facts.

Prophet Moses (pbuh) performed miracles: his club was transformed into a snake, the sea was split into two parts through a hit with his club, and the bursting of the water from the rock in the form of twelve springs good for drinking.

Prophet Jesus (pbuh) healed the blind and the leprous, and gave life to the dead through God’s will.

Prophet Muhammad also had many miracles including the splitting apart of the moon, the gushing of water from his hands and the night journey from Mecca to Jerusalem and his ascension though the heaven. But the most enduring and challenging miracle revealed through him is the Qur’an.

Belief in almighty God and in the unseen is therefore an intuitive matter, without which life cannot be right; without which the human self does not feel fully contented. People’s lives, both today and land in the past, testify this if only they are truthful about their thoughts, feelings, and ideas.

Question 49: Do people inherit the religion of Islam from their parents?

Answer 49: It has already been stated above that people are born to be intrinsically God believing, i.e. Muslims. Islam regards a child before puberty to be subordinate to his father in terms of religion and belief. Coming of age, he/she becomes responsible and will be held accountable for his/her deeds. This requires him/her to embrace the religion of Islam as a result of conviction, thinking and choice. However, if the child dies before puberty age (15 years) he/she will be considered as one of the escapees from Hell even though his parents are non-believers. This is a prerequisite of the justice of God who says: “… and no burdens shall bear the burden of another” (Holy Qur’an: 6: 164).

Question 50: Is Islam to be imposed on people or do people have to embrace it willingly?

Answer 50: Islam is the religion of God, He knows human self better than human beings themselves. He also knows what is good and what is bad for them. It is to the best interest and righteousness to man of mankind if they follow the right path revealed by God out of conviction, choice, love and desire, so that they could be salvaged. Almighty God made this clear in the holy book: “There is no compulsion in religion. Verily, the right Path has become distinct from the wrong path. Whoever disbelieves in Taghut (false deities) and believes in God, then he has grasped the most trustworthy handhold that will never break. And God is All-Hearer, All-Knower” (Holy Qur’an: 2: 256). It has never occurred in history that Muslims compelled anyone to embrace Islam even when they were at the height of their power.

Question 51: Is it possible that the whole system of this universe has occurred by coincidence?

Answer 51: This can never be the case at all. In fact, no rational person could ever envisage that this world has come into existence without a wise capable and knowing creator. With the least contemplation, a rational person can recognize the invalidity of coincidence in this case. When a person looks at a beautiful building that is architecturally organized, wonderful and firm, foe example, he intuitively believes that someone must have built, organized and planned its plan and designed its foundations, lounges and balconies. When we look at the watch on our wrists, we cannot believe that its first maker found it by coincidence in that shape. So how could we believe that the creation of man to have come by coincidence? And how could this universe which runs according to an absolute accurate system (in terms of night and day, stars, planets and galaxies) how could it have come by pure coincidence? The idea of coincidence is something obsolete and has become outside the rational circle in the world of science and knowledge, and the world of reason and cause.

Question 52: If a person embraces Islam for mere secular benefits, like marriage, can he/she be still be regarded as true Muslim?

Answer 52: Islam is the religion of almighty God. It should be embraced exclusively for His sake. God says: “Surely the religion is for God only” (Holy Qur’an: 39:3). Almighty God does not accept anyone who converts for a particular interest while implying infidelity, his Islam. Prophet Muhammad reported that deeds will be judged by God according to people’s intentions:

“Deeds are rated according to the intentions of the people who carry them out. Each person is to be rewarded according to his/her intention. Anyone who migrates for the sake of God and His prophet, his migration will be to them then, and anyone who migrates for worldly interests, or a woman he wants to marry, his migration will be to what he has migrated to.”

There are, however, some people who embrace Islam for mere personal interests; but after a while, they become committed and truthful in their intention of faith. God will forgive this group of people and grant them salvation.

Muslims are required to deal with anyone who proclaims Islam publicly according to his/her actions and/or deeds. Only God can tell about people’s hearts and motivations. The word Muslims scholars most use in such likely contexts is: “We have to judge the apparent and only God judges the actual.” If this fake Muslim continues to be elusive, then he/she is deceiving the community and God will count him/her among the hypocrites. If the true character of this “hypocrite” is revealed to the community, then he/she will be held responsible and the divine rules of apostasy will apply upon him/her.

Question 53: Is person’s intention sufficient for him/her to be a Muslim or does he/she have to say the two testimonies: that there is no deity but God and that Muhammad is His messenger?

Answer 53: Intention is not sufficient. The two testimonies must be proclaimed, as announcing them is what distinguishes a Muslim from a non-Muslim. It is the proof of honesty and of being convinced of Islam, because it is difficult to know that person is a Muslim if he/she does not claim so? How could a Muslim perform his duties towards other Muslims if he does not know them and they do not know him? However, there are cases when intention becomes sufficient, especially if this person is afraid of being killed in case he/she announces Islam in a fanatic non-Muslim environment. In this case, he/she may practice Islam secretly and say the two testimonies privately until he/she could move to a safer environment and could perform their rituals in public.

Question 54: Is it possible for a convert to say the two testimonies in a language other than Arabic if he/she does not know this language?

Answer 54: Yes, it is possible to say the two testimonies in any language. Arabic is not required at this stage. However, once the convert is able to say the two testimonies in Arabic, it is advisable that he/she does so, in which case other Muslims could be more acquainted with him/her. If he cannot do that, it is not obligatory.

Question 55: Is it obligatory for a sister wanting to embrace Islam to be dictated the two testimonies by a Muslim female or should only a Muslim male achieve this?

Answer 55: Islam is the religion of God, it is an open invitation for everybody to join in. Anyone who says the two testimonies out of truthful intention has entered the gate of Islam. A convert does not have to be dictated how to become a Muslim if he/she knows how to. But in the likely case he/she does not know what to do, instructions become indispensable for mere educational purposes.

A convert is never required to have witnesses testifying his/her Islam. Embracing Islam starts with saying the two testimonies, which are followed by manner and conduct: all rites, like prayer, and fasting must be performed. These acts of worship when are performed well become enough witness for someone’s faith.

When need is required that someone proves his/her Islamic faith, like the cases and matters related to law and religious courts, then witnesses are rendered necessary in this case.

Question 56: What is the meaning of polytheism? And why does Islam reject it?

Answer 56: Polytheism means worshipping something else with God whether this thing is animate like a prophet, a messenger, a leader, a wealthy man, or a prominent person; or inanimate, like a stone, a planet and the like. Islam rejects polytheism altogether. It is regarded as the antithesis of faith, as there are different reasons that prove this, the most important of which are:
1. Anyone who really knows God, through His most beautiful Names, Qualities, Acts and Virtues, will despise having a peer to God.

2. Polytheism does not go with the true nature that God gave to man. A God-believing person feels contented, safe and psychologically settled, while a polytheist experiences an uneasy kind of life. His/her feelings are mostly distracted, and psychology unsettled. The least social study will show the great differences between the Islamic societies and other ones, the reason being the dogmas that direct each of these societies.

3. Polytheism contradicts reason. Rightful minds do not place the creator and created on equal grounds. The same applies to learned and ignorant persons, and the able and disable. When contemplating the world around us, we realize it inevitable that there exists a great, all-knowing and able creator of this universe, and all that it includes, according to a very accurate and meticulous system. Normal minds absolutely believe that this creator must be single and all alone, because if there were more than one deity, conflict and difference would have emerged. If there had been more than one deity, things would have gone wrong, and one of them would have dominated the other.

Question 57: What are the qualities of spirit?

Answer 57: Spirit is God’s most ambiguous and invisible secret. Only Him knows and realizes its everlasting truth and essence. Almighty God relates: “And they ask you (O Muhammad, concerning the spirit; say: ‘the spirit is one of the things, the knowledge of which is only with my Lord. And of knowledge, you (mankind) have been given only a little’.” (Holy Qur’an: 17: 85).

Contemporary scientists have attempted tom make some research on the truth of this secret. They have held conferences for the same purpose. But their conclusion was that the spirit is an unknown secret which mankind has not known its truth yet.

One of the conferences is the one which was held in New York in 1959, when six scientists from different parts of the world met at a round table in an attempt to understand something about the origin and evolution of life on the surface of this earth. The Russian scientist Alexander Obarin, a biochemist in he Soviet Academy of Sciences, and greatly interested in the evolution of life, was among the participants. The end of the conference was no better than its beginning. It did not lead to any findings, but confirmed the fact that the secret of life is unknown, and that there is no hope that science will reach one day.

We believe in the existence of the spirit because of its outstanding effects in a tangible world, which is replete with life and living creatures. The difference between the life of human beings and that of animals is that the life of the animal is instinctive and confined to the world of concrete material of food, drink and desire, while the life of man is distinguished to be above that, as it belongs to a world of values, manners, ideals, virtues and noble feelings, and the life of science, thought, and search for the secrets of the universe and benefiting from them. If human beings try to do without these values, they regresses into the world of animals. This fact is typically portrayed in the Qur’an, God says: “while those who disbelieve enjoy themselves and eat as cattle eat; and the Fire will be their abode” and “And surely, We have created many of the jinn and mankind for Hell. They have hearts wherewith they understand not, and they have eyes wherewith they see not, and they have ears wherewith they hear not (the truth). They are like cattle, nay even more astray; those! They are the heedless ones.” (Holy Qur’an: 7:179)

Question 58: What is the relationship between life, death and the hereafter?

Answer 58: Almighty God is the one who created both life and death to see who is better in terms of deeds. This is the core of the matter “to see who is better in deeds” (Holy Qur’an: 67: 2). God has created this universe and showed the wonders of His capability so that His creatures could really know Him, give Him His due, and observe the system that He designed for them and live according to His decree. The entire universe is bound to show true submission due to God’s supreme power. This worldly life is the experimental setting, God wanted to see on it the obedient and the disobedient, the deviant and the straight, the just and the oppressive, the lost and the guided, the believer and the infidel. This is why God gave man wisdom and freedom, and granted him the authority and ability to choose between good and evil, guidance and aberration. He sent messengers and supported them with miracles in order to warn people and inform them that they should play the role of His vicegerent on earth, and implement His law accordingly.

God has provided man, through His prophets/messengers, with a complete system for life that goes well with his/her mind and nature.

Almighty God has announced to all people that this worldly life is an arena, or a wrestling ring. Reward or punishment is to be delayed to the hereafter, to which all people will go. This worldly life is limited and narrow, and cannot be sufficient for obtaining rights according to God’s criteria. This life is, therefore, a place for work. Death is only a bridge across which human beings move to the eternal life so that each could obtain his/her rights in accordance with fair judgment, which saves nothing, however it is small or big. God said: “So whosoever does good equal to the weight of an atom (or a small ant) shall see it. And whosoever does evil equal to the weight of an atom (or a small ant) shall see it.” (Holy Qur’an: 100: 7-8). A poet expressed his view about the meaning of life by saying: “Death is but a journey from this perishing abode to the eternal one.”

Question 59: Will the other non-human creatures be resurrected beside man?

Answer 59: On the Doom’s Day almighty God will resurrect all living creatures and then will rule justly among them all. He will obtain the right of the oppressed from the oppressor, even the animals. Then He dignifies his honest worshippers by allowing them into Paradise and granting them eternal stay in it. He will punish the infidels and polytheists by forcing them into Hell and granting them eternal stay in it.

What indicates the resurrection of animals on the doom’s day is the prophet’s saying: “(On the doom’s day) everybody will get his/her due, even the hornless goat will be redressed from the one with horns.”

Question 60: Is man by nature sinful?

Answer 60: God created man and granted him an intrinsic nature of belief in the true religion. He provided him with a potential to do good or evil, right or wrong. He gave him talents and abilities, which enable him to do all of that completely at his own free will. God then sent messengers for man’s guidance, to follow the straight path, and warn people of the grave consequences in case they strayed off. With this perception, test and examination become fair, and man eventually may either succeed this test or fail it; hence, gain reward or punishment. If man had been born to be good and infallible only, how does he/she deserve reward then? On the other hand, if people were created to be evil only, how could they deserve punishment for something they themselves did not choose to do?

Question 61: If man dies as a non-Muslim, will he/she eternally stay in paradise or hell?

Answer: 61: God’s true religion is Islam; all previous religions were no more than preparations for this final and eternal religion, Islam. Before the advent of Islam, religions were limited to a certain time and place, and they were deemed to prepare people for the acceptance of the final divine religion embodied in the message of the last and seal of prophets, Muhammad (pbuh). God almighty says: “And whosoever seeks a religion other than Islam it will never be accepted of him, and in the hereafter he will be one of the losers” (Holy Qur’an: 3: 85).

Question 62: What does make man eligible to enter Paradise?

Answer 62: Paradise, in the concept of Islam, is a delightful abode prepared for the believers to enter in the Hereafter. Every true Muslim that dies will ultimately enter paradise. This means that if a Muslim commits sins but who repents before his death, will be granted forgiveness by almighty God. God said: “And He it is who accepts repentance from His slaves, and forgives sins, and He knows that you do” (Holy Qur’an: 42: 25). If, however, a sinful Muslim dies before repenting, it will be up to God, whether He punishes or forgives him/her. Prophet Muhammad reported that no single Muslim would eternally stay in hell, so long as he/she has the slightest amount of faith in his/her heart. The un-committed Muslims in this case will have to be tortured in Hell for a period God knows; then they come out to enter Heaven so that it could be their everlasting abode if God wills. Muslims believe that people would be admitted into paradise not because of their good deeds as much as the mercy of almighty God.

It is reported that prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said: “None of you will enter Paradise owing to his good deeds”. They asked: “Not even you, Messenger of God?” He said: “Not even me, unless God has bestowed mercy and blessing upon me.” However, the prophet confirmed the fact that God does not neglect the good deeds of anyone—the ultimate goal being to encourage Muslims to keep in touch with God, to resort to Him and plead Him. This helps to improve the conduct of Muslims in both their private and public lives.

Question 63: Is the reciting of the Holy Qur’an without understanding its meanings considered to be a kind of worship?

Answer 63: Reciting the Qur’an is indeed some kind of worship. However, there is a big difference between the one who recites it passively, and/or the one who deeply contemplates its meaning while reciting it. God rewards both types, but on varying level. The happy life in the shadows of the Noble Qur’an is difficult to achieve, except for one who contemplates ponder it when he reads or listens to it. The Holy Qur’an, has a great influences on man’s life and can easily change the course of people’s history. It did have its great influence on the prophet’s companions when it was being revealed upon the prophet.

Question 64: What is the wisdom behind each of Islam’s five pillars?

Answer 64: The pillars of Islam are five in number, they are:
1. The testimony that there is no deity except God and that Muhammad is His messenger,
2. Performing prayer,
3. Paying zakat,
4. Fasting the month of Ramadhan, and
5. Performing greater pilgrimage to Mecca for the one who can afford it.

It is on these foundations that Islam is built. The question cited above is too wide to handle in a limited period of time. Besides, it requires a comprehensive knowledge of this religion, its fundamentals and branches. This, however, does not prevent us from mentioning some part of the wisdom of these fundamentals and branches in accordance with God’s will and help.

There is no deity except God and Muhammad is His messenger: This is the testimony of truth and the foundation of Islamic faith, as there is no deity except God to be worshipped, to be surrendered to and resorted to in all times especially in crisis. This is the monotheistic creed, which guarantees tranquility and safety that is homogeneous to human nature. If there were two deities in heaven and earth, they would have been corrupted, and one of would have dominated the other. Muhammad is the messenger of God. He is the guide to God, and the conveyor of His system and rules of life according to which God runs life. The prophet is the one who guides people to their God and acquaints them with the methods of virtuous and happy life.

Through this testimony the sources of slavery to God and the revelation from Him are unified. Beyond it, no man lives a lost or uneasy life. Through this testimony, man becomes able to know where he is going and to whom to surrender. With the testimony man cannot be confused as to the path he is leading in his life. It is drawn clearly as it was shown by the messenger who received revelation from God in the form of a complete and integrated system, which is lenient and easy in terms of perception and conduct, and as a method of public and private life.

Performance of prayer: It is the link between man and God. It implies submission to God and surrendering to Him. It is man’s address to the creator, supplication and request to Him for guidance in this world, which is the footstep to the hereafter. It is expressive of man’s willingness to follow God’s commands and avoid what He prohibits. Prayer is the food for spirit, it plants in the human soul emotions, love for purity, and order. A performance of prayer five times a day refreshes the feelings and purifies the soul every now and then. No sooner than man surrenders to life and its worldly affairs, which distract his/her spirit and overwhelm his/her mind and thought, than prayer is called for. When the prayer is called for, the Muslim promptly stands up to prepare himself/herself for the prayer (by cleaning up and/or making ablution). Then men (it is preferable that women perform their prayers at home) move to the mosque to stand in one respectable row addressing the Lord through reading supplications, invocations, and recitation of the Qur’anic verses. The Muslim’s attention in this context is revived and enlivened, his/her heart and conscience are awakened; and all are to be reflected on his/her personal qualities, manners and dealings with the society surrounding him/her, starting with the family and ending up with the society.

There is a huge difference between the life of a committed Muslim and a non-committed one in terms of hygiene, psychology, personality, society, and even private and public life.

Paying Zakat: Paying zakat in Islam is the basis of social solidarity in the Muslim community. It is the guarantor of the rights of the poor, set to them by God in order to sustain communication and mutual mercy among the various classes of society; and to nourish the feelings of love and cooperation among them. It is also meant to put an end to the incentives of grudge and vanity amongst the believers. Zakat is a symbol of an integrated economic structure in Islam, and a clear indication of the fact that this religion is not merely emotions inside the human self; rather a comprehensive system of life; in addition to being a dogma strong and alive in the human self. Islam is a religion that lives up to people’s demands and concerns, and tries to solve whatever problems Muslims face. As such, it paves the way to respectable and virtuous life; eventually makes everybody happy. By this, zakat is deemed to achieves security and stability to the community.

Fasting the month of Ramadhan: Fasting is abstaining from food, drink, and sexual desire for the from dawn to sunset in accordance with almighty God commandment. There is strength in fasting for both man self and will so that it goes above the captivity of necessities and desire and rises to transcendental horizons, and it implies control and order which should be familiar to Muslims in their lives. Thus he does not become negligent or careless.

Fasting makes Muslims accustomed to fasting at a specific time, to abstain from food and drink and at the same time to break their fast at a specific time. When the month of Ramadhan ends, the Muslims become God’s guests on the occasion of the Feast and he is prohibited from fasting that day after fasting was obligatory the day before. It is order, obedience, and noble education of the magnanimous selves.

Fasting in Islam is deemed to remind the rich and healthy of the concerns of the poor, the sick and the weak. When a wealthy person feels hungry, he/she will mostly remember the needy who might always be hungry. This will make the rich sympathize with them and takes interest in their affairs. Thus, a fasting person may conclude from his fast great spiritual, psychological and social lessons.

Pilgrimage to Mecca: Pilgrimage is also one of the great pillars of worship in Islam. It encourages Muslims to sacrifice their money, and comfort for the sake of God, in order to go above the material, and aspire to the world of values and ideals.

Pilgrimage is a strong link in the structure of Islamic system, which is used to bring up the Muslim society on values, like acquaintance, cooperation and consultation. Let us look at the educational array in this community: Islam legislated congregational prayer, which calls Muslims on a street level to meet five times a day, where they get acquainted with the concerns, pains and situations of each other. Islam legislated a meeting on the village or town level in the form of the Friday prayer, so that a preaching scholar from among them would remind, advice and guide them to the best of their interest. The Friday preacher treats the problems, which may have happened on a week’s term from a conscious Islamic educational perspective so that people leave the mosque after having known and taken a dose of guidance, and knowledge by which they make their way to the future.

Still, Islam legislated a larger meeting on the level of the whole Islamic world every year, i.e. the day of the Greater Pilgrimage to Holy Mecca, that blessed meeting when people are required to abandon their local customs, conventions, dress and languages, and perform universal rituals of the state of consecration, standing in `Arafat, circumambulating the Holy Kaabah, strolling between Safa and Marwa, and uttering devotional calls, standing around the Kaabah in heir prayers seeing one another, and calling altogether most of their time: “Here I am, O my Great God, answering Your call. I am indeed here to do Your bidding. You have no partner. Here I am to do Your bidding. Indeed, praise, bounty, grace and sovereignty are Yours. You have no partner.”

The Islamic world meets in pilgrimage to benefit, and show the power and greatness of Islam in the form of one aim, one power and one unity. They exchange opinion and consultation pertaining to their urgent local and international concerns and problems and conclude useful lessons, wisdom and experience, which lighten their path in life and help them to achieve their purpose and great tasks. Pilgrimage, thus becomes sacrifice, cooperation, consultation, acquaintance with others, order, education, a symbol of unity and power, and many benefits from which each Muslim takes a specific part.

This is a quick reply and an expressive glimpse of wisdom and secrets of the pillars of Islam. What is more important is the taste of sweetness of slavery to almighty God through the scientific implementation of those pillars, while observing Islam sincerely and honestly, oneself and one’s strong keenness to follow the method of the prophet and imitating the guiding prophet (pbuh) in all rules and situations. From the altar of slavery, the lights of guidance rise and the darkness of life vanishes. Almighty God said:
“Is he who was dead (without Faith by ignorance and disbelief) and We gave him life (by knowledge and Faith) and set on him a light (of Belief) whereby he can walk amongst men–like him who is in the darkness (of disbelief, polytheism and hypocrisy) from which he can never come out?” (Holy Qur’an: 6:122)

Question 65: Can a Muslim consider his failure in life as a kind of test by almighty God?

Answer 65: Failure in one’s life may have different reasons:
1. Failure to understand the rules of life and failure to recognize the law of causality and its effects on the results. Islam demands action and taking one’s way in life to search for rules, earning one’s living, and desiring God’s graces. Anyone who does not act and does not acquire anything but surrender to despair and gloom, and wait for the goodness and Godspeed to come to him effortlessly must be violating the command of almighty God and the teachings of Islam. God says: “… so walk in the path thereof and eat of His provision. And to Him will be the Resurrection” (Holy Qur’an: 67:15)

2. The reason for one’s failure in life might be due to a punishment by God for his evil acts and intentions. Success in life is a blessing from God that might be denied to certain people. For instance, one who does not cooperate with people, help those in adversity, give a hand to the weak, relieve those having difficulties, and does not meet the needs of the paupers, such a person, if he/she has a problem or suffers from some difficult circumstances and God does not save him from his/her agony and gloom, he has to know that reward is the same as the act, and prophet Muhammad says: “Anyone who helps one in difficulty, God will help him in this life and in the hereafter, and almighty God said: “As for him who gives (in charity) and keeps his duty to God and fears Him, And believes in al-Husna, We will make smooth for him the path of ease (goodness). But who is greedy miser and thinks himself self-sufficient. And belies Al-Husna, We will make smooth for him the path for evil.” (Holy Qur’an: 92:5-10) and said also: “But the evil plot encompasses only him who makes it.” (Holy Qur’an: 35:43)

3. The visitation could be from God to his slaves in order to test their patience and faith. Surely, there might not be any lack of understanding of the divine rules which run life, and man might not be remiss in his/her action, and he/she might not have an evil intention towards others, yet he/she finds obstacles in the path of his life. In this way, the visitation is from God to probe the extent of the faith of the one inflicted, the extent of his strong belief and his adherence to principles. Almighty God said: “…and we shall make a trial of you with evil and with good. And to us you will be returned” (Holy Qur’an: 21:35). When a true believer inflicted he/she is patient, satisfied, contented, not feeling sorry for what he misses from the joys of life because his hopes will be much concentrated on the God’s reward in the hereafter. Prophet Muhammad says: “The case of the believer is fascinating, all of his situations are good for him; if he is granted provision he thanks God, which is good for him; and if he is inflicted with adversity, he is patient, and that is good for him too. That is not meant for anyone but the believer.”

Question 66: If there is no celibacy in Islam, why do the Sufi groups exist?

Answer 66: Truly, in Islam, there is no celibacy, that is, to abstain from marriage and prevent oneself from legal desires and pleasures. Islam has replaced this term with what goes along with its rules, as Prophet Muhammad said: “Jihad (holy war) is the celibacy of Islam.” Some people understood the meaning of celibacy to be abstaining from life and having a passive stance towards it. Islam considers jihad in the path of God to spread the religion of God and defend the truth that God has revealed as celibacy of Muslims. It is the Islamic positivety versus negativity of others.

It is a fact that many Sufi groups exist in the Islamic world. These groups originally emerged as a reaction against the kind of luxurious life certain Islamic societies were enjoying. This motivated them to adopt the call for asceticism and reduce the interest in life at the expense of the hereafter and the necessity to keep away from all that drives the attention from almighty God. None of these groups did really call for celibacy; if they had done, their action would undoubtedly be sinful. Islam renders enjoying good things legal; it prohibits abominations and calls for marriage. It even made marriage and reproduction desirable so that the nation would increase in number, and goodness increases alongside it. Those are taken-for-granted matters, which all people know and do not need a proof or evidence for. This is how the story of Sufism began, and in the course of time and as a result of ignorance in religion and having little or no contacts with scholars, deviation and extremism spread among many of these groups. By the time they became, however, at complete distance from the guidance of Islam, its orthodox teachings and rules. In order to achieve all goodness Muslims should commit themselves to the guidance of the Noble Qur’an, the path of the prophetic traditions, as they contain all that makes one do without the thought and understanding of people.

Question 67: How can you interpret the contradiction between a Muslim’s acts (like prayer, fasting, pilgrimage) and his/her daily behavior and manner, especially when dealing with people?

Answer 67: It goes without saying that Islam should guide the Muslim in both his/her private and public life. The purpose of prayer is to proscribe adultery and evil, as almighty God said: “Verily, the prayer prevents from great sins of every kind, and every kind of evil wicked deed” (Holy Qur’an: 29:45). This should be the norm, but, often, we do not find the proper effect of prayer and the other forms of worship on a good number of people. It seems that a great deal of them are not sincere and in their worship and do not take their prayers seriously. They lack the education and enlightenment that help them perform their rituals perfectly. It is only when these people take their religious affairs more carefully, honestly, and faithfully that their worshipping rituals will have its true effect on their lives; consequently, end any likely contradiction between their worships and daily interactions with the society.

Chapter 2:

Matterss of Physical and Moral Cleanness

Question 68: When is a person considered to be pure from the Islamic point of view?

Answer 68: Purity in Islam has two meanings: moral and physical. Moral purity is embodied in the belief in almighty God only and not believing in another deity besides Him. It also involves belief in God’s messengers/prophets, in His books, in the hereafter and the prerequisites of faith. What is also involved here is the cleanliness of the heart from grudge, from vanity, from hypocrisy, from pride and jealousy; and the acquisition of all virtues so that one may aspire above any immoral act or sinful custom.

As to the physical purity (hygiene and cleanliness), this can be of two kinds for man:
1. Purity or purification from major hadath (for men and women after a sexual intercourse; for women, after the menstruation period) by bathing. And purity from a minor hadath (after sleep and in case something comes out from the human body, whether material or immaterial) by ablution. All of that has a great deal of details, but they have no place here to discuss.

2. Cleanliness from impurities: one should keep away from all forms of impurities in terms of body, and clothes, and should remove any likely traces of such things as blood, urine, excrescence, wine, etc. If man’s heart is clear from polytheism, and endowed with moral virtues; and if man abstains from bad manners and cleans his body from impurities and dirt, he/she will be completely pure in the view of Islam.

Question 69: What is the relationship between the purity of the soul and that of the body?

Answer 69: Islam insists on purity (which of course include cleanliness and hygiene), as it accounts for half of the religion. Almighty God said: “Truly, God loves those who turn unto Him in repentance and loves those who purify themselves (by taking a bath and cleaning and washing thoroughly their private parts, bodies, for their prayers)” (Holy Qur’an 1: 222). Prophet Muhammad: “Cleanliness constitutes half man’s faith.” He also said: “God is gracious and loves graciousness, He is Pure and loves purity and.”

Purity, as such is values and beauty. But cleanliness of the soul and the heart from moral abominations is more important than the cleanliness of the body from material dirt and impurities. Islam insists on purity in general and the purity of the soul and the heart in particular. Anyone whose heart is pure and clean, his/her appearance is bound to be so, and vice-versa. This is the basis and the principle upon which the Islamic values are based. If this principle is missing in people’s lives, they will never know cleanliness, neither spiritually nor physically. The manifestations of physical cleanliness, which non-Muslims seem to enjoy, are not more than a deceptive appearance from afar. If one approaches any of them, he/she would mostly likely sense a disgusting smell coming out of them. This is not to mention purity of their soul and heart, which has no place in those who do not really believe in God. The least contemplation of the situation of the non-Islamic societies would give us so much evidence and proof.

Question 70: When a person embraces Islam, is it obligatory upon him/her to have a bath or shower?

Answer 70: Bathing or taking a shower for those who embrace Islam is a divine requirement. It is required and strongly recommended both physically and morally. What a beautiful beginning for one who embraces this religion, after saying the testimony, with the intention of starting a new period in his life based on physical and moral cleanliness. Also, it could be possible that the one who has embraced Islam has had a sexual intercourse with his wife. This, as such, confirms bathing and it becomes obligatory, as it is seen by the majority of scholars. The purpose of this bathing is the emphasis of the cleanliness.

Question 71: When a person embraces Islam, will ablution suffice for a bath, or is a bath obligatory?

Answer 71: Ablution does not exempt one who has embraced Islam from having a bath.

Question 72: If a person wants to embrace Islam and does not find water, what can he do?

Answer 72: Absence of water does not prevent one from embracing Islam. He embraces Islam and says the testimony: “There is no deity by God, and Muhammad is His Messenger”, then he/she can bathe when water becomes available.

Question 73: Is removing hair for one wanting to embrace Islam obligatory? And is that a part of purity and/or cleanliness?

Answer 73: The question about hair here is a vague one, for it does not specify which hair should be removed. However, if it refers to the hair of the head, it is not required to be removed, as it is not considered part of cleanliness to remove it. However, prophet Muhammad (pbuh) related: “Any man who has long hair, should honor it”, i.e. keep it clean and tidy. As to the moustaches and the beard, Islam shows their rule in the saying of the prophet: “Trim the moustaches and leave the beards.” So Muslims are required by this hadith to cut the hair of the moustache so that the edge of the upper lip could be seen; and to leave without shaving it, because it is an emblem of Islam and a sign of manhood.

As to the hair of the armpit and pubic hair (round the private parts) it is recommended to be removed whenever it gets long, but it should not be left for more than forty days. This as well as other things, like trimming the fingernails, is the natural signs according to which God created people.

Question 74: Can a convert wear garments he/she used to put on before his/her conversion while these clothes still have some of his/her sweat on the same clothes?

Answer 74: Sweat is not considered to be an impurity. If these clothes were known to have some impurity on them, like urine, it would suffice to wash them before wearing them again.

Question 75: Is not it self-contradictory in Islam when it urges its followers to be clean and to use water before prayer for cleanliness, and then requires them to use earth when water is not available?

Answer 75: There is no contradiction whatsoever between Islam’s legislative system and any of its rules. As mentioned above, Purity and/or cleanliness is a fundamental requirement in Islam. Using clean earth (or sand) in Islam does not contradict hygiene. The whole process can be summarized as follows: a Muslim can tap the earth with one’s hands without carrying anything, then rubbing the face with his hands. It is a symbolic meaning of the moral cleanliness, which should precede prayer when water is not available to be used in ablution, or when one is unable to use water for some reason, like illness. Observing almighty God’s commands and obeying Him in every matter is the deeper aim of washing one’s face with earth, though it is not regarded as a real cleaning material as much as a symbol of worship and compliance with God’s commands in the establishment of prayer and getting ready for it.

Question 76: In matters related to bathing, why do Muslims waste large amounts of water for bathing, while it might be possible to wash the private parts only, like an apple falling from a bag, it is enough to wash it in isolation of the other apples in the bag.

Answer 76: This sound to be a naïve question and far removed from truth. It is not rational to compare the refined human being (with all his/her qualities, feelings, emotions, texture, cells, nerves, etc.) to a bag of apples! I do not think that it is feasible to compare the sexual intercourse, in which the whole human being interacts and from which the extraction of man’s blood and genes comes, to an apple falling from a bag. This operation may cause a psychological change and form a new creature that has both its development and intricate living world. Islam requires bathing, because it is a rule of the all-knowing God, blessed by the Lord, the Best of Creators.

Question 77: What is Islam’s position regarding women’s circumcision? Isn’t it a savage act and a loss of dignity and abuse of their sexual rights?

Answer 77: Circumcision of women is legal if not desirable in Islam, depending on the state of the woman and her environment. In some countries with hot climate, woman circumcision might become a necessity for a perfect conjugal life with her husband. What harm or bestiality happens to the woman if she is circumcised? There is no difference between the circumcision of a male and that of a female. It is an extra piece of flesh in the body of a little child, which can carefully be removed and for the sake f purity, beauty; which verify the aspects of manhood in the circumcised little boy and the qualities of womanhood in the little girl. We see no wrong with it, and there is no loss whatsoever in dignity.

Question 78: Are Muslims allowed to eat from the food and/or slaughtered animals of the People of the Scripture (Christians and Jews)?

Answer 78: Muslims can at any time eat from the food and/or the slaughtered animals of the people of the book. Almighty God says: “The food (slaughtered cattle, eatable animals) of the People of the Scripture is lawful to you and yours is lawful to them” (Holy Qur’an: 5:5). This testifies the ease of Islam and its tolerance in dealing with non-Muslims, so that they come closer to Muslim and cohabit with them peacefully. This is the beginning of the way to understand Islam closely through action and behavior, not through speech and pretension only.

Chapter 3:

Matters Relating to Prayer

Question 79: Is it all right for a Muslim to say his/hers prayer in a languages other than Arabic? Can he/she read surah al-fatiha (the opening chapter of the Qur’an) and any other (short) surah in a different language than Arabic? Also, is it obligatory to supplicate and revere God in Arabic only?

Answer 79: Saying one’s prayer cannot not be considered acceptable unless it is read in Arabic. Every non-Arab Muslim should learn some Arabic so that he/she could at least perform his obligatory religious rituals. Arabic is the language of the Qur’an and Islam. However, it is possible only temporarily to read the meaning of the surat al-fatiha in another language (other than Arabic) until the person has learnt to read it in Arabic. It should be emphasized at the same time that learning to read Arabic is easy, especially the Noble Qur’an. Almighty God says: “And We have indeed made the Qur’an easy to understand and remember; then is there an one who will remember (or receive admonition)?” (Holy Qur’an: 54: 17).

As to supplication and glorification in languages other than Arabic it is lawful, though it is preferable to be performed in the language of the Qur’an itself.

Question 80: What is the divine rule regarding a non-committed Muslim who does not perform his/her prayer, not out of denial, but negligence? Is he/she considered to be an infidel?

Answer 80: Prayer is one of the basic pillars of Islam, if not the most important one. It comes second to the declaration of faith (the two testimonies). It is the pillar, which distinguishes the Muslim from the infidel. It is usually the last thing that Muslims maintain from Islam. Any Muslim who abandons it becomes so close to infidelity, if not considered an infidel indeed. Some scholars believe that when a Muslim neglects prayer because of laziness, he/she becomes an infidel. Others regard it as sinful and very close to infidelity, so long as this lazy Muslim recognizes it and believes it is obligation.

Question 81: Is the prayer performed when one is absent-minded or busy about worldly affairs considered to be invalid?

Answer 81: Prayer is not considered invalid when one is absent-minded or busy, but the worshipper will not obtain the reward of this prayer. Full reward cannot be achieved except through humble and content prayer.

Question 82: Does it suffice a Muslim to perform his/her prayer only verbally? Are the physical movements (of bowing, prostrating, etc.) integrated in the prayer itself?

Answer 82: Prayer is worshipping God, and it is made in a particular manner which Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) taught us. Almighty God instructed the prophet to perform it this manner through the revelation of angel Gabriel. The prophet (pbuh) said: “Pray in the manner you saw me doing.” Following the prophet’s tradition is an Islamic obligation, whether we realize the purpose of some of his deeds or not. However, when we do not fully comprehend the purpose and surrender to God’s commands, that is a kind of belief in the unseen and a testimony to the belief in God—although we can never see Him.

Question 83: Is it permissible for a Muslim to pray in a church if he/she does not have time or could not find a more appropriate place?

Answer 83: Praying in a church is undesirable because it is a place for non-Muslims. A Muslim can perform his/her prayer in any other place on earth, so long as it is clean pure. The prophet says that whole of the globe has been made a place for worshipping. A Muslims who does not have enough time to pray while he is in a church for some reason could go out and pray nearby the church, in the street, or in any other clean place. However, prayer in a clean church for a Muslim can still be valid though it may not be favourable.

Question 84: What is the divine rule concerning the convert’s past obligatory prayers, which he had missed before conversion? She he/she perform them all?

Answer 84: Islam is a religion of tolerance. “It nullifies everything before it,” as related by Prophet Muhammad (pbuh). Accordingly, a person who has embraced Islam is not required to compensate for any Islamic obligations before embracing Islam.

Question 85: Is the prayer of someone who has converted but not yet circumcised, acceptable?

Answer 85: The prayer of one who has embraced Islam and has not been circumcised is acceptable if he insures that he cleans the circumcision location properly, i.e. if he is sure that he has cleaned the inner part of the piece to be cut in circumcision, and he has to do circumcision as soon as possible, for it is one of the requirement of Islam.

Chapter 4:

Matters Relating to Zakat

Question 86: If a Muslim struggles hard in order to achieve his own wealth, why should he/she give a certain amount of this wealth in the form of zakat? Is not all the money his/hers? Cannot God give the poor money?

Answer 86: Islam has its own comprehensive educational system which takes care of both the individual and the society at the same time. It maintains balance in rights and duties, chastens and purifies the soul from greed and miserliness, and makes man feel that he/she is an integral part of the society. Islam preaches that there is no complete happiness unless all are happy; a well known Muslim poet says: “No clouds should ever rain on me or on my land/ Unless it rains all over the place.” Islam has established a society based on cooperation, solidarity, reciprocal connection, mercy, love, benevolence and altruism. A true Muslim’s conscience suffers and gets tormented if people around him are under distress or hardship. A Muslim, who has been endowed, by God, with health and strength to collect money, is supposed to give thanks to his Lord for His gifts. The best way for a Muslim to give thanks is to help brethrens in Islam who need help, to give the deprived and poor from what God has given him. Love and intimacy as such would be established and maintained between the poor and the rich. In this way, society would feel better; and the spirit of cooperation and harmony would prevail among the members of the same community. Besides, the one who is poor and frugal might become rich one day, and vice versa; he who gives today might be in need in the future. Every right has one duty against it, and vice versa.

If we look at the modern advanced societies, we find them imposing different systems of social security, collecting taxes, and trying all the time to protect these systems by the force of law. Islam legislated the system of zakat, which is fundamentally is a test, in order to achieve solidarity for the sake of brotherhood, love, and goodwill. However, the rebellion of some people against this system obliges the Islamic state to take zakat from them by force so that the right of the society continues to be maintained before the right of individuals, so that happiness can prevail. Almighty God relates: “Help you one another in al-Birr and al-Taqwa (virtue, righteousness and piety); but do not help one another in sin and transgression” (Holy Qur’an: 5: 2) and prophet Muhammad related: “He is not a believer in me that who sleeps full at home while his neighbor beside him is hungry and he knows about him.”

It is in this way that Islam brought people up so that society could be a civilized one. History has not witnessed a similar example. Islam still has the aptitude to form such society based on these values and high ideals if it has the enlightened and conscious leadership and if people are enjoying an atmosphere of freedom and dignity.

Question 87: Is it permissible for a convert to give zakat to non-Muslim relatives for reconciliation so that they may embrace Islam?

Answer 87: Yes, it is possible to give zakat to relatives for reconciliation so that they may embrace Islam. In fact they are entitled to get such zakat. Almighty God says: “As-sadaqat (here it means zakat) are only for the poor, and to the needy (but do no beg) and those employed to collect (the funds), and to attract the hearts of those who have been inclined (towards Islam)” (Holy Qur’an: 9: 60). Though non-Muslims, these people must be given from the money of zakat so that they may, hopefully, embrace Islam. Many people have embraced Islam out of their desire to get money, but later they became interested in the religion and became good Muslims.

Question 88: Out of the eight ways of spending zakat comes “and those who are in the path of God.” Does this include sponsoring Islamic promulgators and buying books for free distribution?

Answer 88: Zakat should go to those specified by almighty God in the Qur’an. According to the majority of scholars, the type mentioned above, in the path God, means jihad (holy war) against the enemies of God. As to those who have devoted their time for Islamic call and have nothing to earn their living from, they are entitled to the zakat money. As to buying books and distributing them free, if the books are useful to those who are going to receive them, especially in the field of religion, and they were among those entitled to zakat money, there is no objection to this. Generally speaking, distributing books to the poor and to the needy, it is one of the most useful deeds which bring the Muslim closer to God and it is the most important kind of the ways to spread the Islamic call, but this should not come from the zakat money. The charitable people should assign an amount of money as alms for this kind of activity.
Chapter 5:

Matters Relating to Fasting

Question 89: Can not the fasting of Ramadhan be regarded as a kind of starving, self-torment and physical infliction when Muslims deprive themselves from food and drink for many hours every day and for a duration of a month? Why do not they fast as others (Jews and Christians) do?

Answer 89: Fasting in Islam–like every other ritual–invokes admiration of this religion and of its educational method in life. Islam is not a religion based on the satisfaction of emotions or benumbing of feelings. Also, it is not a religion which follows the inclinations of people or pleads them to meet around it like foam. It is a heavenly religion which came to build up the good man who qualifies for becoming of God’s vicegerent on earth, multiply in number, and establish both truth and justice. Great tasks like these require strong will and patience on the burden of life and its oddities. Nothing like fasting could sharpen the will. When a man feels hungry, out of his/her own will, at a time when nothing could prevent him/her from food; when man chooses to abstain from food and drink until a specific time, his/her will becomes subordinate to the mind and thought. As such a Muslim becomes able to abstain from things on the occasion of abstaining and moves forward in the location of action, and does and leave what he/she thinks right after thinking and contemplation, away from emotions and quick excitement, and respond to ideas and various obsessions. Fasting is also a kind of education of the rich and the well-to-do to taste the meaning of need and the sting of hunger which the poor always suffer from. When those feel as the others do, cooperation, solidarity and mercy prevail among the individuals of all society, but when fasting is merely superficial, as the followers of some other religions do, this does not go with the comprehensiveness of Islam and its distinction. This religion is characterized by its own rules and distinction of thoughts from other creeds so that what is good is known to be different from the bad. Scum always goes in vain, and what avails the people stays in the land.

Question 90: Islam is a religion of ease. What did God in his Almighty enjoins such a difficult task as fasting on the Muslim, especially those who live in hot areas?

Answer 90: There is no hardship in Islam and God does not charge man to do more than he/she could. Any obligation in Islam that is too difficult for man and may cause him too much difficulty will not continue to be an obligation. On the one hand, anyone who cannot fast may not do so provided that he/she compensate for not fasting by feeding a needy person for each day he/she did not fast. On the other hand, Islam is a heavenly religion with a great heavenly message which intends to build a nation, establish a civilization, and take care of society by defending its rights, and achieving a great role on the international level. Such a religion should in the first place prepare its followers to endure difficulties and hardships so that they could be qualified to build nations and develop civilizations. May God bless the soul of that who said: “If the souls are great the bodies will be tired because of their will.”

Desiring comfort and living in slackness, dullness and laziness are the qualities of one who is impatient, the kind of people who are not expected to be good to themselves or to others. Has ever a nation risen in history and was important while it was sitting dull, neither struggling nor getting tired or exhausted? Could such people know the taste of real comfort, unless they were exhausted because of work? Could people feel the pleasure of recovery without knowing the meaning of disease? Could people know the taste of freedom without suffering the agony of suppression?

By contemplating these great meanings, we realize that the obligation of fasting is a heavenly educational one and the difficulty in it may be intentional and deliberate, otherwise it would not achieve the desired aim in the formation of the nation and its preparation for grand tasks.

Question 91: How could a Muslim fast while living in a country where the sun does not set most of the hours of the day, as in the Scandinavian countries for instance?

Answer 91: Fasting is a kind of worship. It is a way of getting accustomed to patience and developing a serious will; and a Muslim has to be as strong as possible in terms of religion, will and body. The Muslims of such cold countries as the Scandinavian, where the sun does not set most of the hours of the day, should fast and be patient until the sun sets even though the day is much longer than the night. If someone, due to a certain defect or illness, feels unable to endure fasting for such a long time, he/she can choose not to fast but must make up for that when he/she becomes able to do so. Otherwise, if there is no possibility that the Muslim would be able to fast, then he has to compensate in terms of feeding a needy Muslim by providing him/her with average food, which he often offers to his family, for lunch or dinner for everyday he did not fast.

Chapter 6:

Matters Relating to Pilgrimage

Question 92: How does Islam command its followers to kiss a stone in Makka with the aim of getting closer to God? Why should Muslims circumambulate a stone building, or stand on a mount of stones and rocks while, in the meantime, it ordains its followers to keep from statues and idols which are made of stone. Is not that self-contradictory?

Answer 92: The acts of pilgrimage, such as circumambulate the Holy Kabah, kissing the stone, and standing on a mount of Arafaat are not considered in any way to be a statue worship, which is strongly prohibited in Islam. The case of worshipping idols implies intention and a heart attached to these solid stones with the belief that these statues have power and can affect man’s life. Such beliefs are regarded by Islam as a matter of mental setback, for how could an inanimate object a living creature?

The whole rituals of pilgrimage represent complete obedience to God, which God Himself requested from man. Whether one can realize the secrets behind these rituals or not, a Muslim should follow the commands of God so long as He commands us to do so. God is All-Knowing and All-Wise, and He commands His slaves to do only what is beneficial and good to them.

The pilgrimage rituals imply great educational intentions, which have their effect on the life of the Islamic nation. They are the landmarks around which Muslims from all over the world meet, stand and move in the same direction. Circumambulating the Kaabah together in the same direction while all are clad in white, and repeating the same call is a real submission to God Will. All this reminds Muslims of their emotional, intellectual and dogmatic unity and the unity of their orientation towards great matters in life and the unity of their path and destiny.

It also reminds them of equality in rights and duties; people are equal, no one is unimportant or important, there is neither ruler nor ruled, neither a prince nor a commoner, and no one is distinguished from others in dress, circumambulating, standing or in any related ritual. Great must be the effect of pilgrimage on the rich and the famous when they are considered to be equal to the poor and the needy. Their pride is bound to be lessened—something which makes them feel the life of simplicity, deprivation and exhaustion; consequently they would reconsider the nature of their social relationship with the public.

Pilgrimage also has educational effects, when languages, colors and localities of the Islamic world meet and live together for a few days every year with the unity of feelings, language, behavior and intentions.

Now, could any rational person think that the pilgrimage rituals and acts are like the rituals of humbleness before an idol made of stone which cannot cause any harm or good to itself or to others?.

Question 93: What is the idea behind circumambulating the Kaabah? Do Muslim worship the this building?

Answer 93: Muslims worship God only and do not worship anything else besides Him. Circumambulating the Holy Kaabah is not a ritual of worshipping the stone building in itself. Rather, it is a symbol of total submission to God’s commands; around which the Muslims’ words and intentions unite, and on which their opinions unit. Despite all the differences in their colours, languages, countries, all Muslims meet around the Kaabah, which makes them feel their greatness, strength and unity, as mentioned before. On the other hand, there is a variety of worship thorough which the Muslims get closer to almighty God, the physical reason behind which is not known for sure; rather they are the emblem of yielding to That Great God Whom Muslims knew as enjoying strength, greatness, mercy and perfection. Muslims love God and believed in Him. One of the effects of that love is the haste a Muslim shows to carry out His command without knowing its effects. The obvious aim is their trust in God, and the desire to obtain the reward both here and hereafter

The matter of worship whose desired effect in particular is not known to Muslims is a kind of spiritual food them, so that their soul can be balanced and their nature be settled, as man is made from body, mind and spirit. The body is physical and has its material and concrete food, and the mind is the container of science and knowledge and has its food in Islam, as God opened before him the horizons of the universe and life and urged him to research and probe the depths of the universe and benefit from it. Also, God praised the mind and appreciated it so much in order to give it a confidence, testimony, and a value which helps him to achieve his tasks in life. As for the spirit, it is that transparent unknown being whose nature and essence has not been recognized yet. As to the spirit, God made its food from worships, and particular supplications, which provide for this basic element in man its growth, balance and coordination with the body and mind so that man could become complete, good and straight.

Chapter 7:

Family and Women Affairs

Question 94: Why did Islam limit the number of wives to four? And why does it confine man’s sexual pleasure to marriage commitments, home and tasks?

Answer 94: Islam limited the number of wives to four as the maximum number for a variety of reasons. On the one hand nature and reality have proved the righteousness of this rule, especially when we take into account the rising percentage of women compared to that of men. On the other hand men are more exposed than women to dangers and mortality like wars and perilous jobs. If man’s marriage is limited to one woman only, a number of women will be deprived from the bliss of marriage which is an instinctive demand in all human beings; which provides shelter, intimacy and marital life for every member of the family. When allowing man to marry more than one wife Islam does not make the case obligatory, but rather something lawful. As a matter of fact, Islam encourages marrying only one wife for those men who do not have the ability to be fair amongst their wives. It proscribes its male followers to marry more than one if they cannot fulfill marital duties equally well among the wives. Almighty God says: “…then marry (other women of your choice, two or three, or four; but if you fear that you shall not be able to deal justly (with them), then only one…” (Holy Qur’an: 3: 3). However, the percentage of those who marry more than one wife is limited, as most men limit themselves to one wife. The percentage is lesser among those who marry three or four women.

Islam prohibits intercourse between man and woman outside wedlock as this cause harm on to both the individual and on society. It causes many diseases, it leads to loss of lineage and it brings about the destruction of the family, which is the nucleus of any society.

It remains to say in this context that it is difficult to find a man or a woman in the western societies not having one or concubines. This is something that often happens at the expense of the family and its structure. It is strange how developed people would justify having concubines but not wives!

Question 95: Why does Islam allow polygamy for men but not polyandry for women? Where is justice here?

Answer 95: Only those who regard marriage as purely sexual relationship propagate this point of view. They ask: “Why cannot a woman have the same right as men, of marrying more than one man? The answer can be as follows: if a woman marries more than one man, the lineage will be lost, as the woman is responsible for pregnancy. If land is not good for planting more than one kind of plant at the same time, how could a woman be good for planting more than one kind of semen at the same time? Science has proved that out of millions of sperms, only one is able to fertilize the egg. If the relationship of the woman is with one man within marriage, we know for sure that this fertilization has come from her single husband, not anybody else, even though the sperms are millions, but if the woman is married to more than one man, how could we know whose sperm it was that fertilized the egg of the woman; eventually, to whom should the child belong? And which of these husbands will be responsible for this family? Is it then justifiable that for the sake of equality with man in polygamy the lineage of children will be lost?

Naturally speaking, the majority of women reach the age of menopause early. The age of menopause ranges between 40 and 50. As to men, their potency continues until very late, on the one hand, and some women do not desire their husbands, which causes them sexual frigidity, which is much more common in women than in men. Women have their menstruation and confinement periods, and some of them have long menstruation periods. This prevents men from having sexual intercourse with them.

Question 96: Why is it not lawful for man to have sex with his wife when she is having her menstrual period?

Answer 96: What is forbidden during the menstrual period is the vaginal sexual intercourse only. All other forms of sexual pleasure are lawful, as almighty God said:
“They ask you concerning menstruation. Say: that is an adha (a harmful thing for a husband to have a sexual intercourse with his wife while she is having her menses), therefore keep away from women during menses and go not unto them till they are purified (from menses and have taken a bath). And when they have purified themselves, then go in unto them as God has ordained for you (go in unto them in any manner as long as it is in their vagina). Truly God loves those who turn unto Him in repentance and loves those who purify themselves (by taking a bath and cleaning, and washing thoroughly their private parts, bodies, for their prayers) (Holy Qur’an: 1:222).

Almighty God commands men to keep away from women during their menstrual period, that is, not to have vaginal sexual intercourse in the vagina. intercourse in the vagina during menstruation has been proved medically harmful. In fact it comprises every kind of harm, as straight natures hate mixing with impurities. Judaism prohibited cohabiting with the woman during her menstruation, eating with her, and having sexual intercourse with her. Islam is a medial religion, it allows men and women to enjoy each others in any way except sexual intercourse.

Question 97: Does Islam encourage marriages arranged by the parents without prior consent from the son or the daughter?

Answer 97: Islam does not encourage arranged marriages without the consent of the son or the daughter, even though the guardian is the father, which is clear in what Prophet Muhammad said:
“A widow is not married until she gives her consent, and a virgin is not married until she gives her permission.’ They asked, “O, Messenger of God, how can she give her permission?” He said, “By keeping silent.” And in other words “A widow has more right than her guardian to give her consent, and a virgin is asked and her permission is her silence.”

Khansa’ Bint Huzam related that her father married her off when she was a widow. She, therefore, came to the prophet (pbuh) to complain about it. The prophet annulled her marriage. It was also related that the a virgin maid came to the messenger of God and told him that her father had married her off by force, and the prophet gave her the choice to stay with her husband or to leave him.”

It was related too that a girl came to the messenger of God and told him: “My father married me off to his nephew for reputation;” whereupon the prophet gave her the choice to stay with her husband or to leave him. She said: “I have accepted what my father had done, but I wanted to tell the women that a father does not have the right to do so.” These traditions and many others confirm that Islam does not allow a father or a guardian to marry his daughter or sister off except when she gives her full consent. And in the likely case she is forced to marry out of her consent, she can file a case to the court or to the authorities, which have the right to nullify the marriage.

Question 98: Why does not Islam allow a Muslim woman to marry a Jew or a Christian at the time it allows the Muslim man to marry a Jewess or a Christian woman? Also why does not Islam allow Muslim men to marry other women than Jews or Christians (People of the Scripture)?

Answer 98: Islam allows Muslim men to marry Jewish or Christian women. This is a clear indication of the extent to which it tolerates and honours the followers of these two heavenly religions. It deals with them in a special way which does not apply to the followers of other religions, in terms of eating from their food and marrying women from them. In all religions, the guardianship is in the hand of the man. In this case if a Jew or a Christian man marries a Muslim woman, he might deal arbitrarily with her and use his right to force her (and their children if any) to abandon Islam. But for this, Islam might have allowed equal treatment in marriage, like equal treatment in food. Almighty God says:
“Made lawful to you this day are at-tayyibat [all kinds of halal (lawful) food, which God had made lawful (meat of slaughtered eatable animals, milk products, fats, vegetables and fruits). The food (slaughtered cattle, eatable animals) of the people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians) is lawful to you and yours is lawful to them. (Lawful to you in marriage) are chaste women from the believers and chaste women from those who were given the Scriptures (Jews and Christians) before your time when you have given their due mahr (bridal-money given by the husband to his wife at the time of marriage), desiring chastity (i.e. taking them in legal wedlock) not committing illegal sexual intercourse, nor taking them as girl-friends. And whosoever disbelieves in Faith [i.e. in the Oneness of God and in all the other Articles of Faith, i.e. His (God’s) Angles, His Holy Books, His Messengers, the Day of Resurrection and al-Qadar (Divine Preordainments)], then fruitless is his work; and in the hereafter he will be among the losers” (Holy Qur’an: 3:5)

Islam gives equal treatment to the chaste Christian or Jewish woman as one as the Muslim women in terms of wage (dowry), prohibition of unlawful sexual intercourse, or making them concubines: it allows them to keep their religion while they are wives to Muslim men. As to marriage of non-Muslim men to Muslim women, it is prohibited for particular reasons:

1. Man has the authority and guardianship on his wife, in which likely case he might affect her behavior, conduct, thought and beliefs.

2. In terms of equal treatment, Christianity and Judaism do not allow the marriage of Christian or Jewish woman to marry a Muslim man.

3. In order to prevent the authority of non-Muslims over Muslims, almighty God said: “And never will God grant to the disbeliveers a way (to triumph) over the believers” (Holy Qur’an: 4: 141).

Question 99: Why can a Muslim divorce his wife any time likes, while a woman is not allowed to do so except after long and inconvenient procedures?

Answer 99: Islam does not allow man to divorce his wife arbitrarily and unjustly. If he does so that means he has not maintained his responsibility efficiently. Islam legislated several measures which a man should adhere to before he can take the decision to divorce his wife. These include:
1. advising her,
2. desertion her in bed,
3. beating her harmlessly,
4. arbitration, i.e. asking (any of her and/or his relations) for intervention,
5. first divorce (revocable),
6. second divorce (revocable),
7. third (or final) divorce (irrevocable).

Almighty God said: “As to those women on whose part you see ill-conduct, admonish them (first), (next), refuse to share their beds, (and last) beat them (lightly, if it is useful)” (Holy Qur’an: 4: 34). After all of these stages, the irrevocable divorce can take place, and there are several stages that the husband has to follow, otherwise his divorce will be arbitrary and unfair to his wife. On the other hand, there are several things to do, like:

1. man is usually less hasty or excited and has more self-control of nerves and emotions than woman;

2. man has authority and guardianship at home which commands him to spend on the wife and family.

3. man is the one who pays the marriage portion, whereas the woman takes it.

Question 100: Why should a woman wait if her husband has been away from her for a very long time until a judge can give a verdict of her divorce?

Answer 100: It is not a matter of waiting as much as there should be confirmation and proof of the complete absence of news about the husband. Marriage is a real bondage and contract which implies intimacy, mercy, stability and tranquility. Almighty God says:

“And among His Signs is this, that He created for you wives from among yourselves, that you may find repose in them, and He has put between you affection and mercy. Verily, in that are indeed signs for a people who reflect” (Holy Qur’an: 30: 21).

It is known that whenever the contract has grand effects, it is more difficult for the legislator to dissolve it and that depends on the contractors themselves. If the absence of the husband allowed the dissolution of the contract accordingly, there must be patience and confirmation, as mentioned before, in dissolving this contract, so that neither of the contractors would be done any harm because of haste. This happens depending on the cause of absence and its justifications. The judge should estimate such matters and try to avoid harm to anyone as much as possible.

Question 101: Why should there be a guardian and two righteous witnesses at the time of the marriage contract in Islam? Is it not possible for a woman to have her complete freedom in this respect, and not wait for someone to humiliate her in choosing and allow her to marry? Since men have the right to marry whenever they like, why, women are not granted the same status? And why her guardian’s consent is a prerequisite in this instance?

Answer 101: Part of the answer has already been given in (Answer 97). Here is the rest of the answer. At the time of marriage, there should a guardian (usually the father) and two righteous witnesses. Marriage is different from unlawful adultery, and a woman is not allowed to marry without the consent of her guardian; the guardian in turn is not allowed to marry her off without taking her consent. The responsibility here is mutual; it cannot be achieved except through the consent of the two sides, both the guardian and the girl. This signifies a respect for the woman and maintenance of her right. It takes care of her and does not cause her any harm or humiliation. If she happens to choose a suitable man and her guardian prevents her from marrying him, or in the likely case she has no guardian, the judge can be in charge of marrying her off in spite of the objection of her guardian. In Islamic jurisprudence the judge is the guardian of anyone who does not have a guardian, i.e. he can marry a woman off if she has no guardians.

If a woman wants to marry a man and there is another one who is better than him, the consent of the guardian and the witnesses will be superfluous, and her freedom will not be limited. But if the husband she has chosen is not an appropriate one (to the best of the guardian’s knowledge), her guardian can interfere. Preventing her from such a marriage is deemed to her interest. Not all kinds of freedom necessarily bring benefit to man, and every kind of limitation is harmful to hime/her. Almighty God says: “…and it may be that you dislike a thing which is good for you and that you like a thing which is bad for you. God knows but you do not know” (Holy Qur’an: 2: 216).

Question 102: Is it lawful for a woman to divorce her husband if he is infertile, ill or having a chronic disease? And is it lawful for a man to divorce his wife if she is barren or has a chronic disease?

Answer 102: As mentioned above, divorce is in the hand of man not woman because of reasons, most important of which is his right of guardianship. However, Islam has made it lawful for woman to dissolve the marriage contract (In Islamic jurisprudence–mukhaala’a), which happens when a woman asks the judicial authorities to dissolve the marriage contract, either because of the infertility of her husband or because of some harm caused by the husband to her, as is the case when the husband is chronically ill. This matter will be different if the woman knows about her husband’s situation before her marriage to him.

Question 103: Why is not lawful for girls in some Muslim countries to choose any man she wants to marry?

Answer 103: Islam should not be judged through the practices of some of its followers; people should be judged according to their implementation of Islam. Islam does respect the will of the girl, as mentioned above. However, the consent of the girl’s guardian should be achieved when she would like to marry and the marriage contract will not be valid without it.

A woman is free to choose any man she wants to marry; she is also free to reject any man she does not want to marry. This is alright as long as her choice is right. As to the choice based on socialization between man and woman or unlawful courtship, it is undoubtedly a failing one. In this case, the guiding guardian, who takes in his consideration the benefit of his daughter or ward, should interfere. Prophet Muhammad said: “Any woman married off by an angry guardian, her marriage is invalid.”

If the guardian is fair, he should interfere, as his consent is beneficial not only for the girl in this case, but also it goes beyond that to include his family and clan. Islam stresses familial and social relations. The fact that Islam is the religion of equality is true and right, because it holds similar things as equal, it draws distinctions between contradictions, antitheses and differences. If it regards different things as equal it would be unfair and unjust. Man and woman are the same in terms of humanity, in reward and in punishment, in rights and in responsibility, and in many duties. The same applies to the marital home, as almighty God said: “And they (women) have rights (over their husbands as regards living expenses) similar (to those of their husbands) over them (as regards obedience and respect) to what is reasonable…” (Holy Qur’an: 2: 228). As man is responsible for work and expenditure for his family, and is exposed to more struggling in life, he was given an extra degree: “but men have a degree (of responsibility) over them” (Holy Qur’an: 2: 228). Almighty God also said: “Men are the protectors and maintainers of women, because God has made one of them to excel the other, and because they spend (to support them) from their means” (Holy Qur’an: 4: 34).

Suspicion comes from adopting corrupt criteria; difference in jobs leads to differences in concepts. When a European woman wants to work, earn her living, and spending money, as man does, undoubtedly she will demand equality. Troubles emerge from asking a woman to do what is not her duty. For this, and besides other reasons, Islam does not regard man and woman as equal in a variety of respects, including testimonies, inheritance, guardianship, custody, confinement after divorce, and the areas of the private parts of the body which should be covered, and the duty of expenditure, divorce, etc. It is a well know fact that organic and functional build of woman is different from that of the man. The French scientist Alex Carrel stated:
The difference between man and woman does not come from the particular shape of their genitalia, or from the presence of womb in woman, or from the method of education, as the difference is of a more important nature than this. The differences come from formation of texture itself, and from the fertilization of the body with specific chemical materials which the ovary exudes. Ignoring those essential facts by feminists led them to believe that both sexes should receive the same kind of education, and that both sexes should be given the same authorities and similar responsibilities. In fact, woman differs considerably from man, as every cell of her body carries the nature of her sex.

Question 104: Since Islam is the religion of equality, why it gives man double what it gives to woman in matters of inheritance?

Answer 104: Islam gave man double what it gave to woman in inheritance for several reasons:
1. Man’s need for money is more than that of woman, because he is charged of the financial burdens of life which are double the burdens of woman. When he becomes adult, he is required to spend on himself (marriage expenses for example), at the time girl continues to be spent on by her guardian until she gets married. When she accepts to marry a man, her future husband gives her the marriage portion. When she gets married, her husband becomes in charge of spending on her.

2. Money is the nerve of life and proper management of finance is both an individualistic and collective duty. Man is often better at handling inherited money and better at managing and investing it.

3. Islam observed the possibility that the inheritors may share the inherited money: men mostly participate in running the business of their fathers, whom they inherited while women do not.

4. Giving man double the amount of the inheritance to woman man is not always the case, as both man and woman may get the same amount in some cases, as in the case of the brother of a mother, and the sister of a mother, and the father and mother from their son, if the son has inheriting descendents, and so on.

5. Inheritance is one of the forms of support, and men are much more supportive to their dependants more than women.

Question 105: Why does not an infidel brother inherit his Muslim brother, and vice versa?

Answer 105: Inheritance is an expression of loyalty, connection and relation. If the inheritor is different from the testator in terms of religion, there will not be guardianship or relation between them, since the most important relation is that of Islam. Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said: “Neither an infidel inherits a Muslim nor a Muslim inherits an infidel.” Prevention of inheritance is a prevention of the forms of sympathy and relation, both of which might corrupt the Muslim’s faith. When Islam prevents inheritance between a Muslim and an infidel, it affirms the rule “profit against loss” and vice versa, which does not negate justice, but a kind of equal treatment.

Question 106: Why does Islam prohibit an heir from inheriting his testator in case this latter was killed by his inheritor? In this case what is the fault of the killer’s children if they did not take part in the murder?

Answer 106: Depriving the killer from inheriting his testator is a kind of prevention of a greater evil, as there could be more murders of testators. It is also a treatment of man according to the opposite intention of the killer and punishing him in a similar kind. The jurisprudential rule for this is: “Anyone who makes haste to get something before it is the right time is punished by depriving him from it.” Depriving the killer from inheriting does not prevent his children from inheritance, as long as they are not prevented by other heirs because of other reasons of prevention, than killing.

Question 107: Why cannot a woman travel on her own, while man can? Why should she always be escorted by a mahram (unmarriageable relative man) if she wants to travel? Also, why she can not travel without her guardian’s consent?

Answer 107: A woman may travel without a mahram but only for short distancees–less than a day and a night. In case she wanted to take more than this, she is required to be accompanied by a mahram or by a trusty group. Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said: “A woman may not travel for more than one day and night on her own without a mahram.” Islam disallows a woman from traveling on her own for a long distance for the sake of her safety, protection, reputation and to preventing any evil which might befall her. Of course she can always travel for any distance with a good company or a group of people provided that her safety is maintained and confirmed. Unless accompanied and/ or escorted by amahram a woman may not even travel to perform her pilgrimage, which is one of the greatest Islamic forms of worship.

Question 108: Why would a woman wait for the consent of her husband or the companionship of one of her unmarriageable relatives if she wants to perform pilgrimage, although pilgrimage is an obligatory duty for women as well as for men who are allowed to travel without the consent of their wives?

Answer 108: This question has already been answered (answer 107). However, we can also say that God Himself out of mercy and compassion with His people wanted to make life easier for them people. Some scholars mentioned that one of the conditions for women to perform pilgrimage is to be accompanied by a mahram. This is not a condition of duty as much as a condition of performance. It is not a condition for acceptance: if she performs pilgrimage without mahram the pilgrimage is deemed to right and she would have fulfilled this ritual. But God did not oblige her to do what she could not do and she is rendered sinful if she dies without performing pilgrimage if she does not find an accompanying mahram or a trustworthy company.

The consent of the husband for the wife to go with one of her unmarriageable relatives to perform pilgrimage remains a controversial matter among religious scholars.

Question 109: Could you comment on the prophetic tradition which says: “The people who give the leadership to a woman would never be successful.”

Answer 109: This tradition has its own historical context. It was stated by the prophet as a response to the political change in the crumbling Persian Empire in the 6th century. In a failing attempt to save their empire, the Persian crowned Khosrau’s daughter, Buran, as their leader. When the prophet learned about this incident, he (pbuh) said: “The people who give the leadership to a woman would never be successful.”

Some scholars interpret this saying according to its historical context only, that is when the prophet foretold the downfall and the breaking-up of the Persian Empire—which is an historical fact. However, there are scholars who take the words in a more general sense. They say that the authority of the woman will always be lacking because she might be exposed to difficult situations over which she might have no control because of her nature and weaknesses.

Question 110: Why does not Islam allow women to take judicial positions, i.e. become judges?

Answer 110: Depending on the prophetic hadith in question 109, most scholars believe that women cannot become judges, because of the discrepancy of their nature as dealing with legal problems requires more reason than passion. However, Abu Hanifah, the well known leader of an Islamic school, stated that women may become judges but only in affairs where her testimony is indispensable and/or crucial. Ibn Jareer at-Tabari and the Malikis have no objection to women’s judicial positions.

Question 111: What is meant by the prophetic statement regarding women that they have “Women have their own deficiencies in both minds and religion”?

Answer 111: It has been reported that the prophet (pbuh) once addressed women by saying: “O womenfolk, give alms. I have seen that the majority of the people in hell are women.” The women asked: “O, Messenger of God, why?” He said: “You keep swearing, and deny your husbands, I have not seen people with incomplete minds and religions who could affect the mind of the strict men like you. Then they asked: “What is our lack of mind and religion, O, Messenger of God?” He said: “Is not the testimony of woman half that of a man?” They said: “Yes.” He said: “That is the lack in her mind.” He added: “Does not she abstain from praying and fasting when she has her period?” They said: “yes.” He concluded: “That is their lack of religion.” It is obvious from the answer of the prophet that the lack of woman’s mind is in the matter of testimony, which needs control and affirmation. Man is more affirmative and controlling in this respect than woman. Also, he could afford to witness a crime more than a woman could do, that is because of the nature of woman who could not endure to do as a man can. A woman needs another woman’s testimony to confirm hers, as women are often busy with their children, and home, which usually distracts her mind and thinking. The first part of the tradition alludes to the cunning of women in some respect, that they affect the strict man’s mind. This is the most rhetorical description of women, as the self-controlled man is sometimes led by their intrigues. As such, one who is not self-controlled is more likely to be led by others.

As to the lack in woman’s religion, the prophet referred to that in the sense that when she menstruates, she neither prays nor fasts, which makes her more exposed to the devil’s insinuations. If she strengthens herself with supplication and giving alms, she will be more protected from the devil, God willing.

It has medically been proved that when a woman is menstruating, or in confinement she usually goes through an uncomfortable psychological and physical situation. This is a part of the prophetic miracle, as it shows us that woman is exposed to such emergent lack, which is not a permanent lack in the nature of woman.
Question 112: Prophet Muhammad said: “Woman was created from a bending rib.” What does this mean and is it also applicable on men?

Answer 112: This tradition has been mentioned to take care of women and not to prejudice them, as some might think. The original saying stated by the prophet in this respect was: “I command you to take care of women, as they were created from a rib, and if a rib bends, it does at the top part of it. If you try to straighten it, it breaks, and if you leave it, it will continue to be bending. Therefore, take care of women.” This can be taken to mean: accept my command of women and behave accordingly. Take care of women and be kind when dealing with them, because of their delicate nature.

Traditions say that Eve was created from one of Adam’s ribs, i.e. she came out of it as a palm tree comes out from a nucleus—something that has been affirmed by other heavenly religions.

The meaning of “the most bending part of the rib is its top” could be a reference to the most bending part of woman, which is her tongue. The tradition connotes that the woman has a definite nature according to which she was created; it is difficult to change natures and men should cope with this fact. Anyone who tries to straighten a bending rib will break it, and breaking means divorce and/or separation.

It is a fact that almighty God created Adam from earth and water (clay) and created woman from his (Adam’s) rib, and created the jinn from fire.

Question 113: Is it lawful for woman to enter the domain of political and parliamentary life? Is she allowed to vote to choose a certain ruler?

Answer 113: Within the framework of the Islamic law, it is quite possible for women to involve in political and/or parliamentary lives. She is also free to vote for the political ruler of her choice. Abdurrahman ibn `Awf consulted with women in their rooms when he was charged of choosing `Uthman or Ali as the third caliphate the death of Omar.

Question 114: Why does Islam consider the testimony of a woman half that of a man? Are not men and women treated equally well in Islam?

Answer 114: The number of witnesses has nothing to do with respecting the witness or humiliating him. This is due to the kind of testimony and its requirements. In many legal cases, especially those exclusively related to women, men’s testimonies are invalid; only the testimonies of women are to be accepted. This of course does not degrade men. Also there are cases where the testimonies of both men and women are accepted, because they have the same thing witnessed, like the proof of seeing the moon of the month of Ramadhan. There are also cases where the testimonies of men and women are accepted, but because of the lack of interest of women in them, and the probability of women’s forgetfulness, the testimonies of two women are equaled to one testimony of man. The aim here is to maintain right. The Holy Qur’an says: “…so that if one of them (two women) errs, the other can remind her.” (Holy Qur’an: 1: 282). This applies to financial matters; as it is the concern of men to work in markets, attend the contracts of financial negotiations, contrary to women who are not usually concerned with financial contracts.

Question 115: Isn’t it a savagery of Islam to order for the stoning of the married adulterer and whip the unmarried one?

Answer 115: There is no savagery in stoning a married adulterer and whipping an unmarried one, as their acts themselves are ones of bestiality and savagery. Adultery is a transgression of God’s right and natural law. All heavenly religions and conventions have agreed that adultery is heinous crime. Therefore, secular laws are not fair, and Islam’s incurring of such punishments, of the adulterer and adulteress, is to curb man from committing such crime.

The stoning of an adulterer had existed in the creed of the Jews before that of Islam in the books of the Old Testament (the creed of the Jews and the Christians), but the followers of those two religions changed that creed and the scriptures remained until the time of prophet Muhammad (pbuh). When two Jewish adulterers were brought him, he told them that their rule existed in their Torah, but they concealed it from him. To this denial God revealed to His prophet the following Qur’anic verse: “But how do they come to you for decision while they have he Torah, in which is the (plain) Decision of God; yet even after that, they turn away. For they are not (really) believers” (Holy Qur’an: 5: 43). The punishment of the unmarried adulterer according to the Jewish faith was to soil his/her face with black color and to make him/her ride backwardly on an animal while it is led through streets of the village, town or city.

Inflicting a painful punishment on the adulterer and adulteress is not a savage matter, especially after discovering its destructive effects, which threaten societies with perdition. AIDS, syphilis, leukorrhea, to mention only few, are well know fatal diseases which are caused by illegal practices of sex.

Question 116: Why does Islam restrict woman with niqab (hijab)l? Is not that a form of humiliating woman in every way in life? Is not faith in the heart? Is not it lawful for woman to enjoy the bliss of eyesight?

Answer 116: Islam commanded woman to use the veil in order to protect and maintain her from harm and aggression. She is like a jewel that is to be wrapped up with the finest pieces of cloth, and placed in the most protected location, far away from the hands of the corrupted people. This explanation is testified by almighty God’s words:
“O, Prophet! Tell your wives and your daughters, and the women of the believers to draw their cloaks. That will be better, that they should be known (as free respectable women) so as not to be annoyed. And God is Ever Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful” (Holy Qur’an: 33: 59).

This means the following:
1. Islam in its creed surrounds the woman with a halo of decency, which goes with her nature of instinctive shyness—something that exists in every heavenly religion. In Christianity, for example, a nun is made to be dressed decently, a way which is different from other women in her religion, whereas Islam made this rule apply to every woman, as religion is meant to be for all and not specific to a particular section, and this is the way in all of its rules.

2. It is true that faith lies in the heart, but man’s action and behaviour are supposed to testify to faith or belie. Commitment to God’s commands is a proof of the existence of faith, and violating almighty God’s commands is a proof of the absence of faith and its weakness.

3. Islam does not prevent woman from enjoying any bliss, provided that the bliss is lawful. Hence, Islam does not prohibit women from enjoying lawful eyesight. Unlawful eyesight mostly lead to unlawful things, and what might be deemed to be a joy becomes a killing arrow, and a sigh in the heart. Islamic philosophy is based on the injunction of preventing evil, for everything that leads to unlawful things is unlawful.

Chapter 8:

Islamic Society and Human Relationships

Question 117: Why do Muslim countries apply Islamic law upon non-Muslims when problems arise in Islamic society?

Answer 117: Islam does not enjoin the People of the Scripture to use or follow the divine creed of Islam. The method of Islam is as follows: if they resorted to Islamic methodology for arbitration, then the Islamic rule should be applied in this case, almighty God says:

“So if they come to you (O Muhammad), either judge between them, or turn away from them. If your turn away from them, they cannot hurt you in the least. And if you judge, judge with justice between them. Verily, God loves those who act justly” (Holy Qur’an: 5: 42)

In any other likely case, they could at any time follow their creeds, so long as these creeds have a heavenly origin. Also, God says: “But how do they come to you for decision while they have the Torah, in which is the (plain) Decision of God; yet even after that, they turn away. For they are not (really) believers” (Holy Qur’an: 5: 43). This has already been mentioned in the matters related to creeds and familial dealings and in case they are citizens in the Islamic countries.

As regards civil and financial cases, all people living in Muslim countries must commit themselves to observe the Islamic rules, as these rule serve the opinion of the majority of the citizens. This criteria, the rule of the majority, is applied everywhere in the world, especially in the west. In the various dealings of the common affairs (like traffic, health, education), Muslims themselves almost always refer to civil laws. This also includes many other matters, which have nothing to do with dogma, liberty of belief, familial relationships (like marriage and other things so that they cannot collide with the religion of the Islamic society). As it is decided, contract is the law of the contractors; and anybody coming into the Islamic country will beforehand sign his commitment to the divine laws and manners; consequently, accept the rules of Islam to be applied, if required. This is one form of proving sovereignty to the state, something which is applicable almost everywhere in the world. Constitutions of almost all world countries decree that in the likely case any crime takes place on the land or within the territorial boundaries of any country, then the law and rules of that particular countries are the ones to be applied, without discriminating between the nationalities of the people involved in the crime.

Question 118: Since it is claimed that Islam has undertaken the question of liberating slaves and bondwomen, why do Muslims make of men slaves and women bondwomen when they go to wars? Does not that signify a contradiction in Islamic principles?

Answer 118: It is a fact that Islam has called for the liberation of slaves. There are many proofs to attest for this:
1. Liberating a slave is a kind of atonement for some sins, like indeliberate murder, and dhihar (divorce), oath breaking, corruption of one’s fast in Ramadhan by sexual intercourse and so on.

2. God promised a great reward for those who voluntary liberate any of their slaves.

3. The right of the slave to liberate himself by buying himself from his master;

4. A Muslim is encouraged to pay a portion of his zakat money to those slaves willing to purchase themselves from their masters;

5. The Islamic rule of what is called “arrangement,” which incurs the liberation of the slave upon the death of his master, especially if the master does not have the desire to liberate him during his lifetime. So the choice of freeing oneself is open after the death of the master. The master may say to his slave: “You are be free after my death,” whereupon the slave becomes free immediately after the death of the master.

6. The Islamic rule regarding the women slaves in case they become mother of children to their master upon a sexual intercourse they might have with them. If the bondwoman conceives in this case, she may neither be sold nor rented; soon after her master’s death, she becomes free.

When a war takes place between Muslims and others, and Muslims come out victorious, if an agreement takes place between the Muslims and their enemies regarding the captives, the Muslims are bound to keep their word according to what they have pledged. If there is no such agreement or reconciliation, then Muslims are free to opt for one of the following choices:
1. Ransoming their captives with captives from the enemies, or money is given instead.

2. Setting the captives free against nothing, out of kindness and charity.

3. Killing them to relieve mankind from their evil, and killing only the fighters from them.

4. Enslaving them as a kind of charity so that they could know Islam closely with the hope that they might become Muslims themselves. It is in the right of Islam to kill those who stood in the face of Islam as fighters, but in most cases they are kept alive and enslaved. This is some kind of showing the power of Islam and the humiliation of its enemies. The caliph is the only one who could command enslaving up, it is not left to individuals.

Question 119: Why, upon the birth of a baby, Muslims slaughter one sheep for the girl but two for the boy?

Answer 119: Following the tradition of prophet Muhammad (pbuh) Muslims slaughter one sheep for the newly-born girl but two for the newly-born boy. The rationale behind the difference could be to stress the fact that there are differences between man and woman in terms of physical capability and the right of guardianship and responsibility. Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said: “The baby-boy is ransomed by his slaughtered animal.” Since man fights in the path of God and carries the burden of struggle and earning living, he is more exposed to dangers and accidents than woman. Therefore, he is more required to be ransomed with two slaughtered animals for the protection of his body and optimism for his safety.

Question 120: Is it lawful for a non-Muslim to enter the Holy Mosque in Mecca? If not, why?

Answer 120: It is not lawful for a non-Muslim to enter the Holy Mosque in Mecca in accordance with what almighty God has said: “Verily, the mushrikun (polytheists, pagans, idolatries, disbeliveers in the Oneness of God, and in the Message of Muhammad) are Najasun (impure). So let them not come near al-Masjidal-Haram (at Mecca) after this year” (Holy Qur’an: 9: 28). As to other mosques, the reason for a non-Muslim entering a mosque should be taken into account before admitting him/her to do so. If it is for the sake of learning about Islam or for any other reason which meets the needs of Muslims, then it is lawful for non-Muslims to enter the mosque. Entering mosques for touristic or sightseeing purposes is not lawful.

Question 121: According to the Qura’nic verse “So if you gain the mastery over them in war, punish them severely in order to disperse those who are behind them” (Holy Qur’an: 8: 57), we believe that Islam spread by the sword. What is your explanation regarding this?

Answer 121: Islam did not spread by sword, and had it spread by sword or by force, people would have apostatized at the first chance they had, but the situation is just the opposite. Once those people embraced Islam, they turned into proselytize Islam in terms of tongue, money and sword. Holy fight in Islam is meant for overcoming the barriers before the call for Islam to people. If it had been possible to call to Islam without facing barriers or objection by force, Muslims would not have used arms or force on the one hand. On the other hand, many countries, especially in South East Asia and the biggest part of Africa and those who embrace Islam in Europe today, the spread of Islam was in those countries by peaceful call, respectable Islamic dealing of Muslim traders, and Islamic missions in those countries. The west used its colonial influence, societies, preaching missions sometimes in the name of medical AIDS and, sometimes in the name of schools and education. It used those means to spread Christianity; hence, the intention was not completely pure or for purely humanitarian reasons. It was for the sake of exploiting those peoples and reverting them off their various creeds. Through its stooges, the west executed all of its terrorist and aggressive plans. The Christian west wanted to establish secular governments, which had nothing to do with religions, on the basis that those governments had nothing to do with Islam, which was considered by the west as archenemy without justifications.

Question 122: Tobacco did not exist at the time of prophet Muhammad, yet it is considered by many scholars today as unlawful. Why?

Answer 122: Some prohibits have been rendered unlawful by Qur’anc texts, things like wine, eating flesh of dead meat, and pig’s meat. Some other prohibits were declared as unlawful because they were included in a total divine rule, or a general principle rule, things like impurities, and all that is harmful to the body or in wasting money uselessly. All of these things have their right divine evidence. The prophet related: “No harm should be done to oneself or to others.” This saying involves all kinds of harm one might cause to oneself, his money, or to others. It has been proved that smoking is harmful to the body. Islamic beliefs render everything good as lawful and everything bad as unlawful.

If we examine all prohibits, we find that they lead to harm to others because of what they cause. The creed produced general rules according to which things are considered throughout history and place. Analogical deduction In Islam is one of the sources of legislation after the Noble Qur’an, prophetic tradition, and consensus of the companions of the prophet, which is one of the forms of the recognized independent reasoning, and approved by Muslims scholars, which is itself the secret of the survival of Islam, as it meets the renewed needs of Islam and judges their new acts of conduct. To this end, the scholars rendered smoking as unlawful on the basis that it is harmful to the health of the smoker, and a waste for his/her money. Smoking is closer to the group of impurities than to that of purifies. Almighty God said:
“he commands them for al-ma`rouf (i.e. Islamic Monotheism and all that Islam has ordained); and forbids them from al-munkar (i.e. disbelief, polytheism of all kinds, and all that Islam has forbidden); he allows them as lawful at-tayyibat (i.e. all good and lawful as regards things, deeds, beliefs, person, foods), and prohibits them as unlawful al-khab`ith (i.e. all evil and unlawful as regards things, deeds, beliefs, persons and foods), he releases them from their heavy burdens (of God’s Covenant with the children of Israel), and from the fetters (bonding) that were upon them” (Holy Qur’an: 7: 157).

Question 123: Almost all banks do not observe the religious teachings and they deal with interest. But dealing with the bank has almost become a necessity. What harm is there if one deposit his/her money in a bank, with and without interests?

Answer 123: Putting money in interest banks is lawful because of necessity, and necessity is estimated according to its real situation. Accordingly, putting money in interest banks in a country which has monetary institutions, like Islamic banks and its subsidiaries, not dealing in interest is unlawful. Putting one’s money in a bank is originally unlawful if one is not worried about the safety of his money from theft or robbery. If one feels unsafe about the money, there is no objection to putting it in an interest bank, because of the jurisprudential rule which says: “Necessities render prohibits as lawful.”

Anyone who puts his money in an account because he is obliged to keep it safe, can take interest on it, which is better than leaving it to the banks dealing with interest, but he cannot spend the money in the way he wants, as he does with his lawful money. He can give it to the poor and needy people, as they are the only people who could use the money. Any kind of money whose owner is unknown has the reward of delivering it to the poor and needy, but does not have the reward of alms, as alms is given from his completely lawful money.

If the Muslim is obliged to put his money in an interest bank without taking the interest it is lawful too, and once he is able to do without dealing with that bank, he has to withdraw his money.

Question 124: In Islam there is a saying, which goes like this: “Wisdom is supposed to be the goal of every Muslim, he/she should seek it wherever it is.” Can a Muslim in this case follow and/or adopt good western principles a lifestyle?

Answer 124: Muslins are always encouraged to follow what is good and avoid what is bad.
However, when it comes to creed, worship, manners and many things, which have to do with personal dealings, Islam recommended everything good and prohibited everything evil. Almighty God said:

“Verily, God enjoins al-adl (i.e. justice and worshipping none but God Alone–Islamic monotheism) and al-ihsan [i.e. to be patient in performing your duties to God, totally for God’s sake and in accordance with the sunah (legal ways) of the Prophet (pbuh) in a perfect manner], and giving (help) to kith and kin (i.e. all that God has ordered you to give them e.g., wealth, visiting, looking after them, or any other kind of help, and forbids al-fahisha (i.e. all evil deeds, e.g. illegal sexual acts, disobedience of parents, polytheism, to tell lies, to give false witness, to kill a life without right), and al-munkar (i.e. all that is prohibited by Islamic law: polytheism of every kind, disbelief and every kind of evil deeds), and al-baghy (i.e. all kinds of oppressions). He admonishes you, that you may take heed.” (Holy Qur’an: 16: 90)

Islam urges Muslims to learn useful sciences and advanced system especially in the domain of technology experimental sciences, and the like. Accordingly, there is no harm for a Muslim to benefit from what the west has used to advance itself, if what is used does not contradict the fixed and determined Islamic fundamentals, which are known as being good and useful to mankind.

There is, however, one thing that should be taken into consideration, i.e. some things might be useful temporarily and accidentally. Such things cannot be rendered as lawful though they might be useful temporarily from one point of view. They could be subject to the conventions, customs and tastes of some people. All of this cannot render something lawful, as everything of those principles; conventions and customs should go with the Islamic fundamentals, and people should not differ as to whether people believe it is useful or beneficial. Almighty God said:

“And no example or similitude do they bring (to oppose or to find fault in you or in this Qur’an), but We reveal to you the truth (against that similitude or example), and the better explanation thereof” (Holy Qur’an: 25: 33)

Question 125: What is the purpose of prohibiting usury when both partners (the usurer and the one paying interest) are completely satisfied with the transaction?

Answer 125: The satisfaction of both contractors does not render prohibited things lawful, as two adulterer and an adulteress accept to commit adultery, and the agreement of buyer and seller of drugs does not make such matters lawful.

Those who consider matters from a limited point of view want a quick or private benefit, regardless of what disasters of destruction and corruption of the Islamic nation such transactions may cause. Anyone, whether it is a person or a country, who resort to borrow money with interest must be in dire need for that money. What kind of humanity is this that exploits the need and adversity of that man or nation?

When the interest loan is intended for production, and the borrower loses, he shoulders the responsibility and is the only loser, which could be disastrous to him. Had he been able to support himself he would not have resorted to borrowing an interest loan. The two partners should agree from the beginning on both profit and loss. If they make a profit, the profit is mutual and the same applies to loss. The one working will have lost his efforts and time and the lender will lose his money. Almighty God announced war on the borrower and lender dealing with interest. Almighty God says:

“And if you do not do it, then take a notice of war from God and His Messenger but if your repent, you shall have your capital sums. Deal not unjustly (by asking more than your capital sums), and you shall not be dealt with unjustly (by receiving less than your capital sums). And if the debtor is in a hard time (has no money), then grant him time till is easy for him to replay…” (Holy Qur’an: 2: 278-80)

Question126: Since the Prophet (pbuh) referred to the acceptability of entertaining oneself, are we allowed to play chess or cards for a mere passing of time?

Answer 126: There are certain Islamic rules and regulations that govern the use of different pleasure facilities and entertaining oneself. These rules and regulations conclude any form of entertainment that has been evidently forbidden may not be used for entertaining oneself. Some scholars say they have grounds to believe that chess was forbidden; therefore, Muslims should not play it.

Playing any other kind of game, which is good for health and/or mind, is permissible, provided that there is no evidence of its prohibition. However, playing lawful games should not distract us from fulfilling our duties or indulge us in sinful deeds.

Muslim scholars agree that playing chess is forbidden if it is played as a form of gambling, or if it causes one to neglect a duty like performing prayer. It is also disallowed if it implies lying or cause swearing and/or leads to any kind of harm. Yet, scholars have different opinions: some of them prohibit paying chess altogether, others say it is not recommended; others still, say it is allowed provided that players do not swear, that Muslims should not play with non-good Muslims in the streets, and that it should not be played very often because it may waste the time of Muslims and make them heedless of their religious obligations such as remembering God and worshipping. However, scholars recommend that Muslims are better off not playing such games because the prophet (pbuh) says: “Leave doubtful things, and do things that are certain (to be allowed).”

PART THREE

Questions and Answers on
The Holy Qur’an and
the Tradition of the Prophet (pbuh)

Translated by
Muhammad Kheir Nadman
Ahmad H. Al-Hout

Chapter 1:

Issues Concerning the Holy Qur’an

Question 127: Is the Holy Qur’an the word of God or that of Mohammad (pbuh)?

Answer 127: The Holy Qur’an is the word of God, and it was revealed to Prophet Mohammad through the Angel Gabriel. God made the Holy Qur’an Prophet Mohammad’s miracle, and He challenged people to bring about anything similar, but they couldn’t meet the challenge, and the miracle and the challenge are still valid now, and they will be until the Day of Judgment. Allah says: “Or do they say ‘He forged it’? Say: ‘Bring then a sura like unto it, and call (to your aid) anyone you can, besides Allah, if it be ye speak the truth!” (Holy Qur’an: 10: 38). This challenge to bring just one sura, no matter how short it is, similar to the ones that are in the Holy Qur’an is a testimony that this holy book was not written by Man, for had Prophet Mohammad (pbuh) fabricated it, another human would have been able to bring something similar.

It is interesting and valuable to know, in this respect, the difference between the style of the Holy Qur’an and that of the sayings of the Prophet (pbuh). We have at our disposal thousands of books containing the traditions of the Prophet (pbuh), and anyone with any knowledge of Arabic stylistics can easily recognize the great difference between the two styles. The style of the Holy Qur’an is far superior to that of the sayings of the Prophet (pbuh), and beyond the ability of any human to imitate. The Arabs at the time of the Prophet (pbuh) knew him very well, and knew his linguistic abilities before the Qur’an was revealed to him, for they were eloquent and articulate people, and they used to hold public festivities for reciting poetry. Yet, given the clear stylistic differences between the language of the Holy Qur’an and that of the Prophet (pbuh), none of them could say with fairness that the Qur’an was invented by Mohammad (pbuh). Moreover, for all his life before the Revelation, he was never known to have any oratory or poetic abilities, and he never took part in any of the cultural activities they used to hold, because, as everybody knew, he was an illiterate person. A close investigative look at the Holy Qur’an shows many facets of its miraculous nature that further proves that it was revealed by almighty God to the Prophet:

1. The language and style of the Holy Qur’an. We have already mentioned that the prophet challenged the Arabs to bring something similar, but they failed to meet that challenge. The Holy Qur’an still poses the same challenge to people all over the world: “Say: ‘If the whole of mankind and Jinns were to gather together to produce the like of this Qur’an, they could not produce the like thereof, even if they backed up each other with help and support’.” (Holy Qur’an: 17: 88)

2. The way it was composed. The Holy Qur’an was not revealed all at once. Rather, it was revealed throughout more than a twenty-year period, and every time new verse(s) was/were revealed to the Prophet, he asked his companions to place it/them at a certain place in the Qur’an to form a unique sequence. Nevertheless, the Holy Qur’an was completed in its present form as a homogeneous unit, so much so the reader would think that it was revealed all at once.

3. The knowledge it contains. The Holy Qur’an contains a lot of information and knowledge that guides people to the right path. The kind of information it contains is so deep and profound that it would have been impossible for an illiterate person like Mohammad (pbuh), or for any other human, to fabricate it.

4. Its fulfillment of human needs at all times. This makes the Holy Qur’an unique, because It reformed all beliefs, worships and ethics. It also reformed society through guiding people to be united and relinquish tribalism because they are all descendants of Adam and Eve, and that no human is better than another except through piety. The Qur’an teaches people that they are all equal before God. It also preaches justice, forbids usury, allows trade, and so on and so forth.

5. What the Holy Qur’an had revealed after a long wait. The Holy Qur’an contains many verses that dealt with great issues, yet they were only revealed after a long wait. This shows that the Holy Qur’an is the word of almighty God; had it been that of Mohammad (pbuh), there would have been no need for the long wait, as was the case in the verses commenting on the hadith of calumny, and the delay in answering the question of the infidels about the nature of the spirit.

6. Some suras (chapters) of the Holy Qur’an start by the command “say”, and more than 332 verses contain the same command which was addressed to the prophet (pbuh). This clearly indicates that the Holy Qur’an was not the word of Mohammad (pbuh), but that of God.

7. The scientific evidence it contains. The Holy Qur’an contains many scientific facts that were not known at the time of revelation. To save time and space only few examples can be mentioned here; those who want a more detailed account can always refer to the many many books dealing with the Scientific Inimitability in the Holy Qur’an. The Holy Qur’an states:
“Man we did create from a quintessence (of clay); then We placed him as (a drop of) sperm in a place of rest, firmly fixed; then We made the sperm into a clot of congealed blood; then of that clot We made a (fetus) lump; then We made out of that lump bones and clothed the bones with flesh; then We developed out of it another creature. So blessed be Allah, the Best to create!” (Holy Qur’an: 23: 12-14).

These verses contain a detailed description of the developmental stages of the embryo, a description that has only been verified by contemporary scientists. So who could have told Mohammad (pbuh) about these stages of embryological development? It has been only possible for modern scientists to learn about these stages through the help of modern X-ray and other technological equipments. Therefore, some scientists converted to Islam as soon as they came across verses like these in the Holy Qur’an, because they knew that no human could have known these facts 1400 years ago. These verses could have only come from the Creator.

Another example is the description of the forming of clouds and rain, something that nobody knew anything about at the time. Allah (swt) says in the Holy Qur’an says:

“Seest thou not that Allah makes the clouds move gently, then joins them together, then makes them into a heap? -then wilt thou see rain issue forth from their midst. And He sends down from the sky mountains masses (of clouds) wherein is hail: He strikes therewith whom He pleases and He turns it away from whom He pleases. The vivid flash of its lightening well-nigh blinds the sight” (Holy Qur’an: 24: 43).

Almighty God explains in this verse how small clouds get together in the sky, and when they form a big cloud rain falls. It is doubtful that anybody had known about this mechanism before modern times.

The Holy Qur’an also talks about the breathlessness caused by ascending to the sky. Allah says in the Holy Qur’an:
“Those whom Allah willeth to guide, -He openeth their breast to Islam; those whom He willeth to leave straying, -He maketh their breast close and constricted, as if they had to climb up to the skies: thus doth Allah lay abomination on those who refuse to believe (Holy Qur’an: 6: 125).

This verse describes the condition of the aberrant as that of a person ascending towards the sky where there is a lack of oxygen: the higher he gets, the more breathless he feels. So who could have told Mohammad (pbuh) about that other than the Great Master of the universe?

There are so many other verses that testify to the fact that the Holy Qur’an is the Word of God through exposing scientific evidence relating to man, the earth, the sky, the sea, the stars, and the planets.

Question 128: How do you prove that the Qur’an Muslims read today is the same that was revealed upon Mohammad (pbuh), and that it has not been altered or that it does not contain fabrications?

Answer128: The Holy Qur’an was revealed to the Prophet (pbuh) through Angel Gabriel. The prophet’s sole and initial concern was to memorize every single piece of it. However, God Himself has promised to preserve this holy book in the prophet’s memory and to enable him to read it. In the Qur’an God says:
“Move not thy tongue concerning the (Qur’an) to make haste therewith. It is for Us to collect it and to recite it, follow though its recital (as promulgated): Nay more, it is for Us to explain it (and make it clear)” (Holy Qur’an: 75: 16-19).

Every time the prophet received revelations, he would peruse that to his companions slowly so that they could learn it well and understand its secrets. Night after night the Prophet would spend teaching his companions the Qur’an. He also used to read it during prayers, and Angel Gabriel used to read it with him once a year, and in the last year of his life the Angel read it with him twice.

The Prophet’s companions made every single effort to make sure that they memorized the Qur’an from the very beginning, and they used to pride themselves on having memorized more of the Holy Qur’an. Thus, memorizers and/or reciters of the Qur’an were so many during the prophet’s life. Moreover, the prophet himself (pbuh) had writers of the Divine Revelation, and every time something new was revealed to him he used to say “place it after God’s saying so and so and before His saying so and so.” By the time the prophet (pbuh) passed away, the Holy Qur’an had been already written and memorized. Then it was collected in one book, and later on it was collected again and copied during the era of caliph Uthman (3rd caliph) and distributed these copies all over the Islamic State. Thus, the Holy Qur’an was passed from generation to generation through its memorization and written form, and this is a unique honor to the Islamic nation. Muslims have spread all over the world since, carrying with them copies of the Holy Qur’an; nevertheless, there is no difference whatsoever in the Qur’an that Muslims read in Africa, Asia, Europe, America or Australia, and we have never heard that they have disagreed ever about the precision of the Qur’an, for all of them have agreed that the Holy Qur’an that they have today is the same Qur’an that was revealed to prophet Mohammad (pbuh) by God. Moreover, God promised to preserve the Qur’an. He says: “We have, without doubt, sent down the Message; And We will assuredly guard it (from corruption)” (Holy Qur’an: 15: 9).

Question 129: What are the similarities and differences between the Qur’an and the other earlier Holy Books?

Answer 129: Islam is Allah’s sole and true religion, all prophets preached Islam. Islam means full submission to God through unqualified obedience and relinquishing polytheism, because all religions preach monotheism. Almighty God says: “Not a messenger did we send before thee without this inspiration sent by Us to him: that there is no God but I; therefore worship and serve Me” (Holy Qur’an: 21: 25).

As far as basic beliefs and worship practices are concerned all religions are also similar. In the Qur’an God says:
“The same religion has He established for you as that which He enjoined On Noah-the which We have sent by inspiration to thee- and that which We enjoined on Abraham, Moses, and Jesus: Namely, that ye should Remain steadfast in Religion, and make no divisions therein: to those who worship other things than Allah, hard is the (way) to which thou callest them. Allah chooses to Himself those whom He pleases, and guides to Himself those who turn (to Him)” (Holy Qur’an: 42: 13).

Thus, all prophets preached monotheism, informed people about God and the hereafter, and advocated the basic belief in the same messages of divine Books.

The main differences, however, lie in the legislative and commandment laws, because the divine laws are based on looking after the interests of those required to worship. However, what might be feasible for one nation might not necessarily be the same for another. Therefore, the details kept changing without touching the basics, until human societies developed and matured. It was then that God sent His final and eternal religion, Islam. God points to the differences in religious legislations when He says: “To each among you have We prescribed a Law and an Open Way.” (Holy Qur’an: 5: 48).

Question 130: How has it been possible to preserve the Holy Qur’an until the present time? And what is the methodology that was followed to preserve it without change?

Answer 130: The Holy Qur’an has been preserved with great care, and no other book has ever received such attention. During the period of revelation, the prophet (pbuh) did his utmost best to memorize the Holy Qur’an, so much so that God promised His prophet to preserve it:

“Move not thy tongue concerning the (Qur’an) to make haste therewith. It is for us to collect it and to recite it: But when we have recited it, follow thou its recital (as promulgated).” (Holy Qur’an: 75: 16-18).

Every time new verse(s) was/were revealed to him, the prophet (pbuh) used to memorize it/them himself, teach them to his companions and request some of his companions to write and arrange it/them in a special place before or after specific previously revealed verses. The companions of the prophet (pbuh), and the Arabs in general, were (and still) great memorizers. Ibn Masoud said: “I memorized from the mouth of the prophet seventy suras of the Holy Qur’an while Zaid ibn Thabit (another memorizer) was still a young boy playing with the kids.” Ibn Masoud also said: ”I know where and why every verse of the Holy Qur’an was revealed, and had I known someone who knew more about the Holy Qur’an than me I would have ridden my camel and gone to him”. The prophet’s companions were truly hard workers, and many of them memorized the entire Holy Qur’an such as Zaid ibn Thabet, Ibn Masoud, and Ubai ibn Ka’b, to name but a few.

The complete Holy Qur’an was written during the time of the prophet, but it was written on separate sheets of paper that were not unified in one volume. After the death of the prophet, the first caliph Abu Bakr (may God be pleased with him) decided to collect the Holy Qur’an in one volume. Therefore, he commissioned a group of the memorizers of the Holy Qur’an, headed by Zaid ibn Thabet, to do the Job. The chosen committee followed a great methodology in collecting the written sheets of the Holy Qur’an and comparing what was written with what was memorized. One of the main stipulations of that committee was the presence of at least two written copies of the same verses. They did not accept the written version unless it corresponded to the memorized one, and vice versa. Zaid and his colleagues did their utmost best to insure the authenticity of their work. It was related that Zaid asked to be exonerated from this task when he was first selected, but upon the insistence of both Omar and Abu Bakr (may Allah be pleased with them), he agreed reluctantly. He described his great sense of responsibility towards the great task by saying: “I swear by Allah that had they asked me to move a mountain from one place to another I’d would have felt more at ease.”

The Holy Qur’an was first written in one volume during the era of Abu Bakr, and it was kept in his safekeeping until he died. Then Omar took it into his safekeeping, and when Omar died, Hafsa (his daughter and the prophet’s widow) took over the task of taking care of the –till then- only complete volume of the Holy Qur’an.

When Uthman became caliph after Omar, he instructed another committee headed, again, by Zaid ibn Thabet, to write many copies of the Holy Qur’an in order to distribute them in all parts of the Islamic Empire that was growing bigger and bigger.

From what has been said so far, we may conclude the following:
1. Muslims took a great care in writing and memorizing the Holy Qur’an.

2. The Holy Qur’an was written at a very early stage during the life of the Prophet (pbuh). Shortly after his death (within two years), the Holy Qur’an was collected in one volume, and in the era of Uthman, copies of it were distributed in all parts of the Islamic Empire.

3. This great care continues until our modern time. Generations after generations of Muslims have memorized the Holy Qur’an and kept written records of it until now, and every effort has been directed towards keeping the Holy Qur’an safe from any deduction or addition in all parts of the Islamic world. Therefore, it can be said, with absolute accuracy, that the Holy Qur’an that Muslims read in the East and West, South and North is the same one that God revealed to His messenger hundreds of years ago.

It is worth mentioning that the style of the Holy Qur’an is so unique that if someone makes a mistake while reciting it, it is usually possible for the person listening to the recitation to recognize the mistake even if the listener does not memorize the Holy Qur’an.

Above all, God took upon Himself to keep His Book safe. He says: “We have, without doubt, sent down the Message; and We will assuredly guard it (from corruption)” (Holy Qur’an: 15: 9). One of the indications of this divine preservation is materialistic means that God has facilitated in order to preserve this Qur’an, such as making its memorization easy. Hod says: “And We have indeed made the Qur’an easy to understand and remember: then is there any that will receive admonition?” (Holy Qur’an: 54: 32).

Nowadays, the methods of preserving the Holy Qur’an have become more advanced, especially after employing modern audiovisual equipments to serve this purpose. Some excellent reciters have recorded the complete Qur’an, adding to the Islamic audio library hundreds of different beautiful voices reciting the Holy Qur’an, and many of these recitations have been recorded on audiovisual tapes, compact disks, and it has been made available for access on the Internet as well. Thus, almighty God has inspired Muslims to write the Holy Qur’an and take care of it since it was first revealed to the prophet (pbuh) until now, and this will continue to be true till the Day of Judgment.

Question 131: Is the convert’s reward for reading a translation of the meanings of the Holy Qur’an the same as that he/she can get for reading the actual Arabic text of the Holy Qur’an?

Answer 131: The actual Arabic text of the Holy Qur’an is the word of almighty God that He revealed to His prophet Mohammad (pbuh). Therefore, reading the actual text is not the same as reading the translation. Muslims are supposed to get one hasanah (merit) for each letter they read from the Qur’an, and each merit is doubled ten times. The translations of the meanings of the Holy Qur’an are the words of humans, and the reward for reading them is similar to that which we get for reading Islamic books and commentary interpretations of the Holy Qur’an.

Question 132: How can a non-Muslim learn about the Holy Qur’an if he/she is not allowed to touch it?

Answer 132: Non-Muslims can learn about the Holy Qur’an through listening to it or reading it over the Internet for example. He may also read books that talk about Islam and explain the meanings of the Qur’an. Otherwise, he could be taught about Islam and invited to be a Muslim, and if he/she reverts to Islam he/she will be able to handle the Holy Qur’an and read it.

Question 133: The Holy Qur’an includes precise and similar verses, as well as abrogating and abrogated verses. What is the wisdom behind such divisions?

Answer 133: The Holy Qur’an is precise and perfect book because God formed it in such a meticulous way that no stylistic or semantic corruption can ever affect it. It is also all-similar because the rules mentioned in it are similar and do not contribute to ambiguity in its verses and vocabulary. The wisdom of having precise verses is clear from its definition. As for the similar, Islamic scholars divided it into three types:
1. A type that cannot be known like the time of the Day of Judgment and so on.

2. Another type that man can know like foreign expressions and some rules.

3. A third type that has features of both types (1) and (2), and this type is only understood by well-educated scholars like Ibn Abbas for whom the prophet made the following du’aa, prayer: “May Allah make him well-versed in the religion (of Islam) and teach him interpretation (of the Holy Qur’an)”.

The wisdom of having similar verses can be summarized in the following:

1. God’s mercy upon the weak human being who cannot bear learning everything. If the mountain collapsed and Moses fell unconscious when God revealed Himself, what would it have been like if He had revealed Himself to ordinary humans? It is partly for this reason that God kept the time of the Day of Judgment as a secret.

2. Putting man to affliction and trial: would people believe in the unseen simply because the truthful Prophet told us about it or not? Those who are guided to the right path say we believe! And those who have doubts in their hearts deny it and follow the similar verses as a way of getting around religion.

3. To give an evidence of the weakness and ignorance of man regardless of how technologically advanced people become, and to show the superior powers of God the All-Knowing, so that man would obey and say what the angels said in the Holly Qur’an: “They said: “Glory to Thee: of knowledge we have none, save What Thou hast taught us: in truth it is Thou Who art perfect in knowledge and wisdom” (Holy Qur’an: 2: 32).

4. To accomplish the miraculous quality of the Holy Qur’an.

As for abrogation, we say that it occurred in Islamic law in the sense that God abrogated all previous religions by Islam, and abrogated some Islamic principles by other Islamic ones. The wisdom behind abrogating all other religions by Islam is due to the fact that the latter has the most perfect laws that satisfy the needs of human beings at all times. The teachings of different religions came to satisfy the specific needs of human beings at certain times of historical developments. Islam, however, came only when man was developed enough to receive this perfect religion as the last divine set of laws that combines the benefit of humans with the flexibility of rules, and the needs of both body and soul. It also compromised religion with science and regulated the relationship between God and humans on the one hand, and humans with the world around them until the Day of Judgment.

On the other hand, we can say that God’s wisdom behind abrogating some Islamic rules by other Islamic rules is due to the policy of the Islamic nation, where rules are stipulated step by step to make them easier to follow until they reach perfection. This was possible by guiding Muslims from easy rules to more difficult ones, until success was achieved. The wisdom of abrogating difficult rules by easier ones was to make things easier for Muslims and to show the bounty of God. The wisdom of abrogating a rule with an equally difficult or easy one was to put Muslims to the test so that hypocrites would be known and punished, and believers would be known and rewarded. The wisdom of abrogating easy rules by more difficult ones was to train Muslims and get them ready for what was to come, such as the attitude of Islam towards alcoholic drinks where Muslims were prepared step by step for the acceptance of its final prohibition. This principle of gradual prohibition is unique to Islam.

Question 134: How were the suras (chapters) of the Holy Qur’an arranged? And who gave the suras their present names?

Answer 134: The majority of the Islamic scholars are of the opinion that the arrangement of the suras in the Holy Qur’an came about through revelation. There are some who believe that only part of the arrangement was done through revelation and that the other part was done through the jurisprudence of the prophet’s companions. However, ever since caliph Uthman compiled the Holy Qur’an and arranged it in its present form, the whole Islamic nation accepted it without any alteration or reservation. Therefore, it is a duty upon all Muslims to respect this arrangement and abide by it to preserve the sacredness of the Word of God. As for naming the suras of the Holy Qur’an, there are different opinions: some scholars, such as Al-Suyti, believe that the names were revealed to the prophet; others believe that it was the prophet’s companions who gave these names. However, the existence of more than one name for some suras is evidence that these names were given to suras by the companions. Dr. Subhi Al-Saleh argues that we do not have strong evidence that the names of suras were revealed.

Chapter 2:

Tradition of the Prophet (pbuh):

Question135: What are the differences among the following terms: Holy Qur’an, the hadith (saying, action or approval of the prophet pbuh) and the qudsi (sacred) hadith?

Answer 135: The Holy Qur’an is the primary source of Islamic law. It tells how a good Muslim should be and how he should behave with his family and in society at large. The rules set by the Qur’an are religiously binding and no Muslim is allowed to break these rules. The Qur’an was revealed to prophet Mohammad (pbuh) in a sequence and on certain occasions that necessitated certain rules. Each sura was either revealed in full or in part according the occasion. The prophet (pbuh) used to ask the revelation writers of his companions to write down what was revealed, and that is how the Holy Qur’an was preserved. The prophet used to recite verses of the Holy Qur’an in his prayers and during his Friday sermons, and teach it to his companions. Ibn Masoud said: “I memorized from the mouth of the Prophet seventy suras of the Holy Qur’an.” . The companions used to memorize the Holy Qur’an to recite it in their prayers.

It was the divine inspiration that was used to reveal the verse and show its location in the Holy Qur’an. This is why the arranged sequence of the verses and suras in the Holy Qur’an is divine and cannot be tampered with by humans. The Holy Qur’an challenged the Arabs, who were well versed in language, to write an equivalent book to the Qur’an, ten suras, or even one sura. But they failed to do so, and so did the one who followed until our present day, and those who attempted came out with some funny texts.

The tradition or hadith of the prophet is defined as any “sayings and/or actions of the prophet (pbuh)”. The differences between the Holy Qur’an and the hadith can be summarized in the following points:
1. The Holy Qur’an is the word of God, which is unique in its style, rhythm and content.

2. The wording, meaning, style, stories, proverbs and laws of the Holy Qur’an are miraculous.

3. God has promised to preserve this miracle, the Holy Qur’an, from any changes or alterations till the Day of Judgment. He says: “We have, without doubt, sent down the Message; and We will assuredly guard it (from corruption)” (Holy Qur’an: 15: 9). Therefore, it is one of the conditions of correct reading that the style of writing should be identical to that which was written in era of caliph Uthman, which was in turn identical to the version that was written in the time of prophet Mohammad (pbuh).

4. The Holy Qur’an has been transmitted from one generation to the other in a traditionary way (tawatur), whereby reciters of the Holy Qur’an have been groups of people who could not have conspired to lie. Therefore, the Holy Qur’an has been the most correct book on earth since it was revealed through Angel Gabriel to the Prophet (pbuh).

5. Anyone denying the authenticity of the Holy Qur’an –or part of it- is regarded as blasphemous (kafir).

6. The Holy Qur’an consists of a limited number of chapters (suras) amounting to 114 suras, and each sura is divided into smaller parts called verses (ayat).

7. Reciting certain verses of the Holy Qur’an in each prayer is obligatory, and no prayer is true unless verses of the Qur’an are recited in it.

8. Anyone with minor ritual impurity is not allowed to touch the Holy Qur’an, and anyone with a major ritual impurity is not allowed to recite it.

9. Muslims are rewarded one merit for reading each letter of the Holy Qur’an.

10. The Holy Qur’an should be recited literally and not in the form of interpretation.

The above are the main characteristics of the Holy Qur’an that distinguish it from all other religious texts, including the traditions of the prophet hadith.

The qudsi (sacred) hadith are those that did not originate from the prophet (pbuh), but from God. Thus, the qudsi hadith occupies an intermediate place between the Holy Qur’an and the tradition of the prophet (nabawi hadith). The wording, meaning and sequence of the Holy Qur’an were revealed from God directly to the prophet (pbuh). The qudsi hadith was revealed as meaning only to the Prophet (pbuh) from almighty God, but the wording was from the Prophet (pbuh) himself. Therefore, the qudsi hadiths share with the Holy Qur’an the quality of being ascribed to almighty God, and differ with it in all other qualities. The qudsi hadith shares the qualities of the nabawi hadith in being subject to categorization: true, sound, or weak hadith. The qudsi hadith can not be recited in prayers, a person with minor ritual impurity may touch the book containing it, a person with a major ritual impurity may recite it, and it can be related in the form of interpretation, etc.
The tradition of the Prophet (pbuh) differs from the qudsi hadith, although they were both inspired by almighty God in the light of what He says in the Holy Qur’an: “For Allah hath sent down to thee the Book and Wisdom and taught thee what thou knewest not (before)” (Holy Qur’an: 4: 113); and
“Nor does he (the Prophet) say (aught) of (his own) Desire. It is no less than inspiration sent down to him” (Holy Qur’an: 53: 3-4).

The prophet (pbuh) also says “I have been given the Holy Qur’an and another similar thing” in a reference to the fact that the qudsi hadith was revealed by God like the Holy Qur’an. But while the Qur’an was a direct revelation, the qudsi hadith was a mere inspiration. It must be stressed that the tradition of the prophet was guided by God so that the prophet (pbuh) would not do anything against the teachings of Islamic laws. It is in this sense that the tradition of the prophet is ascribed to divine inspiration as well.

Question 136: What is the difference between the tradition (sunnah) of the prophet and the biography (sirah) of the prophet (pbuh)?

Answer 136: The tradition (sunnah) of the prophet is, as we have already defined it, the collections of recorded words, actions, and sanctions of prophet Mohammad (pbuh). It is a recommended, rather compulsory deed. It is usually organized according to the subject under discussion, such as belief, prayer, purity, alms, fasting, pilgrimage, etc. On the other hand; the biography (sirah) of the prophet (pbuh) is the story of the life of the prophet. It tells the actions that happened to him in a historical order. However, sunnah and sirah do sometimes, because sunnah itself is one of the sources of the sirah. And any prophetic saying relates what happened with the prophet at a certain time is recorded as part of the sirah.

Sirah is the practical application of the Holy Qur’an and sunnah, and thus it is more general because it incorporates sunnah as well as what the Prophet as the leader of the Islamic nation and as a human, i.e. actions that did not have religious implications.

Chapter 3:

The Prophetic Biography (the Sirah)

Question 137: How can I really know that Mohammad was a true messenger of God?

Answer 137: We have to point out that:
A. The belief that Mohamed (pbuh) is a messenger of God is a sub-issue that is based on the belief in God. It is illogical to give a single proof that Mohammad (pbuh) is a true messenger of God to an atheist.

B. Looking back into the history of mankind, we realize that God sent a messenger and/ or prophet to each nation to teach them His book(s) and wisdom, and to show them the right path they should follow to enjoy a comfortable and peaceful life, so that they would form a virtuous society and apply His system on earth. No society would ever enjoy righteousness unless its members follow the commands of their Creator, because He knows best what is good for them in this life and the hereafter, since, originally, He ordains what is good for them. But if ordaining is left to people, the society will not be safe. Man-made systems have never been complete, because the human mind cannot comprehend what is good for them in this life and the hereafter.

However, in order to answer the original question we can say:
1. I refer the reader to the argument above in which I gave evidence that the Holy Qur’an is the word of God. To prove that the Holy Qur’an is the word of God is at the same time to prove that Mohammad (pbuh) is His prophet and messenger, because it is universally agreed that the Holy Qur’an was revealed to Mohammad (pbuh).

2. Mohammad (pbuh) claimed that he is a messenger of God fourteen centuries ago; since then, God has not sent any other messenger to contradict this claim. On the contrary, we have seen that God supported Mohammad (pbuh) by giving him many miracles to corroborate his claim of being a true messenger of God.

3. Prophethood is claimed either by an absolutely truthful person, or by a complete liar, and only the ignorant won’t be able to distinguish between the two. There are many ways to distinguish between a liar and a truthful person in matters that are even less important that the claim of prophethood, so it should be easier to distinguish between the two in such matters.

No liar has ever claimed prophethood without being exposed by aspects of ignorance, lying and profligacy, and without showing signs of being obsessed by demons. A true messenger/prophet has to tell about things, give commands and do things that show either his lying or truthfulness. Those who knew the messenger and his truthful nature, knew for sure that he was not lying in his claim of prophethood. A knowledgeable person can tell when a man is satisfied, and when he is in the state of, love, hatred, happiness, sadness, and other states of mind that show on the face of a person. God says
“Had We so willed, we could have shown them up to thee, and thou shouldst have known them by their marks: but surely thou wilt know them by the tone of their speech! And God knows all that ye do (Holy Qur’an: 37: 40).”

Uthman ibn Affan (the third caliph) said: “No one has ever intended something secretly without getting exposed by God by showing signs of his secrets on his face and making the person say accidentally what he is hiding”. If this is true of normal daily matters, it is even more so when a crucial issue like prophethood is involved.

Khadijah (the prophet’s first wife) knew his truthfulness and honesty. Therefore, when the messenger (pbuh) told her, having received the first revelation, that he was afraid, she said to him:” Nay. God will never let ye down. For you keep good relations with your kith and kin, tell the truth, look after the sick, receive your guests hospitably, give to the poor, and help people in their daily affairs”. She praised his high values and character, and, surely, God never lets down people with these qualities and values. Khadija soon accompanied the messenger to Warqa’ ibn Nawfal (one of her relatives who was well known Christian priest and among the first to write the Bible in Arabic) and asked him: “Hear thee, uncle, what (Mohammad) says.” Having heard Muhammad, Waraqa’ said “This is the kind of revelation (Angel) that used to come to Moses.”

Negus, who was Emperor of Ethiopia during the messenger’s time, said about him: “His preaching and that of Moses come from the same source”.

Hercules, the Roman emperor, having received a letter from Mohammad (pbuh) inviting him to Islam, summoned all Arabs who were in Al-Sham (greater Syria) at the time, including Abu Sufian who was there on business. Hercules asked about the qualities and status of Mohammad (pbuh), and he realized from Abu Sufian’s answers that he (Mohammad) carried all the signs and qualities of all the true messengers mentioned in the Old and New Testaments, and which Hercules knew only too well. It was documented that Hercules would have become a Muslim had he not feared the wrath of his people, and the loss of reign. The following conversation took place between Hercules (H) and Abu Sufian (AS).
H: ”Has anyone claimed (prophethood) before him?”
AS: ”No”.
H: “Does he have a good lineage among the Arabs?”
AS: “Yes he has”.
H: “Has he ever been accused of lying before he claimed prophethood?”
AS: “Not really, we have never known him to be a liar”.
H: “Was he followed by the weak people or the rich and powerful ones?”
AS: “The weak ones”.
H: “Was anyone of his ancestors a king?”
AS: “No”.
H: “Are his followers on the increase or decrease?”
AS: “They are on the increase”
H: “Has any of his followers apostatized?”
AS: “No”
H: “Does he betray?”
AS: “No”
H: “Have you fought him?”
AS: “Yes”
H: “How is your war with him progressing?”
AS: “Sometimes we win sometimes, somettimes he does.”
H: “What does he ask you to do?”
AS: “To worship one God only and associate Him with nothing; to abandon the commands of our ancestors, perform prayer, be truthful, chaste, and to have good relations with our kith and kin”
H: “I asked you about his ancestry, you said he had good lineage, and messengers are usually chosen from good ancestry. I asked you if anyone of you claimed to be a prophet before him, you said no, and I say had someone before him claimed to be a prophet I would have said that he was just emulating other people. I asked if any of his ancestors was king, you said no, and I say that had any of his ancestors been king I would have accused him of seeking his ancestor’s reign. I asked if you ever accused of being a liar before he claimed prophethood, and you said no. I say that he wouldn’t have left lying to people to lying to God. I asked if his followers were the weak or noble people, and you said that they were the weak, and those are the followers of messengers. I asked if his followers were increasing or decreasing, you said they were increasing, and this is the way of faith until it is complete. I asked if any of his followers apostatized, and you said no, and that is how faith is when it touches the heart. I asked if he betrays, and you said no, and messengers never betray. I asked what he orders you to do, and you said to worship God and associate no one with Him, and forbids you from worshipping idles, and orders you to pray and be truthful and chaste. If all what you say is true, he will conquer my own kingdom. I knew he was forthcoming, but I did not expect him to be one of you (an Arab). If I knew I could reach him, I would have made an effort to meet him, and if I were with him I would wash his feet.”

4. The holy Qur’an that was revealed by God to Mohammad (pbuh) foretold many future events that happened later on in the same way the Qur’an said they would. These events include:
a. God says in the Holy Qur’an: “Truly did God fulfill the vision for His messenger: Ye shall enter the Sacred Mosque, if God wills, with minds secure, heads shaved, hair cut, and without fear. For He knew what ye Knew not, and He granted, besides this, a speedy victory” (Holy Qur’an: 48: 27).. And this is what exactly happened, the prophet’s companions entered the Holy Mosque with their heads shaved or their hair cut, feeling secure.

b. God says in the Holy Qur’an: “God has promised, to those among you who believe and work righteous deeds, that He will, of a surety, grant them in the land, inheritance (of power), as He granted it to those before them; that He will establish in authority their religion –the one which He has chosen for them; and that He will change (their state), after the fear in which they (lived ), to one of security and peace: ‘they will worship Me (alone) and not associate aught with Me.’ If any do reject Faith after this, they are rebellious and wicked” (Holy Qur’an: 24: 55). And, truly, God fulfilled His promise in a short time, for within thirty years of the caliphate era, Muslims reached the borders of China in the East, and the Atlantic Ocean in the West.

c. God says in the Holy Qur’an: “When comes the Help of God, and Victory * And thou dost see the people enter God’s Religion in crowds” (Holy Qur’an: 110: 1-2). Later on, Mecca was conquered, and people entered the religion of God in crowds.

d. God says in the Holy Qur’an: “Say to those who reject Faith: ‘Soon will ye be vanquished’.” (Holy Qur’an: 3: 12). And this is exactly what happened later on, and the non-believers became vanquished.

5. The messenger (pbuh) foretold many events before they actually happened. Some of these events include:
a. When he described the immigration to Medina to his companions, and it happened as he described.

b. He predicted that Muslims would conquer Mecca, Jerusalem, Yemen, Al-Sham (greater Syria) and Iraq.

c. He prophesied that security would prevail in the Arabian Peninsula so much so that a woman would be able to travel from Hira to Mecca fearing nothing but God.

d. Once he told his companions that Ali would conquer the town of Kheibar the next day, and he did.

e. He predicted that Muslims would distribute the treasures of the Persian and Roman Emperors.

f. He said that Persian women would serve in the homes of Muslims, and this happened during the life of his companions.

g. He foretold that the era of the companions would last for one hundred years, and the last companion died in the year 110 H.

h. He predicted that sedition amongst Muslims would not appear as long as Omar, the second caliph was alive.

i. He said that Uthman, the third caliph, would be killed while reading the Holy Qur’an.

And there are plenty of other similar events.

6. In order for people to believe messengers in their claims to be true messengers of God, and in order to strengthen their positions, God aided them with miracles. Some miracles are physical such as the camel of Saleh, Moses’ club, and the miracles given to Jesus such as curing the blind and the leprous and bringing the dead back to life, etc. Miracles could also be abstract and mind challenging such as the Holy Qur’an. Since Mohammad (pbuh) is the last prophet and messenger, God blessed him with many physical, abstract and mind challenging miracles. Some of these are: splitting the moon, the flow of water from between his fingers, increasing the quantity of food and drink, talking to animals, foretelling future events that happened later, being greeted and obeyed by trees and stones, curing the sick, and many other miracles. We recommend the reader here to refer to the book of the Prophet’s Miracles, which is written by Al-Hafiz Abi Al-Fida Ishmael ibn Katheer. However, Mohammad’s greatest everlasting miracle is the Holy Qur’an, which is miraculous in many ways: the choice of its vocabulary, its rhetorical structure that challenged humans and Jin to bring forward a similar one and they failed, then the Holy Qur’an challenged them to bring forward ten suras like the ones it contains and they failed, and they even failed to meet its challenge to bring forward one sura. Such a challenge would only emanate from a Source that is sure that the Holy Qur’an cannot be imitated by humans. Had it been produced by a human being, such a challenge would not have been posed. The Holy Qur’an is also miraculous because it is so precise in relating the history of ancient nations and their stories with their prophets. It also foretold future events that actually happened later on in the way the Holy Qur’an said they would. These are all miracles, especially since Mohammad (pbuh) was illiterate, and did not study history. The fact that these historical and future events were told by an illiterate man can only serve to give evidence that he was a true messenger of God. The just and comprehensive laws and regulations stipulated in Holy Qur’an provide a further proof that it is miraculous. Thus, the Holy Qur’an is miraculous in its entirety: its choice of vocabulary, telling of events, and its verdicts. It is a physical and mind challenging evidence on the true prophethood and message of Mohammad (pbuh).

Question 138: Islamists are nowadays accused of being terrorists and fundamentalists because they often resort to violence, which they call jihad. Is this religiously justifiable?

Answer 138: In order to answer this question, we have to take some matters inot consideration:
1. We have to keep in mind that the media steers the public to the direction that its owners desire. Today, after the collapse of the Soviet Union, the only remaining enemy of the West is Islam, because it is the only religion that the West could not, and will not be able to, distort its teachings, suppress its voice, and stop its spread throughout the world. People of knowledge should not become victims of the media that tries to make the general public think that Muslims are terrorists and fundamentalists who exploit the name of jihad in their terrorism and fundamentalism.

2. We need to ask: Who does describe Islamists as terrorists? The enemies of Islam who live inside and outside Islamic countries, and who are afraid of Islam, are the ones who invented this label to Muslims with the aim of degrading Islam and Muslims, alienating people from it, and to put Muslims in the position of the accused in the eyes of international community that is dominated by the USA. In his book The Arab World Today Murd Burger says:
The fear of the Arabs and our interest in the Arab nation does not stem from the existence of oil in huge quantities in their area, but because of Islam! Islam has to be fought to prevent the unification of the Arabs, because this unification could strengthen them. The strength of the Arabs has always coincided with the strength and spread of Islam” .

Dan Quail, the former American vice president said: “The only remaining enemy of the West is Islam” . Quail classified Islam in the same category as Communism and Nazism, and the Western media coined a new word to describe Islam “fundamentalism.” The Times magazine once published on its cover a picture that combines a mosque minaret with a machine gun under the headline: “Islamic Danger.” Our natural response to such a description cannot be taken seriously because it comes from an enemy, and enemies have never been fair. Moreover, those who follow the biased Western media that invented these descriptions of Muslims, and those who follow the writings and declarations of Western thinkers and politicians realize that using these descriptions of Muslims when Muslims defend their religion, usurped Holy places, occupied lands, stolen rights and their dignity. This was the case when Afghanis and their Muslim bretherns fought the occupying forces of Communism, which violated international law by occupying other people’s land and killing the people of this land. The West, represented in its media and politics, did not describe then such actions as terrorism or violence, but when the Afghani people rose to defend themselves, their land and religion, their enemies condemned that and described them as terrorists and fundamentalists, and the lying Jewish media promoted these accusations that spread very quickly throughout the international community. This is quite natural given the fact that almost the whole world listens to the West and its media, thinkers, and politicians. They want Muslims to surrender to their enemy, give up their religion and abandon their rights without any resistance; when they do so they resist they will be called terrorists, and what was said about the Afghani people is being said now about the Palestinians in their struggle against Israel. The struggle of the Palestinians is being called terrorism and violence, because they are defending themselves, their Holy places and their land.

On the other hand, what the Jews did in Qubayyah, Deir Yaseen, Sabra and Shatilla, Qana, and other ugly massacres that were carried out against the Palestinian people were not in the eyes of the West and its media terrorism nor violence, but self defense.

The most obvious example in our modern day are the fabrications surrounding the Bosnian war that was witnessed by the whole world, and the international tribunal in The Hague prosecuted its war criminals. We pose the question: has the West found one Muslim war criminal? Weren’t all the criminals either from the Serbs or the Croats? So who should be called terrorists: Muslims or the others?

The same can be said about what is happening to Muslims in Germany, where extremists are killing Muslims and burning their houses, and in France, where Muslim women have been prevented from wearing the Islamic veil. So who should be called terrorists, those who simply want to practice their religion, or those who massacre innocents, burn houses, and deprive others from their basic personal freedom and religious rights? Many events like these are taking place all over the world, where Muslims are being persecuted and deprived from their personal human rights that should be respected by all international laws, yet the international media promotes the idea of Muslims being terrorists and extremists!

This is the twisted logic and reckless judgment of the international community today, a community that turns away from the message of God, suffers from ignorance, and does not follow the right path of God. God says in the Holy Qur’an:
“But whosoever turns away from My Message, verily for him is a life narrowed down, and We shall raise him up blind on the Day of Judgment” (Holy Qur’an: 20: 121).

Muslims are, now more than ever, required to be strong in order to raise the Islamic nation above, and feared by all other nations, so that no side will ever think of hurting Muslims or attacking their beliefs, God says:
“Against them make ready your strength to the utmost of your power, including steeds of war, to strike terror into (the hearts of) the enemies of God, and your enemies, and others besides, whom ye may not know” (Holy Qur’an: 8: 60).

Concerning this Qur’anic verse Sayyed Qutb says gives the following commentary:
Islam has to have the sort of power that enables it to advance throughout the world to free Man, and the first domain where this power should be used is the domain of Da’wa (preaching Islam): to make sure that those who chose to be Muslims are free to do so, and are not afraid of getting persecuted for becoming Muslims. Secondly, this power should be used to intimidate the enemies of Islam, so that they do not contemplate attacking the Muslim nation that is protected by this power.”

Thus, Muslims are requested to frighten the enemies of God and His messenger who defend His religion, because such enemies should live in humiliation and disgrace, for this is the way of God with His creatures, and not the laws of Darwen who says:
It is natural disposition that only those who prove to be fit should survive, and those who perish do so because they are too weak that they deserve to perish, and those who survive deserve to survive.

What “natural disposition” is he talking about? This is certainly not the way God has meant humans to be.

However, when Muslims deal with each others they are requested to show humbleness, sympathy and and provide each other with valuable advice. This is how our forefathers were “…Lowly with the Believers, mighty against the Rejecters…”(Holy Qur’an: 5: 54).

The West, which promotes the image of Muslims as terrorists, aims at keeping Muslims busy defending themselves to exhaust their resources while they try to clear themselves of the accusations that have been wrongly thrown at them, and thus they do not find the time to unveil the bad face of the Western culture which talks carries the banners of Human Rights and other colorful slogans, while dominating other peoples’ fortunes, and to keep silent while massacres take place here and there to achieve their goals.

As for the second part of the question:(Do they accuse all Islamists of being terrorists?), we can say that it is noted that enemies of Islam target their accusations mainly on ardent and committed Muslims, who seek the application of the Islamic Law, refuse to make alliances with anyone but God and His messenger and call for the unity of Muslims, of being terrorists because they do not yield to the wishes and commands of enemies of Islam, and decline to facilitate the theft of the fortunes of the Islamic nation by these enemies. But so-called Muslims who ally themselves with the West and its civilization, and accept to be lead by the West in obvious contradiction with Islamic teaching, are called “moderates” by the West.

However, there are some individuals who commit acts of aggression against innocent civilians in different parts of the world in the name of jihad, and some of these acts are attributed to Islam although they are committed by non-Islamic organizations. To this we say: jihad has its rules and means, and killing innocent civilians is not part of it. Prophet Mohammad (pbuh) forbid the killing of women, children and covenanters. He says:”He who kills a covenanter will not (even) smell paradise, (although) it can be smelled from a forty year walking distance” . There are many proofs and a lot of evidence in the Holy Qur’an and the tradition of the Prophet that prohibit killing innocent civilians and destroying towns. If someone goes against these teachings of Islam, blame should no be put on Islam, but on the person himself.
Question 139: Why did prophet Muhammad marry several women and limited the marriage of Muslim men to only four women?

Answer 139: This question has some confusion appearing in “limited the marriage of Muslim men to only four women.” Every Muslim knows that Muhammad (pbuh) is a messenger whose basic task is to convey what has been revealed to him from God. He can not limit out of his own will and does not make something legal to himself. God the Almighty allowed Muslims to marry more than one woman, He says:
“but if you fear that you shall not be able to deal justly (with them), then only one or (the slaves) that your right hands possess. That is nearer to prevent you from doing injustice” (Holy Qur’an: 4: 3).

Concerning the prophet (pbuh), God the Almighty said:
“O Prophet (Muhammad (pbuh)! Verily, We have made lawful to you your wives, to whom you have paid their mahr (bridal-money given by the husband to his wife at the time of marriage), and those (slaves) whom your right hand possesses – whom God has given to you, and the daughters of your khal (maternal uncles) and the daughters of your khalah (maternal aunts) who migrated (from Makkah) with you, and a believing woman if she offers herself to the Prophet, and the Prophet wishes to marry her – a privilege for you only, not for (the rest of) the believers. Indeed We know what We have enjoined upon them about their wives and those (slaves) whom their right hands possess, in order that there should be no difficulty on you. And God is Ever oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. You (O Mhammad can postpone (the turn of) whom you will of them (your wives), and you may receive whom you will. And whomsoever you desire of those whom you have set aside (her turn temporarily), it is no sin on you (to receive her again); that is better that they may be comforted and not grieved, and may all be pleased with what you give them. God knows what is in your hearts. And God is Ever All-Knowing, Most Forbearing. It is not lawful for you (to marry other) women after this, nor to change them for other wives even though their beauty attracts you, except those (slaves) whom your right hand possesses. And God is Ever a Watcher over all things”(Holy Qur’an: 4: 3).

Examine the above holy verses which show that God the Almighty who allowed the prophet to marry the wives whom he had granted bridal-money, and God took the responsibility to explain that in order to silence all who talk about the messenger of God (pbuh), as if God the Almighty said, “We made you marry those women, and that is the original thing, i.e. God sent him to his creatures and he was being taken care of by God the Almighty as he was in his care in all of his matters, including marriage.

We also see that in those holy verses, God the Almighty prevented him from marrying any more women after those whom he married by saying to him “It is not lawful for you (to marry other) women after this” i.e. those are your wives only, so you cannot marry other ones. So lawfulness and unlawfulness, permission and prevention are God’s concern, not the messenger’s.

Polygamy was a common practice in the human and Arab environment before Islam; it was familiar to previous prophet and their followers. The prophet (pbuh) said that one of the prophets of the Jews, married one hundred wives, and Solomon (pbuh) married more than that.

As to why the prophet married several women and limited Muslims to four, that was one of the specialties, i.e. it is not lawful for any other Muslim to imitate him in this. He has other specialties, like continuing to fast after sunset; when his companions continued their fast after sunset, he prohibited them by saying: “I am not like you, God provides me with food and drink;” and like the unlawfulness of his wives’ marriage after death, as they are the mothers of believers; and like the unlawfulness to marry more than his nine wives or divorce one of them.

Pondering into his biography, we find that the prophet (pbuh) did not marry more than one until he emigrated to Medina, and that was after exceeding fifty three of his age, an age when, usually, no one marries for purely sexual purposes or desires. All the ladies whom he married in Medina were widows, except Aishahh; as was mentioned earlier, the prophet married these ladies for legislative and reformative purposes, including:

1. Spread of education: It suffices to know that half the society were women, and they needed culture and education exactly as men did and that are, two or three could not perform their role in transmission, education and guidance. Therefore, a group of women were indispensable to educate the other women of the society, especially in matters relating to women, as they feel shy to ask men about it. For example, it is cited in Bukhari and Muslim that Aysha reported that one Ansari woman asked the prophet about the after-menstruation-bath. The prophet told her what to do by saying: “Purify yourself with a piece of cloth scented with musk.” The woman asked, “How shall I purify myself with it.” The prophet felt shy to clarify it any further; at which appropriate time, I (Aysha) pulled the woman aside and told her: “Use the cloth to rub the place soiled with blood.”

The prophet’s various houses were centres for teaching women their religious rules, and especially to enlighten men about matters relating to women. Verses of the Holy Qur’an were revealed in support of this by addressing the mothers of believers (the prophet’s wives):
“And remember (O you the members of the Prophets family, the Graces of Your Lord), that which is recited in your houses of the Verses of God and al-Hikmah (i.e. Prophet’s Sunnah – legal ways, so give your thanks to God and glorify His Praises for this Qur’an and the sunnah). Verily, God is Ever Most Courteous, Well-Acquainted with all things” (Holy Qur’an: 33: 34).

2. Completing the Legislation: The prophet (pbuh) married several women for legislative purposes, like abolishing the adoption custom , and contributing to the subject of relating the prophetic traditions, which are the second source of legislation after the Holy Qur’an. The prophet’s wives contributed to the narration and conveyance of every tradition they heard from him and every act of the messenger they saw. In this way, a big number of prophetic traditions reached the Muslim community through his wives. Narrators of the traditions mentioned that the number of hadith the prophet’s wives related were more than three thousands.

3. Achievement of solidarity: The prophet (pbuh) married women who had nobody to look after them, especially after they had lost husbands. He married them out of mercy, like the Makhzomite lady Hind Ummu Salamah, Ramlah bint Abi Sufyan and other ladies whose biographies had been mentioned in the biographies of the prophet (pbuh), which show us that his mercy (pbuh) upon women like these, his care for orphans, sponsorship of widows and consoling those inflicted with calamities.

4. Exemplification: The messenger of God (pbuh) is the good example and high ideal of good treatment of his wives and achievement of justice among them and respect of their opinions, helping them in their household works, and loyalty to those who died from them. Anyone who looks for a good example and a high idea in dealing with wives, he needs to learn about the guidance of the prophet (pbuh) in the books of his biography, which embodied and portrayed to us his life with his wives, as if we were living with him (pbuh) and in his homes.

Question 140: There is a contradiction between the Qur’an and the events in the prophetic traditions. God promised Muhammad and his companions victory, but they were defeated in Uhud, for example. How do you explain this?

Answer 140: The first side of this question involves the victory, which God promised His messenger and believers and means the outcome of the struggle between them and their enemies. God the Almighty crowned the jihad of His prophet, and the companions who supported him, with decisive victory. All Arab tribes pledged their obedience to the prophet and became subjects to the state of Islam—something that appeared clearly in the Delegations Year (the tenth year after hijra) as delegations came one after another to Medina from the various Arab tribes and pledged their obedience to the messenger of God for Islam. All these tribes ultimately became subject to Islam and recognized the state of Islam. The messenger of God with his own eye witnessed this victory during his lifetime. Also The prophet foretold great victories to his companions, victories which were achieved after his death. Only a few years passed after his death when Muslims conquered the two greatest empires of the day, the Persian and Roman empires; and subjected their territories and most of their peoples to the Islamic rule. Thus, God’s promise of victory to his believing servants was achieved.

On the way to reach final victory the prophet (pbuh) and his companions were exposed to various kinds of pain, wounds, losses in property and souls, but that is God’s law. God says:
“Or think you that you will enter Paradise without such (trials) as came to those who passed away before you? They were afflicted with severe poverty and ailments and were so shaken that even the Messenger and those who believed along with him said, “When (will come) the Help of God?” Yes! Certainly, the Help of God is near!”’ (Holy Qur’an: 2: 214).

This is the nature of conflict between truth and its supporters on the one hand and falsity and its party.

The way of calling to God is a thorny one paved with obstacles, hardships, wounds and pains, which are like lessons to the believing league which may have its violations, or they are like examinations to test the believers and purify the Muslim row from the greedy, the vindictive and opportunistic. That is what happened in Uhud Battle when Muslims learned a real and practical lesson as a punishment for violating the order of their prophet and leader (pbuh). After the notorious victory the Muslims had achieved in Badr Battle (the first battle in Islam), some Muslims thought they would never lose a battle whatsoever, so long as they were Muslims and others infidels. In the Battle of Uhud the Muslims were shocked by what had befallen to them. God says:
“(What is the matter with you?) When a single disaster smites you, although you smote (your enemies) with one twice as great, you say: “From where does this come to us?” Say (to them), “It is from yourselves (because of your evil deeds.” (Holy Qur’an: 3: 165).

The other side of the question is that the Muslims not only were defeated in Uhud Battle, but many were killed and injured. Militarily speaking, the Muslims achieved victory in spite of the great losses they had in the battle. Victory can be explained in this way: first, the Muslims were victorious in the beginning; they chased the polytheists out of their camp and surrounded their women and property, and dropped their banner in the field of war, but when, after the end of battle, the Muslim hurlers violated the prophet’s order and abandoned their strategic positions and hurried down to take their shares, Khalid Bin al-Waleed (a polytheist then) returned to the battlefield again, ambushed the Muslim army, and caused them a great deal of loss. Yet those polytheists were unable to destroy the Islamic movement, neither physically nor morally. Later, the Muslims were able under the leadership of the messenger of God (pbuh) to overcome this crisis and gained the upper hand in the battle; soon the enemies ran away. Had the polytheists been triumphant, the euphoria of victory would have urged them to stay in the battlefield in order to conquer the Muslim army, or at least its leading figures, about whom Abu Sufyan asked at the end of the battle; they are the Messenger of God (pbuh) Abu Bakr and Umar Bin al-Khattab. The polytheists would have attacked Medina in which there were only women, old people and supporters of the polytheists of hypocrites and Jews. It would have been an opportunity for them, but Abu Sufyan, the leader of the polytheists, realized that what happened in the second round of the battle was not because of the bravery and courage of his soldiers; he knew them in the first round of the battle when they ran away before the Muslims, and that was only because of the mistake of the Muslims. That is how it happened as a matter of fate destined by God for some reasons He wanted. The Muslims under the leadership of the prophet (pbuh) the following morning chased the polytheists to Hamrah al-Asad. When the polytheists learned about this, they continued their way hurriedly towards Makkah for fear of the Muslims, whose spirits were high and whose will was strong. Here I ask: “Does a defeated army chase its enemy, and does a victorious army flee? This cannot happen from a military point of view and cannot be accepted by wise people.
The third aspect of the truth of the victory of the Muslims in Uhud Battle can be recognized when we know the fact that every single nation must make some mistakes, and those mistakes are natural in the lives of nations, but nations have different attitudes towards their mistakes in their lives. Some nations make mistakes, and then more mistakes but they do not learn a lesson from them (not to make the same mistakes later on). Such nations are ones whose insight has been blinded, so they stumble on their way of construction and their pursuit for reaching their aim was impossible; and some nations make mistakes but they learn lessons from them, so their mistakes decrease in their lives, and goodness and building excel evil and destruction. So their conditions improved and their building developed. Such nations have insight and achieve victory. That is what happened to Muslims in Uhud Battle. The companions made use of this newly learned lesson and learned a great deal from their mistakes. We know that from what happened the following morning, when the prophet declared jihad among his companions who were injured the day before in Uhud battle, all of them attended in spite of their wounds and pains, although some of them were not able to walk except between two men to lean on. The benefit of the Muslims from their mistakes is itself considered a great victory. If the Muslims make use of their mistakes and learn lesson, as their ancestors did, their situation will change considerably. God the Almighty, after this battle, addressed Muslims to show them that what happened was a natural law, the law of God, that you will defeat or be defeated, and that the natural result will be in your favor, but after jihad, infliction and putting you to test. The triumph of the polytheists over the Muslims in the second round of the battle is not an established law, but a transitory event behind which there is a lot of heavenly wisdom and lessons. God said:
“Many similar ways (and mishaps of life) were faced by nations (believers and disbelievers) that have passed away before you (as you have faced in the battle of Uhud), so travel through the earth, and see what was the end of those who disbelieved (in the Oneness of God, and disobeyed Him and His Messenger. This (the Qur’an) is a plain statement for mankind, a guidance and instruction to those who are al-muttaqun (the pious). So do not become weak (against your enemy), nor be sad, and you will be superior(in victory) if you are indeed (true) believers. If a wound (and killing) has touched you, be sure a similar wound (and killing) has touched the others. Ad so are the days (good and not so good), We give to men by turns, that God may test those who believe, and that He may take martyrs from among you. And God likes not the Zalimun (polytheists and wrong-doers). And that God may test (or purity) the believers (from sins) and destroy the disbelievers. Do you think that y will enter Paradise before God tests those of you who fought (in His Cause) and (also) tests those who are as-sabirun (the patient)” (Holy Qur’an: 3: 137-142).

Question 141: Are Muslims required to follow the example of the prophet (pbuh) according to what came in his biography?

Answer 141: The prophetic biography as a whole is a true method of life pure of any stains and blemishes. It suffices that it is a true picture of the life of a man chosen by God as a mercy for mankind. Therefore, every Muslim who hopes for escape for himself and success in this life and in the hereafter is required to study and contemplate the biography of the prophet (pbuh) to benefit from his worship, to call to Islam, jihad and all of his life. His life (pbuh) is all lessons and wisdom, those who follow it succeed and escape and those abandon it lose and perish.

Dr. Rajih Abdulkareem al-Karm says:
Understanding the biography of the Messenger (pbuh) is, in fact, part and parcel of understanding Islam, for its is a practical and lively witness showing the fruit of faith and absolute belief in his religion embodied by the Messenger of God (pbuh) as a practical and high ideal.

He adds:
Studying the Messenger’s biography plays an important role in the interpretation of the Holy Qur’an, which is the trusted record of actions and events of the biography and the invasions, events and causes of revelation and method of calling to God, bases of legislation and direction, which the Messenger of God pointed out and implemented practically. So, the prophet’s biography is an explanation of the Holy Qur’an and an interpretation of it. Studying it is a study of the interpretation of the Holy Qur’an. As such, understanding Islam is connected with the understanding of the Holy Prophetic biography.

Furthermore, studying the prophetic biography is a legal necessity to imitate the prophet (pbuh) about whom God said: “Indeed in the Messenger of God (Muhammad (pbuh) you have a good example” (Holy Qur’an: 33: 21). Studying the prophetic biography carefully and sincerely helps the sincere Muslims to imitate the prophet (pbuh). I conclude that the major part of his biography (pbuh) especially the one related to his life after the mission until his death (pbuh) includes a great deal of divine rules relating to peace, war, settlement and travel; to health, illness, worship, dealings and other things we are required to follow and worship God by doing so. On the other hand, the other side of his biography (pbuh), especially those relating to that period before the mission, does not show divine rules and Muslims do not have to follow them. They are personal or general matters Muslims can read for the sake of knowledge and not worship. For example, his biography shows that as a baby, he was breastfed in the desert of Bani Sa`d. In his youth he worked sometimes as a shepherd, sometimes in trading, and so on. No Muslim is required to follow this side of his life (pbuh), but may be some lessons could be deduced and more feedback acquired about the true personality of the prophet. God says, “Or is it that they did not recognize their Messenger (Muhammad) so hey deny him?” (Holy Qur’an: 23: 69).

Question 142: Muslims say that Muhammad had performed miracles. How can one differentiate between these miracles and magic?

Answer 142: A miracle is originally a supernatural event that goes against the natural law. People witness it and God allows it to happen at the hands of his prophets, while “magic” is an event whose cause is unseen and imagined to be something different. It uses the method of camouflage and misleading, and it is all seen as true and accurate.

The most famous kind of magic of is the one based on the use of earthly spirits like jinn, where magicians usually get assistance. Magicians also rely on a devil or a goblin to achieve something he wants; hence, magic is associated with blasphemy. God said,
“They followed what the shayatin (devils) gave out (falsely of the magic) in the lifetime of Sulaiman (Solomon). Sulaiman did not disbelieve, but the shayatin (devils) disbelieved, teaching men magic and such things that came down at Babylon to the two angels. Harut and Marut, but neither of these two (angels taught anyone (such things) till they had said, ‘We are only for trial, so disbelieve not (by learning this magic from us)’.” (Holy Qur’an: 1:102).

Al-Nisai mentioned that Abu Hurayrah related that the prophet (pbuh) said:
“Any one who knots a knot then blows in it, he has performed magic and anyone who performs magic has associated another deity with God, and anyone who hangs am amulet, he is given to it.”

There is also the magic of deceiving and misleading the eyes, as God said about the Pharaoh’s sorcerers:
“they bewitched the eyes of the people, and struck terror into them, and they displayed a great magic” (Holy Qur’an: 7:116), i.e. they camouflaged what they did until people thought that the ropes and sticks were moving. God said, “And their sticks, by their magic, appeared to him as though they moved fast” (Holy Qur’an: 20: 66).

Hence we can know some differences between a miracle and magic, like a miracle is a support from God to his prophet or messenger to prove his prophecy and message, so what he performs is miraculous, and the Holy Qur’an mentioned many of them, while magic is a support of the devil to his followers. A good servant of God, a messenger or a prophet performs a miracle, and a good servant cannot be a magician because magic is blasphemy. God may allow a good servant to perform miraculous things, a servant who is not a prophet or a messenger, and that is a blessing while magic comes from someone who denied God, associated someone with Him, and followed the Devil. Therefore, if you see something miraculous performed by someone, we should examine his state. If he is a servant of God, does what God orders and abstains from what God prohibits, pure in appearance and heart away from every kind of evil action, then learn that it is a miracle that he is performing, and if he is an evil lecherous malignant person who commits sins and disobeys God, then he is a sorcerer.

A miracle changes the reality of things and makes it a real fact, and that is the secret of the embracement of Islam of Pharaoh’s sorcerers when Moses threw his stick which tuned into a snake that swallowed the sticks and ropes of the magicians, which we see to have been transformed under the effect of sorcery into snakes, except the magicians who were not charmed themselves. They saw Moses’ stick, which was transformed into a snake eating their sticks and ropes. God said:
“And the sorcerers fell down prostrate. Saying: “We believe in the Lord of the alamin (mankind, jinn and all that exists), the Lord of Moses and Aaron” (Holy Qur’an: 26: 46-47).

Magic does not change the reality of things, but a sorcerer affects the senses of people so that they feel that the things before them have taken new forms and shapes, while the things themselves continue to be the same, without changing their reality, as the sorcerers of Pharaoh did, they bewitched the eyes of people when people were made to imagine that the sticks and ropes became snakes in the arena, and in fact, they remained the same, unchanging ropes and sticks.

A miracle is performed to achieve a noble intention like healing the blind and the leprous, healing patients, supporting messengers, and strengthening the believers, etc. It always achieves something good, whereas magic is used for evil purposes, like separation between husband and wife, inflicting people with disease and illness and maybe death.

Miracles and magic are, then, essentially two things different in essence and purpose and those who perform them are dissimilar except in some apparent effects, but it is easy for every understanding person to differentiate between them. In addition, any act if it is magic and not a heavenly miracle; it means that it is a human act that can be performed by magicians on earth, whereas God makes a miracle. Therefore, it can be achieved in the same manner by any human being.

Question 143: God says about Muhammad: “God will protect you from mankind” (The Holy Qur’an: 5: 67). How was he bewitched, poisoned and, more than once, wounded?

Answer 143: The verse mentioned in this question is part of the fifth verse of chapter (sura) 67 (Holy Qur’an: 5: 67) from al-Maida. God said:
“O Messenger (Muhammad (pbuh)! Proclaim (the Message) which has been sent down to you from your Lord, And if you do not, then you have not conveyed His Message. God will protect you from mankind. Verily, God guides not the people who disbelieve.” (Holy Qur’an: 5: 67).

In this holy verse, there is an order from God the Almighty to his Messenger to pursue his call to Islam and inform others of what he has been informed regardless of the enemies, their intrigues and conspiracies against him (pbuh). Before the revelation of this verse, while calling to God, the prophet felt afraid about himself that he might be killed or assassinated, and God the Almighty knew what went on in the heart of his chosen prophet, and knew that the enemies intended to kill His Messenger. He, therefore, revealed this verse to him to appease him and tell him that he is in His protection, care and maintenance, and anyone who is under God’s care and protection, what could the weak enemies do to him? Imam Ahmad related that Aishah related: “The Messenger of God stayed up late at night while I was beside him. She said, she addressed the prophet saying ‘What is wrong, Messenger of God?’ He answered: ‘I wish one righteous companion of mine would guard me tonight.’ She said, ‘While I was listening to him, I heard a weapon cluttering.’ He said, “Who is there?” He [the one outside] said, ‘I am Sa`d ibn Malik.’ He said, ‘What brought you here at this moment?’ Sa’d said, ‘I’ve come to guard you.’ She said, ‘Then I heard the Messenger of God soundly asleep.” Ibn Abi Hatim mentioned that Aishah said: “The prophet used to be guarded until the verse “And God will protect you from people” was revealed. She said, “The prophet watched out of the dome and said, “O, people! You could leave, God has protected us.” What is meant by the Arabic word (‘Isma) in the prophetic tradition is God the Almighty will protect His messenger (pbuh) from killing. The prophet (pbuh) was exposed, especially after hijra to Medina, to many assassination attempts by the Jews, the hypocrites, the pagans and others. Except for the protection of God, the prophet would have been killed from the very early days of his public call to Islam. Anyone interested in learning about those attempts, he could refer to the book entitled And God will Protect You from People by Ahmad aj-Jadi` in which he described the attempts of assassination of the prophet (pbuh) starting with that big attempt by Quraish, so God saved him from them, and allowed him to emigrate to Medina. As to verbal and practical harm less than killing, the Messenger of God (pbuh) was exposed to many incidents, especially in Makkah, and this is the situation of callers to God everywhere all the time and that is God’s law of testing and trying, as He said:
“Verily, (many) Messengers were denied before you (O Muhammad (pbuh), but with patience they bore the denial, and they were hurt; till Our help reached them, and none can alter the Words (Decisions) of God. Surly there has reached you the information (news) about the Messengers (before you)” (Holy Qur’an: 6: 34).

And the prophet himself said, “The most inflicted amongst you are the messengers, then those who are similar to them, and then those are similar to them” and God’s protection of his Messenger from killing was particular to him (pbuh) unlike other callers and conveyers, as he is the one conveying the message of God. Therefore, he was protected from killing until he conveys God’s message in the manner that God wanted.

Question 144: There is a controversy and ambiguity around the marriages of the prophet to Zainab Bint Jahsh. Could you clarify this ambiguity and explain the circumstances of this marriage clearly?

Answer 144: Zainab Bint Jahsh is the prophet’s cousin on his father’s side. Her mother is Umaymah Bint Abdulmuttalib and she is the sister of Abdullah Bin Jahsh who was martyred in Uhud Battle. The Messenger of God married her after she was divorced by his slave Zayd ibn Haritha without a human contract, because it was God the Almighty who married her off to him, in order to cancel the custom of adoption and the custom of prohibiting marriage to the wife of adopted sons, which was common then amongst Arabs. God the Almighty revealed some verses to be recited from the Holy Qur’an to show that. He says:
“And (remember) when you said to him (Zayd bin Harithah the freed-slave of the Prophet) on whom God has bestowed Grace (by guiding him to Islam) and you (O Muhammad (pbuh) too) have done favor (by manumitting him): “Keep your wife to yourself, and fear God.” But you did hide in yourself (i.e. what God has already made known to you that he will give her to you in marriage) that which God will make manifest, you did fear the people (i.e., their saying that Muhammad (pbuh) married the divorced wife of his manumitted slave) whereas God had a better right that you should fear Him. So when Zaid had accomplished his desire from her (i.e. divorced her), We gave her to you in marriage, so that (in future) there may be no difficulty to the believers in respect of (the marriage of) the wives of their adopted sons when the latter have no desire to keep them (i.e. they have divorced them). And God’s Command must be fulfilled” (Holy Qur’an: 33: 37).

God also says,
“But you did hide in yourself (i.e. what God had already made known to you that He will give her to you in marriage) that which God will make manifest, you did fear the people” (Holy Qur’an: 33: 37)

The minds of people started wondering as to what the prophet concealed from them and forgot about God’s words which is understood to mean that God the Almighty revealed in His words what the Messenger had concealed. The verse is clear that God the Almighty revealed in it that Zainab being a wife of Muhammad, not anything else. The right thing to do was to contemplate the Holy Qur’an and not give a free rein to their imagination and to say about the prophet (pbuh) what should not be said. Let’s explain the story of this blessed marriage:

Zayd ibn Harithah is an Arab from the tribe of Bani Kalb. One tribe attacked his and took him captive as this usually happened before Islam and sold him. Hakeem ibn Hizam bought him to his aunt Khadeejah and she, in turn, offered him to her husband, the prophet. His folks had been looking for him to restore him; they learned about his whereabouts, in Makkah. They came to the prophet (pbuh) and asked him and begged him to give them their son back. They were the caretakers of the Holy Mosque and deserve this good deed. The prophet, in turn, made them another offer, i.e. to come to Zayd and make him choose between his father and folks or staying with Muhammad. He chose Muhammad after seeing his sublime manners, good treatment and nice dealing. His folks said to him, “Do you prefer slavery to freedom?”

The prophet (pbuh) announced in Quraish Club the adoption of Zaid and that he could inherit him. Zayd was called afterwards Zayd ibn Muhammad, then God revealed Islam and Zayd was the first slave to embrace Islam. When he grew under the care of the prophet (pbuh), the prophet wanted to reward him back, he married him to his cousin on his father’s side, Zainab, to confirm his freedom and adoption of him, and to raise his social status.

The prophet proposed to Zainabl for Zayd. She declined as she was Quraishi from a noble family and she found Zayd below her social status. So God the Almighty revealed: “It is not for a believer, man or woman, when God and His messenger have decreed a matter that they should have any option in their decision” (Holy Qur’an: 33: 36). So Zaynab said, “O, messenger of God, I have accepted what you have accepted for me.” Zayd married her and lived with her for around a year.

This has been related by as-Sadi. He said, “We learned that this verse was revealed for Zainab Bint Jahsh, whose mother is Umayyma Bint Abdulmuttalib, the aunt of the prophet (pbuh) who wanted to marry her to Zayd Bin Haritha – his slave – so she was reluctant to do so. Then she accepted what the prophet did and he married her to him, then God informed His prophet (pbuh) that she is one of his wives. The prophet was shy to inform her of her divorce, and people knew that Zainab and Zayd were married. The prophet (pbuh) told him to keep his wife and to fear God and was afraid that people would blame him and say that he married his daughter-in-law as he had already adopted Zayd as his son. What the prophet (pbuh) concealed was not love to Zaynab, as some liars claimed, as had it been love to Zainab, God the Almighty would have showed that in the Holy Qur’an, and the prophet would not have done that as he was infallible, and as he was described by God in this way “And Verily, for you (O Muhammad are on an exalted (standard of) character” (Holy Qur’an: 68: 4). What he really feared was that people would say and the hypocrites and Jews would say: “How could he prohibit marrying the daughter-in-law and he himself marry the wife of his (adopted) son? The marital life did not last between Zayd and Zaynab, so she was divorced.

Anas said, “When Zainab finished her confinement after divorce, the Messenger of God (pbuh) said to Zayd, ‘Propose to her for me.’ He said, ‘I set out and said to her “O, Zainab, I have a good news for you. The prophet wants to propose to you.’ She said, ‘I’m not doing anything unless I am ordered by my Lord God. She went then to her prayer room and the verse was revealed to the prophet (pbuh) and he went in to see her without permission’.” Ibn Hajar said:
That was the greatest event to happen then, and that her previous husband would be an in-between in order that nobody would think that it was done by force without his satisfaction, and it tests whether he has feelings towards her: “Did anything remain there?

And God the Almighty says:
“So when Zaid had accomplished his desire from her (i.e. divorced her), We gave her to you in marriage, so that (in future) there may be no difficulty to the believers in respect of (the marriage of) the wives of their adopted sons when the latter have no desire to keep them (i.e. they have divorced them)” (Holy Qur’an: 33: 37).

So, prophet (pbuh) married her to nullify two pre-Islamic customs which were common then; the custom of not marrying the wife of the adopted son, and the habit of superiority and pride of belonging to a noble family, as a nobility would not conventionally marry someone humble, and to confirm the basis of preference, God says: “Verily, the most honorable of you with God is that (believer) who has at-taqwa [i.e. he is one of the muttaqun (the pious)]” (Holy Qur’an: 49: 13).

PART FOUR

Questions and Answers on
The Inimitability of the Holy Qur’an

Translated by
Ahmad H. Al-Hout

Chapter 1:

Selections from the Inimitability of the Holy Qur’an

Question 145: What are the forms of inimitability found in the Holy Qur’an and holy prophetic traditions?

Answer 145: The miraculous forms of the Holy Qur’an and true prophetic traditions share common totalities, which include:
1. The Linguistic Inimitability: The Holy Qur’an is of the highest degree of eloquence and rhetoric in the Arabic language and has always rendered the people of eloquence and rhetoric incapable of producing something similar.

2. The Legislative Inimitability: The Holy Qur’an contains a perfect code of life to secure the interests of the servants of God in this world and save them from punishment in the Hereafter. It is valid for all times and places.

3. The Informative inimitability: A great deal of news was given in the Holy Qur’an as to what would happen in the future; events took place accordingly. It also gave news about past events that had happened long time before, like telling about the peoples of Noah, Hud, Salih and others. Without what was revealed in the Holy Qur’an, Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) , he would not have known anything himself.

4. The Scientific Inimitability: Some verses in the Noble Qur’an indicate scientific facts which had not been known before, and science has been discovering them with the course of time. These verses include empirical, human, natural as well as other kinds of science.

5. The Inimitability of Guidance: This is embodied in various examples; anyone wanting to learn about them, he can refer to the books written on scientific inimitability in the Noble Qur’an, in the Prophetic traditions and in the Inimitability magazine, which is issued by the Islamic World Association.

Question 146: How did the modern scientific discoveries confirm the truth of the well-known saying that “the Qur’an’s inimitability does not know an end?”

Answer 146: God the Almighty has pointed out that He taught His prophet what he had not known before. He says:
“God has sent down to you the book (The Qur’an), and al-Hikmah (Islamic laws, knowledge of legal and illegal things i.e. the Prophet’s Sunnah–legal ways), and taught you that which you knew not. And Ever Great is the Grace of God unto you (O Muhammad (pbuh).” (Holy Qur’an: 4: 113).
These types of knowledge conveyed through the messenger of God (pbuh) were brought in the form of revelation from God the Almighty and from the kinds of knowledge the prophet had. The God’s prophet (pbuh) said: “Every prophet was given knowledge which made his people believe him and I hope I will be the most followed prophet on the Resurrection Day.” Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) showed that the miracles of his predecessor prophets (peace be upon the all) were kinds of miracles admitted by the peoples in their own times. They were supernatural and could not be challenged neither in their own times nor in times to come; all confirming the prophethood of those who showed them.

The miracles of the prophet Muhammad (pbuh) were both scientific and intellectual. They were heavenly revelations. It will take a man’s life-long to realize and recognize essence and truth of the heavenly revelation (the Qur’an). Yet, the miracles of this holy book do not end in the course of time; in every age a clear sign of this revelation is confirmed and a bright proof is seen—all conforming to the true revelation, the Holy Qur’an, from God upon His prophet/messenger. This also confirms the prophethood of Muhammad (pbuh). We see in every age natural scientists producing facts after a long reach and efforts. These facts are taken for granted by the Muslim who reads the book of God the Almighty and contemplates its meanings.

Embryology, for example, is considered to be one of the most modern sciences which scientists could not explore until modern civilization provided them with instruments that could show what was happening in the womb of the mother without hurting the mother or the fetus. They reached some facts which had been taken for granted by Muslims, things like the beginning of the formation of the fetus, when the sperm enters the ovum of the woman. Almighty God said: “And that He [God] creates the pairs, male and female, from Nutfah (drops of semen – male and female discharges) when it is emitted.” (Holy Qur’an: 53: 45-46). God also said: “Was he not a nutfah (mixed male and female sexual discharge) of semen emitted (poured forth)?” (Holy Qur’an: 75: 37).

Out of the millions sperms man ejaculates during his sexual intercourse, only one fertilizes the ovum. Human semen forms 99% of the ejaculated liquid, while the sperms form between 0% and 1% from the total amount of the semen. Only one sperm out of millions in the semen is made to fertilizes the ovum, according to the will of God, so that it grows and becomes a fetus, then a child, then a young boy or girl, then a man or a woman. Abi Saeed al-Khudri related that the messenger of God (pbuh) was once asked about ejaculation outside the vagina during sexual intercourse (for contraceptive purposes), he said: “The child does not come from all the liquid (sermen) and if God intends to create anything, nothing can prevent it (from coming into existence). This prophetic hadith show that a woman perceives from some of the semen, as modern science says, and that there might be ejaculation without conception. Also conception is not necessarily formed after each sexual intercourse, and that there might be ejaculation without conception. This is explained by gynaecologists who say that the days between the menstruation periods are not the same with respect to the possibility of pregnancy, and that sperms might not be strong enough to fertilises the ovum. Science has proved that the sperms in the semen must be lively, active and gushing forth, which is one condition for fertilisation, as science has proved. Science has also proved that the woman’s liquid, which contains the ovum, comes out flowingly to the womb canal (Fallopian canal) and that the ovum must be lively, active and flowing so that fertilisation could be achieved. God the Almighty said: “So let man see from what he is created! He is created from a water gushing forth” (Holy Qur’an: 86: 5-6).

Determination of the baby’s sex (male or female):
Scientists have found out that the number of genes in every human cell is 23 pairs, one gene from each pair is responsible for determining the sex of the baby in all dimensions of man, physical and psychological, and that the key to the determination of the sex of the baby exists in this pair of genes. It was noticed that this pair in the male is different and it is referred to as (XY). Also, the feminine ova have only one chromosome of one shape (XX), while the sperms of man have two shapes of genes (X) and (Y).

The determination of the baby’s sex as such becomes obvious. The sperm is responsible for the determination of the sex of the baby for it contains the contrasted shapes of sexual genes. If the sperm has a (Y) gene, and it combines with an (X) gene in the ovum, the bay will be a baby-boy, and if an (X) gene unites with an (X) gene in the ovum, the baby will be a baby-girl. Here are some formulas clarifying the point further:
A (Y) gene + (X) = baby-boy (YX)
An (X) gene + (X) = baby-girl

Four possibilities:
1) XX female 2) YX male 3) XX female 4) YX male
This is what has been mentioned in the Noble Qur’an fourteen hundred years ago, when it attributed the responsibility of determining the sex of the baby to the sperm of the man. God Almighty said: “And that He [God] creates the pairs, male and female, from Nutfah (drops of semen – male and female discharges) when it is emitted.” (Holy Qur’an: 53: 45-46). The prophetic tradition expresses this fact accurately. If the sperm of the man dominates, i.e. (Y) gene dominates and united with an (X) chromosome – the baby will be a boy, and if the liquid of the woman dominates, the baby will be a girl. Thawban related that a Jew once approached the prophet and asked him about the (sex) of the child. The prophet (pbuh) said:

“The reproductive substance of man is white and that of woman (i. e. ovum central portion) yellow, and when they have sexual intercourse and the male’s substance (chromosomes and genes) prevails upon the female’s substance (chromosomes and genes), it is the male child that is created by Allah’s Decree, and when the substance of the female prevails upon the substance contributed by the male, a female child is formed by God’s decree.”

After fourteen hundred years, nobody can speak more clearly than what the prophet has stated.

Question 147: Modern technology has helped contemporary scientists to understand the scientific inimitability in the Qur’an and the prophetic traditions. How could the Muslim ancestors understand this inimitability without possessing the modern technology?

Answer 147: The Muslim surely believes that the Noble Qur’an is the words of God the Almighty, and that the prophetic traditions are what He revealed to His messenger, prophet Muhammad (pbuh). Everything mentioned in either source is completely true, and should be taken for granted by every faithful believer whether he/she knew know that before, or could not know it practically. These above mentioned scientific matters like the embryo, for example, are regarded as absolutely true by the Muslim. It is taken for granted as absolutely true, because it is the word of God, although the Muslim could not see what happened in the womb of the woman. Modern technology has only made these facts clearer. The same applies to other matters: for example, Muslims believe that mountains are pegs to fix the land although he does not know that a third of the mountain height goes above the land while two thirds are deeply planted under the earth, like pegs. The same could be said about the formation of mountain-like clouds in the sky. The hale stones come down from those mountains of clouds. The Muslim believes that although he did not ascend to sky. He knows that clouds gather together in the form of mountains. He absolutely believes and acknowledges every scientific discovery that had already been mentioned in the Qur’an or concorded with it, or even came mentioned in the tradition of the prophet. The Noble Qur’an, therefore, refers to the scientific discoveries that will show people the miracles of God the Almighty. God says: “We will show them Our Signs in the universe, and in their own selves, until it becomes manifest to them that this (the Qur’an) is the truth.” (Holy Qur’an: 43: 53).

Question 148: Muslims believe that only God knows what exists in the wombs, how could they reconcile between this and the modern technology that could show the embryo and know its sex before birth?

Answer 148: This question refers to the saying of God the Almighty:
“Verily, Allah, with Him (Alone) is the knowledge of the Hour, he sends down the rain, and knows that which is in the wombs. No person knows what he will earn tomorrow, and no person knows in what land he will die. Verily God is All-Knower, All-Aware (of things) (Holy Qur’an: 31:34).

Abdullah Bin Umar related that the prophet (pbuh) said: “The keys to the unseen world are five and nobody knows them except Allah,” then he quoted the above verse from the Noble Qur’an. It is God alone who knows absolutely what is in the wombs in every moment and at every stage; He knows everything small and big. No doubt that He knows every conception when it comes into existence, when the conception does not even show a sign of weight or form; and He knows whether the sex of the conception is male or female, at the time when no one could have the ability to know anything about at the first moment of the uniting of the sperm and the ovum, and the features, the characteristics, the condition and readiness of the embryo. This knowledge is absolutely exclusive to God, the All-Knowing, and the All-Aware. The term “what is in the womb” is more general than the embryo, and mean more than its sex, whether it is perfect or imperfect in physically, sane or insane, believing or non-believing.

We have already mentioned in a previous answer the possible equation of the determination of the sex of the embryo, whether male or female. The same could be said about every characteristic of the embryo, as to what colour of the complexion and body will be, the colour of the eyes, the size of every organ, etc. All this is subject to the law of possibilities, according to medical specialists. This is an uncontrolled law, and nobody knows how the chromosomes will combine in the embryo, how the new features will be. No one knows when the baby will be a boy or a girl. Man is unable to know that before and during its happening. It is only God who knows this. As to the period after its determination, it becomes a fact and is not more a part of the unseen. Man may know something about the embryo, as he knew the stages of the formation of the embryo. The verse and the prophetic traditions speak about the stage when the baby is a part of the unseen. If it becomes a part of the factual world that man can know, there is no objection to knowing it.

Question 149: I would like you to explain the following Qur’anic verses scientifically:
A. “The likeliness of those who take (false deities as) Auliya’ (protectors, helpers) other than God is the likeness of a spider who builds (for itself) a house; but verily, the frailest (weakest) of houses is the spider’s house – if they but knew. Verily, God knows what things they invoke instead of Him. H e is the Al-Mighty, the All-Wise. And these similitudes We put forward for mankind; but none will understand them except those who have knowledge (of God, and His Signs)” (Holy Qur’an: 29: 41-43).

B. “So I swear by the setting of the stars. And verily that is indeed a great oath, if you but know” (Holy Qur’an: 56:75-76).

C. “See they not that We gradually reduce the land (of the disbelievers, by giving it to the believers, in war) from its outlying borders” (Holy Qur’an: 13:41).

D. “With power did We construct the heaven. Verily, We are Able to extend the vastness of space thereof” (Holy Qur’an: 51:47).

E. “And whomsoever God will s to guide, He opens his breast to Islam, and whomsoever He wills to send astray, He makes his breast closed and constricted, as if he is climbing up to the sky” (Holy Qur’an: 3:26).

F. “And has made the moon a light therein and made the sun a lamp” (Holy Qur’an: 71:16).

Answer 149: The answer to this question is as follows:
A. The esteemed verses are given as sayings for those who worship deities other than God the Almighty, they depend on, trust, and give them their pledges and charters ignoring that resorting to those powers, whether they are in the hands of individuals or groups, are like the resort of the spider to its web. The spider’s web is weak, powerless and defenseless against its molluscan physique: spiders are helpless against their weak houses. God, the Almighty, and the all-Powerful protect them. It is this great fact that the Noble Qur’an is interested in establishing in the selves of the faithful. It is with this fact that the faithful were more powerful than all the powers that tried to block their way, and treaded on the pride of the oppressors on this earth and destroyed their fortresses and castles. The enemies of the call for God who seek the help of supporters other than Him, who knows the truth about those supporters, it is the truth described in the previous saying, a spider seeking refuge in its web. The witty scholar is the one who understands this saying, and realizes that everyone on earth is as powerless and weak as the spider’s web. The inimitability in this verse is the reference to the web rather than to its threads. Scientifically speaking, the threads of the spider, in terms of length and diameter, are four times stronger than cast iron. The weakness lies in the web not in the threads. The spider’s web, despite the strength of its threads, is weak from within, as it stands for the killing of its household. The female spider kills its male mate after impregnation if it does not run away from it quickly, and it eats its offspring when they hatch if they do not flee, and the little ones each other. The spider’s web, then, is the most rhetorical example of what man may imagine about the best house which becomes the worst in destiny. The conclusion of the holy verse “if they but knew” has come as a reference to the fact that there will come a time when man will know that fact though this might come late. It is known that these biological secrets have been scientifically proved only recently.

B. Those addressed in this verse, “So I swear by the setting of the stars. And verily that is indeed a great oath, if you but know” (Holy Qur’an: 56:75-76) knew only little about the setting of the stars which they saw with their naked eyes, yet they felt the greatness of their setting in their hearts. Despite our limited knowledge of the settings of the stars; yet, we do recognize the greatness of this oath (which is related to God who swear by His own creation). We know for example that the star galaxy our solar system belongs to comprises billions of starts, some of these stars could see with the naked eye, others can only be seen with microscopes/ and or telescopes, still others cannot be seen. All these stars swim in the mysterious space, and there is no possibility that one magnetic orbit can come near another, or that one star would run into another orbit. The location of each star, which must be far from its fellow stars, has been situated carefully and wisely: it is well-coordinated in terms of effects and mutual effects with all the other stars and planets so that all of them could be balanced in this vast space. The positions of stars in their orbits are the secrets of their balance; neither a star goes near another, nor a planet goes near another, nor a sun goes near another. Each has its own position in which it revolves and does not go beyond or exceed. If a star deviates from its position and moves in another track, it will be gravitated into another space and will collide with another star, which adds to the size of the new star formed from the collision of the two stars. Eventually, its gravitation increases and attracts a third star, and so on and so forth until the end of the universe as a whole. This is what is referred to, according to scholars, by God’s words “the perforating star”, which is described by space scientists as “the black hole.” Therefore, God’s oath by the setting of stars, which He created for us, is an allusion to contemplate and know that this universe is run under the management of the Lord of the heavens and earth. One of the examples of the setting of stars is the sun, as mentioned in the French magazine Science and Life (issue: June, 1986) which includes the following facts: if the position of the earth with respect to the sun where the ray of its orbit around the sun is 4% less than it is now, i.e. 144 km instead of 150 million km, the temperature of the earth will increase gradually to 450 centigrade, will cause the water to evaporate and life will disappear, as it is on Venus. Likewise, if location of the earth is 1% more, i.e. 151.5 million km, the temperature of the earth will be go down gradually to –4 centigrade, and water will freeze and life will be impossible on its surface, as the case is on mars. It is said that the galaxies and stars may seem static, but they are mobile and their distances increase continuously, as it is the case in the theory in the expansion of the universe. Eventually, the star acquires new positions continuously and with those new positions of billions of galaxies and stars, the balance of the powers of the universe remain as gravitation forces. All of this makes the oath in the verse so great.

C. “See they not that We gradually reduce the land (of the disbelievers, by giving it to the believers, in war) from its outlying borders.” (Holy Qur’an: 13:41). This verse means that the land is gradually reduced from its outlying borders and that people can see that? How does this happen?
First, the reduction of the land from its northern and southern sides should include its two poles. It is known that the land is not completely globular, it is elliptical, i.e. the equator is longer than the line going through the two poles. Scientists have found out that the equator is 21 km longer and that this length increases gradually in the course of time and the globe becomes more elliptical, and the line going through the two poles is getting shorter and shorter.

Second, the crust of the earth is exposed to sunshine, rain, wind and the various elements of corrosion and erosion—something that reduces the crust of the earth gradually. Scientists expect that the continuous corrosion is the cause of the earthquakes and giving away of the earth. This also indicates that the earth is reduced from its outlying borders, which is one of the things that man can see in all parts of the earth. It is a clear scientific miracle throughout all ages.

D. This verse shows that God the Almighty created the vast sky including the stars, planets and suns and moons; it continues to expand throughout time, and this verse, which proves the expansion of the universe. The well-known theory of the expansion of the universe has come into existence in the scientific field. In 1912, this theory was affirmed by the scientist Silipher who said that certain galaxies are moving away, increasingly, from our galaxy. In 1916, Einstein’s Theory of Relativity has come to confirm the theory of the universe expansion. He tried to calculate the speed of that expansion associating it with the speed of the light, 300,000 km/s. In 1929, the two scientists Hobble and Humoson confirmed the theory of the expansion of the universe. Hobble has set a law carrying his name, which estimates the increasing distance of the galaxies from each other and from ours. By virtue of this law, it was possible to use the reverse way to calculate the approximate age of the universe. With the progress of modern physics and the introduction of the study of specter, it was possible to study the light of stars and galaxies, and the turning of the specter into red, and eventually calculated the speed of the departing of the galaxies away from each other according to the theory. The further the galaxies and stars depart from our galaxy, the redder their specter turns. For instance, the distance of the galaxy Amos de Lavierge from ours, the milky way, increases at 1200 km/s, and the distance of Amos de Lavierge increases at 60 km/s. It is two billion light year speed. Contemporary astrologists confirm that theory. Hubert Reeves said: “We can say that the expansion of the universe is almost certain.” Maurice Bukaille said: “The expansion of the universe is the greatest phenomenon modern science has discovered and completely confirmed today. The discussion deal only with the pattern through which the expansion is happening.” One of the phenomena that support this theory is what is called the “night darkness.” In spite of the big number of galaxies in the sky, and although they consist of billions of stars, there are not enough stars to fill the sky with light. Moreover, the expansion of the universe disperses the light of the stars. Therefore, the light seems insufficient although it is very strong and the night appears dark. The point of inimitability in this Qur’anic verse is that suppose there was a man in the present age who knew nothing about astronomy and scientific laws, did not have any modern technology, especially optical one, furthermore if he had lived in a remote unknown jungle, a desert or a mountain, stated such laws, and reached those conclusions which scientists reached only after spending a great deal of efforts, long research and coordinated efforts of cooperation, people would consider that a sort of fiction and an impossibility. Eventually they would attribute such information to an external supernatural power. What could be said then about this man, the prophet, who lived fourteen hundreds ago? He was illiterate, living in a desert far from the centers of any science and civilization then, and in age whose people knew nothing about the universe, its beginning, life and its evolution. This man states his theory firmly and in a certain manner, while connecting it firmly with other phenomena and theories. What could be said then? It is undoubtedly, the information coming from revelation from God the Almighty.

E. “And whomsoever God will s to guide, He opens his breast to Islam, and whomsoever He wills to send astray, He makes his breast closed and constricted, as if he is climbing up to the sky” (Holy Qur’an: 3:26). This verse gives a picture of two personalities:
First, the Islamic personality which believes in God and the prophethood of Muhammad; whose breast opened, expanded and felt the spaciousness of the world crated by God the Almighty; and recognized the universal and Qur’anic miracles

Second, the non-believing personality which is fed up with Islam and does not get guided to the right path. It feels breathless because disbelief is a kind of contrition and stagnation. It is discomfort, deviation from the easy human common sense; it is hardship, deprivation and worry. God the Almighty gave an example of this kind of personality and described it as feeling breathless like the one who climbs to the sky.

But why does one’s breast feel closed when climbing to the sky? One may wonder, who told Muhammad (pbuh) in the 6th century A.D. that the layers of air get looser the more we rise up in the sky? Oxygen decreases and breathing becomes difficult. It is well know that scientists have discovered this fact only recently. There is no doubt that these words in this verse were the revelation of God upon His prophet. Man feels more difficult to breathe the more he goes up into the sky, which is well-known, scientifically speaking, as the upper air layers are looser and their pressure is lower. Now, who taught Muhammad (pbuh) this scientific truth, which was unknown to the people of his age and even to the people of the later ages after him until the present age with its amazing advanced technology to prove the scientific truth? It is the Lord of mankind and the jinn, the Lord who created everything, then proportioned it, and who has measured preordainments, then guided, and Who taught us what we had not known.

F. “And has made the moon a light therein and made the sun a lamp” (Holy Qur’an: 71:16). In this verse, we find that God the Almighty differentiates in His description between His two creations the sun and the moon. He describes the sun as a “lamp.” In another verse of the Holy Qur’an God says: “and We have made (therein) a shining lamp (the sun) (Holy Qur’an: 78:13). The sun is described a glowing lamp. It is the heat-generating machine, on whose power so many things in life depend. It affects the formation of the clouds, through the evaporation of water from the vast ocean one earth and raising it to the upper layers of air. In the lamp, there is burning, heat and light; all are available in the sun. The choice of the word “lamp” is so accurate and has been chosen carefully to suit reality. As for the moon, God describes it as illuminating only, something which does not mean that it is a source of heat: it only conveys light. The scientific discoveries have come to prove that the sun is a source of heat. The temperature degree of it mounts to 15 million centigrade. The sun only reflects the sunlight, not more. It is not a source of light; it only reflects as a mirror does. Therefore, the Qur’anic expression about the moon is also an accurate one. Astronomers have established this fact only recently. The sun light consists of seven shining waves known as “white light” which constitutes the spectrum colors (from ultra to infra violet). It also contains gamma rays, radio short waves, and some unknown kinds of rays. The accuracy of the Qur’anic description is crystal clear in God’s words: “It is He Who made the sun a shining thing and the moon as a light.” So the light that comes from the moon is not more a reflection of the sunshine, which falls on its surface. As to the sunlight, it consists of seen shining (light and heat), and unseen ray (which scientists use in the lighting, x-ray films, astronomy and biology).

Question 150: Why does the Holy Qur’an focus on man’s forelock and not other parts of the body in God’s words “if he ceases not, We will catch him by the forelock”— The frontal lobe is mentioned in another verse: “I put my trust in Allah, my Lord and your Lord! There is not a moving (living) creature but He has the grasp of its forelock. Verily, my Lord ion the Straight Path (the truth)” (Holy Qur’an: 11: 56).

Answer 150: At to the top of the forehead, there is one bone in the skull called frontal bone. It protects the frontal lobe which contains many neural centers: the main and secondary centers of motion, the frontal eye field, the centers of articulation movements, and the most important part, the pre-frontal cortex which represents the biggest part of the frontal lobe of the brain. The function of the frontal cortex is associated with the formation of the individual’s personality; it performs an organized role in the depth of the individual’s senses and feelings. It influences the taking of initiative and judgment. It directs some of man’s acts which express his personality, like honesty, lying, right and wrong.

The destruction of this cortex because of a certain disease, tumor, or an accident, leads to the loss of initiative taking and recognition. Some emotional changes may take place also; which leads to cheering up and trance. One loses his interest in his social appearance. Instead of being wise, observing others’ affairs around him, he becomes indifferent, irresponsible for himself and for others around him. The intoxicating drinks affect the tissues of the frontal areas of the brain.

The frontal folds of the brain are important for the mind, for they are connected with the supreme mental acts. We do those plans inside these folds. Thus, they affect the acts and functions of the other parts of the brain, like our thoughts, feelings and emotions.

The frontal lobe, then, is the location that controls the behavior of animals; eventually those ayas which were mentioned in the Noble Qur’an in the seventh century (A.D.) include knowledge understanding the whole functions of the frontal folds of the brain.

Chapter 2:

Selections from the Inimitability of the Prophet’s Tradition (Sunnah)

Question 151: What is the attitude of modern science towards the prophetic hadith: “When a dog licks a utensil belonging to any one of you, (the thing contained in it) should be thrown away and then (the utensil) should be washed seven times, the first one with earth.”

Answer 151: This hadith was reported by Abu Hurayrah, who was one of the prophet’s close companions. Jurisprudents and scholars were surprised by that fact that earth could be used as a purifier: they thought that it soils, rather than cleans. However, it was (and still) believed to be a matter of worship which must be taken for granted. So, Muslims have to wash pots which dogs have licked (or eaten in) seven times including one with earth. Muslims just follow the apparent meaning of the words of the hadith because it came to us from the prophet.

The Noble Qur’an has come with its studies, researches and advanced means that facilitate research and prove things that were difficult for people to conduct in the previous ages simply because of lack of advanced technology.

One of the researches was conducted on the relationship between earth and rabies. Rabies is a disease whose bacteria lie in the saliva of the dog and they are transmittable to man. The dog may have this kind of bacteria even though the symptoms of rabies do not appear on the dog. It may have the disease, just like any animal or living being having or carrying the disease without being infected by it. Research on this matter was conducted in Spain long time ago; recently by a Pakistani doctor. It was found that rabies and its germs no matter how much are washed with water; the germs will not be removed completely unless rubbed at least once with earth. Earth kills germs completely. The same applies to other diseases, which confirms the prophetic tradition.

Question 152: What is the form of inimitability in each of the following matters:
A. Women’s menstruation/period.
B. Circumcision of sexes, males and females.
C. Eating the meat of dead animals.
D. Prohibition of eating the pig’s meat.
E. Fasting during the “white days”.
F. AIDS spread as a result of adultery.

Answer 152: The answer to this question comprises the following:
A. In the Holy Qur’an God the Almighty say:
“They ask you concerning menstruation. Say: “That is the an adha (a harmful thing for a husband to have a sexual intercourse with his wife while she is having her menses), therefore keep away from women during menses and go not unto them till they are purified (from menses and have taken a bath. And when they have purified themselves, then go in unto them as God has ordained for your (go in unto them in any manner as long as it is in their vagina). Truly, God loves those who turn unto Him in repentance and loves those who purify themselves by taking a bath and cleaning and washing thoroughly their private parts, bodes, for their prayers) (Holy Qur’an: 1: 222).

Clearly, this was God’s revelation to this enquiry which was once raised by one of the companions of the prophet about menstruation (the monthly menstruation of the woman). God calls it adha (a harmful thing). Therefore, men should refrain from an sexual intercourse with their wives during their period, as it might cause harm for either the man or woman, or both. In this context, the prophet (pbuh) said: “Do everything except sexual intercourse.” In the same context it was reported that Hakeem Bin Huzam once asked the prophet (pbuh): “What can I do with my wife while she is having her period?” The prophet’s answer was: “Everything above the waist wrapper is yours.” Concerning menstruation, research has proved the following facts:
-Harmful bacteria exist plentifully in the vagina during the period, while dederline organisms disappear. Dederline organisms exist naturally in the vagina, they are considered as a natural guard against harmful germs. These organisms live on the sugar preserved in the vagina walls. Their number decreases until they disappear completely a few hours before menstruation and during it. Doderlins reach their highest number of growth and activity half way during the absence of menstruation period. Their normal rate is 5×1 mm, but it decreases sharply before menstruation.

-During menstruation, the degree of acid ionization of the vagina changes from acid to alkaline. This makes the organisms die while blood takes them out of the vagina on its way.

-During the period, the vagina becomes the most appropriate place for the production, development, and activity of the harmful germs.

-In the absence of these organisms, with the change of acid ionization into an alkaline one, and in the presence of blood, the vagina becomes extremely liable all kinds of the harmful germs, that find a fertile soil for growing and reproduction. The activity is not limited to those organisms, but also to its accompanying anus and urine pass way germs while the guard, the doderline organisms, are absent. There is no harmful germs than those which might penetrate into the womb’s broken walls at this particular time, as they might go into the abdomen; consequently, into the body. They can quite easily find their way to the loose tissues which become so soft in that critical time; nothing would prevent them except the blood stream coming in the opposite direction from top to bottom. It is not wise or logical then at all to defy nature by breaking into the first defense line and other lines of menstruation.

Studies have found out that the parasite trichomonas vaginalis becomes guardable during menstruation. This parasite exists the tope of the vagina during menstruation awaiting its chance and watching its catch. It is known that it causes infection in the urinal and reproductive system of man. It is conveyed to man only through sexual intercourse. Both the Qur’anic text and prophetic hadith in this context lay the condition for the intercourse after the menstruation that cleanliness is a must. In order to achieve cleanliness, blood should stop first; then it traces must be removed with clean water. It was reported by Aishah (the prophet’s wife) that a woman once asked the prophet about bathing after menstruation. He told her how to bathe by saying: “Take a clean and perfumed piece of cotton and bathe three times.” She asked: “How can I purify?” The Prophet (pbuh) was shy to answer her. So, Aishah says, “I took her by the hand and told her what the Prophet (pbuh) meant, i.e. “follow the path of the blood.”

In that way of purifying, the harmful germs disappear at the time when there is no running current of blood to wash them naturally and prepare the atmosphere for the existence of doderline once more, especially that the prophetic tradition commands the use of musk (perfume), which germicides, not to mention its fragrance.

B. Circumcision of sexes, males and females:
Abu Hurayrah related that the prophet (pbuh) said: “There are five things that ever man should naturally do: circumcision, shaving the public hair, taking out the armpit hair, nail trimming, moustache cutting.”

Circumcision is cutting off the piece of skin which covers the glans. It is recommended that the whole piece should be removed. Shaddad Bin Aws related the following hadith from the prophet (pbuh): “Circumcision is obligatory for men, and a dignitary act for women.” Circumcision is a regulation for Muslims and a discriminatory mark and an emblem. The Jews share Muslims this tradition, because the first prophet to command it was Ibrahim (Abraham, pbuh).

In 1987 The Medical British Magazine published an article stating: “Penis cancer is rare among the Jews, and in the Muslim countries, where circumcision is done during infancy…” The American magazine Pediatrics stated: “The Jewish and Muslim religious obligation plays an essential role in urging them to practice this natural deed, circumcision. In other words, the foreskin surrounding the glans is like a moor, where most disease circumstances develop, and urine irrigates it; white material is formed on the walls of this pocket resulting from the remaining germs and fungi, the excretions of the fat and sweat glands with the phosphate of the mucous tissue, and the remains of urine and its elements.

It is easy for us now to imagine the interference of disease factors, like urine meatus with the uncircumcised. This substance goes into the urethra, then into the bladder, then the kidney. It may continue its way to prostate, the testicle and epididymis; it may cause infertility to men as a result of testitis and epididymitis. Circumcision prevents the top-of-the-penis cancer, as this kind of circumcision rare with the uncircumcised men. Any likely infection in the penis may quite easily be transmitted to the woman, which causes her aidoiitis/vulvitis, and elytritis bartholinitis, it may cause the womb neck to be infected or to ulcerate. This infection could develop further ominously and affect the womb, or its accessories, which may lead to infertility. I do not say the circumcision prevents, or reduces those infections significantly only, but there are certain diseases, which can be prevented only by circumcision, such diseases as the narrowing of the back foreskin, or front and back foreskin infection, the sticking of the foreskin with the glans, and some forms of frequent urinary continence caused by the foreskin. The husband’s circumcision plays an important role in preventing the wife of most of the women’s gynecological infections.

As for women’s circumcision, which is known in Islamic sharia as khafdh, it is optional. Women are urged to circumcise, especially when the outer genitals, like the clitoris, or labia minora, are overgrown—cases which might cause repellence or disgust. Also, this overgrowth and dangling outside may cause in the future continuous sexual excitement because of constant friction, which may lead to lack of shyness at her, and she may deviate to perversion and disobedience, and that is whey the God prophet called it a “noble” deed.

When those genitals overgrow to the extreme, they may prevent sexual intercourse: it prevents the penis from penetrating the vagina. If the girl has no overgrown genitals to be cut off, or if her genitals are moderate in length, there is no justification for circumcision.

It is generally noticed that women’s outer genitals are longer the colder they get to the Equator, and the shorter they the further we move north. This becomes rare in the northern people.

C. Eating the meat of a dead animal:
Dr. Jon Hanover, a Profess at the Department of bacteriology, Guess Hospital, the governmental and biggest hospital in Copenhagen stated: “the meat of dead animals is a reservoir of germs, and – reservoir of killing diseases. Therefore, laws were legislated in Europe to prohibit eating it.” He mentioned that animals that die because of suffocation, the germs in which are transmitted to their meat eaters, as the wall of the large entrails, where the excrement is, works as a barrier that prevents the transmission of germs from the large entrails to the body of the animal and to its blood as long as the animal is alive.

It is known that the large entrails are a big reservoir of germs, which are harmful to man. The internal wall of these entrails prevents the movement of those germs to the body of the animal. Also, in the blood of the animals there is another wall that prevents to movement of the germs to the animal’s blood. If an animal is suffocated, it dies slowly, and the danger lies in this kind of death, as the resistance of the wall coating the large entrails loses its strength gradually which eventually allows the harmful germs to penetrate the wall of the entrails and go into the blood and neighbouring flesh, then they move through the blood cycle to the rest of the body, for the animal is not dead yet. The germs go out from the wall of the veins to the flesh due to the lack of resistance in the walls of the veins, which consequently makes the animal a big reservoir of these harmful germs, which attack the health of the animal until it dies. The death of the animal in this way means there is a big danger in the body of the creature which has been strangled to death. Dr. Hanover added that all this might happen any animal that dies in any other way except slaughtering. Muslims slaughter the animal in order to purify it animal from such likely germs. In this light we can understand God’s words better:
“Forbidden to you (for food) are: al-maitah (the dead animals – cattle – beast not slaughtered), blood, the flesh of swine, and that one which Allah’s name has not been mentioned while slaughtering, (that which has been slaughtered as a sacrifice for others than Allah, or has been slaughtered for idols) and that which has been killed by strangling, or by a violent blow, or by a headlong fall, or by the goring of horns – and that which has been (partly) eaten by a wild animal – unless you are able to slaughter it (before its death)” (Holy Qur’an: 5: 3).

D. Prohibition of eating the pig’s meat (and its derivatives: pork, ham, etc.):
Dr. John Hanover Larsen stated that he discovered a new germ called “parsina.” This germ exists only in pigs, and lives only at low temperature degrees, 4 centigrade. Many Europeans contract it and many diseases that infect the backbone and joints are attributed to this germ (See Inimitability Magazine, No. 3). Besides, he discovered tapeworms and their coated eggs in their meat, blood and bowls in spite of the many attempts of the veterinarians to burn quantities of pig’s meat to get rid of that tapeworms, as they re-appear constantly. Psychoanalysts have found that a man eating the meat of a certain animal might become infected by certain qualities of this animal. The pigsty is one of the filthiest places and this animal is least jealous among animals about its females. The lack of jealousy about one’s own mother, sister(s), spouse, and daughter(s) in the west might be attributed to their devouring of vast quantities of pork.

E. Fasting 6 days of the 10th Hijri month, Shawwal (the month that comes after the fasting month of Ramadhan):
These are known as the “white days.” Many prophetic traditions urged Muslims to fast three days of every month, the three days whose nights are white because of the moonlight when it is a full moon. They are 13, 14 and 15 of every lunar month. Abu Dhar reported that the prophet (pbuh) “commanded us to fast the three white days: the thirteenth, fourteenth and fifteenth.”

Researchers have found out that during these three days, the moon becomes a full at night and the sea ebbing reaches its highest level—something that causes a big excitement. They also noticed that this excitement during those days, particularly in sexual activities, affects man. They also found out that during these three days of every month crimes increase. Other researchers connected between what happens on earth with that in the human body, as the percentage of water on the globe is 75% and that in the body of the human being is approximately the same. Fasting had been the only medicine, which reduces man’s tension and/or his sexual excitement. It is a fact that the strongest motives in man are the natural ones, then the motive for food, then sexual motives. Fasting reduces the strength of man’s motive for food, drink and sex. Thus, we realize that God the Almighty gave man a natural and useful medicine to appease him in the time of agitation and excitement. The prophet’s tradition echoes this.

F. AIDS spread as a result of the spread of adultery:
Sodomy (homosexuality) is one of the most wicked and ugliest crimes. It indicates the deviation of inborn nature, corruption in the mind and perversion. It denotes sexual intercourse between two males, or between a male and a female where male has sex with a female in the anus. God the Almighty said: “You – Go you in unto the males of the alamin (mankind),” and leave those whom God has created for your to be your wives? Nay, you are a trespassing people!” (Holy Qur’an: 26:164-5). In Arabic it was is known as Liwaat, adjective of Lut’s people, who were the first people to have practiced this act, “which none has preceded you in committing” in the alamin (mankind and jinn,” as God said. God the Almighty punished the people of Lut most severely by making the earth sink under them; they were rained with stones as a punishment for their dirty act. Qur’anic verses were revealed condemning their act, which is still being recited throughout the world and will continue to be recited for generations to come. God said:
“So when Our Commandment came, We turned (the towns of Sodom in Palestine) upside down, and rained on them stones of backed clay, in a well-arranged manner one after another, marked from your Lord; and they are not ever far from the zalimun (polytheists, evil-doers)” (Holy Qur’an: 11:34).

This has been proved in the history of mankind. God punished them by killing them all, so that not a single criminal would remain alive would remain to transmit any social and/or physical diseases to ancestor generation. God wants man’s life to be clean of the dirt of vice and perversion; hence, the prophet’s guidance cam to show us the great atrocity of this crime in the prophetic traditions which made the path of truth clear to be taken. Jabir ibn Abdullah related that prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said: “The most thing I fear about my nation is the act of the people of Lut (homosexuality).” Ibn Abbas reported another hadith from the prophet, who said: “God does not look at a man who went in unto a man, or woman in her anus.” Abu Hurayrah also reported that the prophet said: “May he be cursed, he who does the deed of the Lutians (homosexuality).” “Curse” means here the dismissal from the mercy of God the Almighty. This is deserved only because of the one of the heinous acts of sin and disgust of it, the repetition of that in the crime of sodomy is a clear proof of the heinousness of this sin, and the one who does it deserves every kind of punishment. There are many prophetic traditions in this respect.

Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) warned us against the committing of sins as a whole and particularly committing sin public. Abdullah ibn Amr related that the prophet said: “O, folk of immigrants, there are five sins I take resort in God from that you do not see: ‘No people amongst whom adultery appears publicly will escape being plagued with pestilence, diseases which did not appear among their ancestors, and if they do not weight properly what they sell, they will be inflicted with famine, adversity and the oppression of the ruler. If they do not pay zakat from their money, they will not have rain from the sky. Had it not been for the animals, they would not be rained. If they disobey God and His messenger, God will allow an enemy from others to take some of what they have. If their rulers do not implement Allah’s book and choose from what God has revealed, God will make their strength among themselves’.”

Those crimes which the prophet (pbuh) mentioned are inflicted upon anyone who avoids Islam partly or completely. Every criminal act has its own consequence: sodomy and its spread in the human society brings about new diseases which did not exist before among the ancestors, which is what we live in this century.

In the 20th century God decreed to send to those who commit sodomy a wild dragon in order to awaken the sleepy and cause horror in the hearts of those whose insight has been blinded by false civilization. How could they be prevented without having any deterrent system or considerable values? The 20th century civilization has paddled in the liberty of sex, and did not leave any virtue without fooling with it, or honour or chastity without destroying its pillars, nor left women’s dignity without desecrating it.

AIDS hs been a cry that turned the life of the west upside down. it has been a stigma on those who avoided marriage and practiced sodomy as a way of living.

Dr. George Dunia wrote: “The demonstrations of the sexual perverts in the streets had disappeared. The public water closets have closed their doors and the call for purity, chastity and marriage to one woman has returned, and he fear of AIDS has many restored the moral and social values of the 50s to reappear and the sanctifying of the virgin woman may come back again.”

“Purity,” “chastity” and “virgin women” are words that are being repeated by millions. They had been absent for long years in vice and immorality. Statistics classified AIDS patients into four kinds:
1. Sexual perverts, whose percentage in Britain is 84% out of the total number.
2. Drug addicts who take drugs by syringes.
3. Adulterers who commit adultery with more than one woman.
4. Patients who have contracted AIDS through blood transfusion.

AIDS also appeared among women, especially whores and drug addicts. The several perverts or drug addicts are to be blamed for the spread of AIDS. They are responsible for the spread of AIDS in the society. The only way to avoid AIDS is the confinement of men to an honest marital relationship. If man had done so, and the wife to her relationship with her husband only, the possibility of contracting this disease will be almost impossible; hence, the accuracy of the Islamic rules explained by the prophetic traditions.

The punishment of this act, killing the doers, the positive and the negative, came to wipe out the effect of the crime both physically and morally. The inimitability of the prophetic traditions in this subject t when it stated that the spread of vice in society is a cause for the appearance of illnesses which have not been known before, and this is what has our present century has witnessed.

Question 153: What is the form of scientific inimitability in prophetic medicine? Can you give some examples?

Answer 153: The form of inimitability in prophetic traditions appear in all fields of anatomy, physiological, pathological medicines. Because of time and space, I am going to give only a few examples. Annuman ibn Basheer related that the prophet said: “the believers in mutual intimacy and mercy are like one body; if one organ suffers, the whole body will suffer.”

The portrayal of the tradition is an accurate scientific description of what happens in the body. The body temperature rises and the body is affected with fever that prevents it from sleeping and is worried at night, and torments him during the day. This connection is not only related to the organs of the body, but it goes beyond that to the psychological aspect as well. Also, the prophet said: “There is in the body one morsel, if it is good, the whole body will be good, and if it is corrupted, the whole body will be corrupted too, it is the heart.” So it is void of diseases, free of illnesses, the whole body will be sound as a whole. Abdullah ibn Abbas related that the prophet said: “Use antimony as kohl, it makes the hair grow and sharpens the eyesight.” Ali ibn Abi Talib related that the prophet of God said: “Use antimony, it makes the hair grow, dismisses the motes and sharpens the eyesight.” Antimony is used as an ingredient of the medicine used for the treatment of trachoma. If studies continue, other results may be discovered. Al-Miqdad ibn Ma`d Yathrib related that he heard the prophet say: “Man not filled more harmful pot than his stomach. It suffices man to have a few morsels to give him strength. If it is impossible to do this, he can give a third of his stomach to food, a third to drink and a third to breath.” This hadith gives us an accurate organization of man’s food, so that it does not go beyond the need and does not become less than what I necessary. In this manner, man lives comfortably away from obesity which tires the body and the heart which is the 20th century plague. Abullah ibn Abbas related that the messenger of God said: “Nothing replace food and drink except milk.” In another version: “I do not know any drink that can replace food except milk.” Here the prophet refers to the useful substances which are necessary for the human body whether it is small or big. He referred to the value of nutritional value of milk in a time when people did not know the ingredients of milk and the elements it contains, and the important ingredients of vital food which cannot be found together in another drink. Aishah related that the prophet said: “A home in which there are no dates is a home whose householders are hungry” and in another version: “A home without dates is like a foodless home.” This shows that dates are a sufficient food of man and it satiates him so he does not need other kinds of food. It has been proved that dates contain so many minerals that they are called a mine of minerals. Dates form a complete and excellent meal containing vitamin A and B. It is easy to digest their sugar, unlike the starchy substances. The prophet (pbuh) said: “Every intoxicating substance is wine, and every kind of wine is prohibited.”
All the modern studies confirm the harm of wine on man’s health; it causes many physical and psychological diseases. The prophet (pbuh) set a rule: Every mind-killing and intoxicating drink is wine, and the rule of wine applies to it, prohibition. Abdullah ibn Abbas related that the messenger of God said: “Two blessing many people are many people wish to have, good health and free time.”

Abu Hurayrah related that the prophet said: “There is no supplication of the servant better than “O, God, I ask you for good health in this life and in the hereafter.” In these two hadiths, and in many many more, the prophet (pbuh) stresses the importance of health and fitness; and this is what is being done by the health authorities in all countries all over the world for the sake of preserving the health and fitness of individuals. Osama ibn Zayd related that the prophet said: “If you hear of a plague in a land, do not go into it, and if it inflicts a land you are in, do not leave it.” This hadith sets the essential rule of health quarantine performed by countries to protect the people from the coming diseases and there are many examples of prophetic inimitability.

Conclusion

Praise be to God Who has facilitated the completion of this humble work, and we ask Him to accept it purely for His sake, and benefit us and all Muslims by it. We ask Him to reward everyone who contributed to the realization of this book, and make that in their good deeds balance in the Day of Judgment.

We have to remind readers that this book included answers to some questions that were asked by different people who were considering converting (or reverting) to Islam, by some new Muslims, and by some people living in close proximity to Muslims because of their work, common interests, or general life. The answers in this book have been directed to these groups of people in general, and all the questions that have been included here real enquiries, rather than anticipated or selected questions.

This book could be considered a beginning and an incentive for more in-depth studies that interest those who are active in the field of preaching and spreading Islam amongst non-Muslim minorities living in Muslim communities. Those who are working actively for Islam may dedicate part of their precious time to investigate the needs of inviting different non-Muslims to Islam and the ideas these people could have about Islam, and provide some writings that clarify misconceptions about Islam, and support these writings with solid proof.

Contemporary preachers of Islam are supposed to reflect modern life and realize the challenges and dangers of backward thinking. They should also prepare themselves to shoulder their great responsibilities in such a way that reflects their deep belief in God and His messenger, prophet Muhammad (pbuh).

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Developments of Islamic Banking in Pakistan & Malaysia: An Analytical Review

August 22, 2010 Leave a comment

Abstract

This study compares Islamic banking operations currently practiced in Pakistan and Malaysia. Both countries started Islamic banking in early 1980’s but employed entirely different approaches. Pakistan attempted to convert the entire financial system in accordance with Islamic law at once at national level. Malaysia adopted the gradual application approach. It allowed Islamic and conventional banking systems to operate and to compete for deposits on parallel basis. This study examines the Pakistani and Malaysian approaches towards the implementation of Islamic banking in their respective countries. It recognizes lack of commitment and long term planning problems in case of Pakistan.

Introduction

Islamic banking system has emerged as a competitive and a viable substitute for the conventional banking system during the last three decades. It is especially true for Muslim world where presently Islamic banking strides at two separate fronts. At one side, efforts are also underway to covert the entire financial systems in accordance to Islamic laws (Shariah). At the other side, separate Islamic banks are allowed to operate in parallel to conventional interest based banks. Pakistan and Malaysia are the two good examples of above mentioned approaches.
Both countries adopted different tracks for the same ultimate destination of developing full fledge viable Islamic financial system and produced quite interesting results. The Government of Pakistan tried to covert the entire financial system to an interest free system through presidential orders at a national level. However, the overnight practice of islamization didn’t achieve the required success. Most of the efforts have either been reversed or further developments have been stopped. Malaysia opted for the alternative gradual way of developing and implementing Islamic banking system. Starting with one Islamic bank it later allowed conventional financial institutions to offer and participate in Islamic banking products and services through their existing staff and branches. The country is now actively involved in designing new Islamic financial instruments for capital and money market transactions. This study provides the comparative analysis of implementing two opposite Islamic banking approaches, one in Pakistan and other in Malaysia along with their acquired results.

Origin of Islamic banking in Pakistan

The process of islamization the financial system of Pakistan is coincided with the globally resurgence of Islamic banking in the late seventies. Pakistan was among the three countries in the world that has been trying to implement Islamic banking at national level. This process started with presidential order to the local Council of Islamic Ideology (CII) on September 29, 1977. The council was asked to prepare the blueprint of interest free economic system. The council included panelists of bankers and economists who submitted their report in February 1980, highlighting various ways and sufficient details for eliminating the interest from the financial system of Pakistan. This report was a landmark in the efforts for Islamizing the banking system in Pakistan.

Origin of Islamic banking in Malaysia

In Malaysia, the roots of Islamic banking go back to 1963 when the government established Tabung Haji or Pilgrims Management and Fund Board. The institution was established to invest the savings of the local Muslims in interest free places, who intend to perform pilgrim (Hajj). Tabung Haji utilizes Mudarabah (profit and loss sharing), Musharikah (joint venture) and Ijara (leasing) modes of financing for investment under the guidance of National Fatawah Committee of Malaysia.
The first call for separate Islamic bank was made in 1980, in a seminar held in the National University of Malaysia. The participants passed a resolution requesting the government to pass a special law to setup an Islamic bank in the country. Responding to the request, the government set up a National Steering Committee in 1981 to study legal, religious and operational aspects of setting up an Islamic bank. The committee established the blue print of a modern Islamic banking system in 1983, which later enabled the government to establish an Islamic bank and to issue non-interest bearing investment certificates.

Initiatives Taken in Pakistan

The Islamic banking movement in Pakistan was a nationwide and comprehensive. As it was a mammoth task, the switch-over plan was implemented in phases. The process was started by transforming the operations of specialized financial institutions like National Investment Trust (NIT), Investment Corporation of Pakistan (ICP), and House Building Finance Corporation (HBFC) to the system conforming to the Islamic principles with effect from July 1, 1979. Separate Interest-free counters started operating in all the nationalized commercial banks, and one foreign bank from January 1, 1981, to mobilize deposits on profit and loss sharing basis. As from July 1, 1985, all commercial banking operations were made ‘interest-free’. From that date, no bank in Pakistan, including foreign banks, was allowed to accept any interest-bearing deposits. All existing deposits in banks were treated to be on the basis of profit and loss sharing. However, foreign currency deposits/loans were continued to govern on interest basis. The government meanwhile also passed Mudarabah Companies Act 1984, enabled financial institutions or business groups to setup special Mudaraba Companies in a country.

Initiative Taken in Malaysia

The establishment of Bank Islam Malaysia Berhad (BIMB) in July 1983 marked a milestone for the development of the Islamic financial system in Malaysia. BIMB carries out banking business similar to other commercial banks, but along the principles of Islamic laws (Shariah). The bank offers deposit-taking products such as current and savings deposit under the concept of Wadiah (guaranteed custody) and investment deposits under the concept of Mudarabah (profit-sharing). The bank grants finance facilities such as working capital financing under Murabaha (cost-plus financing), house financing under Bai’ Bithaman Ajil (deferred payment sale), leasing under Ijara (leasing) and project financing under Musharikah (joint venture). BIMB has grown tremendously since its inception. It was listed on the Main Board of the Kuala Lumpur Stock Exchange on 17 January 1992. At the end of 2003, the bank has a network of 82 branches throughout the country and staff of 1,200 employees.

Development of Islamic banking in Pakistan

The change management with regard to the introduction of new system is always a sophisticated job requiring long term planning and commitments. This is particularly true in case of present day financial system wherein the interests of the stakeholders are embedded and considered important ingredient. Only a well thought out plan with committed and continue efforts could lead to success. Unfortunately the economics managers in Pakistan lost the desired path of success. Currently, there is hardly any transaction deal in inter-banks , intara-banks or the government related financial activities which can be called as Islamic. In the beginning of islamization process the banks expressed some anxiety to adjust them to the new system and tried to develop methods to eliminate the interest form their transactions. But the issuance of BCD circular No.13 of June 1984 allowed banks to provide finance on mark-up and on buy-back agreement basis. The technique of buy-back agreements are nothing but disguised forms of interest. With the help of new terminology the financial institutes retained the conventional methods of interest bearing finance. The Islamic modes of finances such as musharikah, mudarabah, ijara, ijara wa iktina, were not adopted in majority of the cases. The aggressively established Mudaraba Companies also failed to continue their existence; most of them are either in losses or are in the process of agglomerated with other financial institutions.
The present day financial system is largely based on ‘mark-up’ technique with or without buy-back arrangement. This procedure was, however, declared un-Islamic by the Federal Shariat Court in November 1991. Appeals were made to the Shariat Appellate Bench of the Supreme Court of Pakistan (the apex court). The Supreme Court delivered its judgment on December 23, 1999 rejecting the appeals and directing that laws involving interest would cease to have effect finally by June 30, 2001. In the judgment, the Court concluded that the present financial system had to be subjected to radical changes to bring it into conformity with Islamic laws (Shariah). It also directed the government to set up, within specified time frame, a commission and task forces for the transformation of financial system, to achieve the objective. The Court also indicated some measures related to the infrastructure and legal framework, which needed to be taken in order to have an economy conforming to the injunctions of Islam.
The Commission for Transformation of Financial System (CTFS) set-up in the State Bank of Pakistan submitted its report in August 2001 that mainly comprised the recommendation given in the two Interim reports submitted earlier in October 2000 and May 2001. Currently, a task force is working in the Ministry of Finance to suggest the ways to eliminate interest from government operations. Another task force has been set-up in the Ministry of Law to suggest amendments in legal framework to implement the Supreme Court’s Judgment.

Development of Islamic banking in Malaysia

The long-term objective of the Central Bank of Malaysia was to create an Islamic banking system operate parallel to the conventional banking system. A single Islamic bank (BIMB) did not represent the whole financial system. It required large number of pro-active players, wide range of products and innovative instruments, and a vibrant Islamic money market. Realizing the situation, the Central Bank introduced Interest Free Banking Scheme (now replaced with Islamic banking scheme (IBS) in March 1993. The scheme allowed conventional banking institutions to offer Islamic banking products and services using their existing infrastructure, including staff and branches. Since then, the numbers of IBS banking institutions have increased to 36 till the end of 2003, comprising 14 commercial banks (of which 4 are foreign banks), 10 finance companies, 5 merchant banks and 7 discount houses. The Central bank of Malaysia in its annual report (1993, page no 57) stated:
“With the implementation of the interest free banking scheme, Malaysia has emerged as the first country to implement a dual banking system, whereby an Islamic banking system functions on a parallel basis with the conventional banking system”.

The aspiration to establish a comprehensive Islamic financial system has created a spill-over effect to the non-bank Islamic financial intermediaries which also started to offer Islamic financial products and services under Islamic banking scheme. Such institutions include the Takaful Companies, the savings institutions (i.e. Bank Simpanan Nasional & Bank Rakyat) and the developmental financial institutions (i.e. Bank Pembangunan dan Infrastruktur Malaysia and Bank Pertanian.
In October 1996, the Central Bank issued a model financial statement for the IBS banks requiring them to disclose their Islamic banking operations (balance sheet and profit and loss account) as an additional item under the Notes to the Accounts. The Central Bank also setup a National Shariah Advisory Council on Islamic Banking and Takaful (NSAC) on 1 May 1997. The council considers as the highest Shariah authority on Islamic banking and Takaful businesses in Malaysia. On 1 October 1999, the Central Bank issued license for second Islamic bank, Bank Muamalat Malaysia Berhad.
The country also introduced Islamic debt securities market has made its debut in 1990 with the issuance of RM 125 million Islamic bonds. Islamic Inter-bank Money Market (IIMM) on 4 January 1994 to link institutions and Islamic investment based instruments. Since then, both the markets provide variety of securities ranging from two to five years medium terms Islamic bonds to short-term commercial papers one to twelve months.

Present scenario of Islamic Banking System in Pakistan

Pakistan after the gap of twenty years has now decided to shift towards interest free economy in a gradual and phased manner without causing any further disruptions . Some extracts from the affidavit submitted by the Deputy Governor of the State Bank of Pakistan (SBP) in the Supreme Court of Pakistan reflected the future policy of the Bank for the time being.
“That having taken a series of steps to promote Islamic banking………. and considering all other practical problems associated with the complete transformation of the financial system, discussed herein, it is State Bank of Pakistan’s considered judgment that the parallel approach will be in the best interest of the country. This means that Islamic banking is introduced as a parallel system, of which beginning has already been made; it is provided a level playing field vis-à-vis the existing conventional banks, and its further growth and development is supported by Government and State Bank of Pakistan through appropriate actions. The approach will eliminate the risk of any major cost/damage to the economy, give a fair chance to Islamic banks to develop alongside the conventional banks, and will provide a choice to the people of Pakistan, and the foreigners doing businesses in/with Pakistan, to use either of the two systems” .

State Bank of Pakistan issued detailed criteria in December 2001 for the establishment of full-fledged Islamic commercial banks in the private sector. Newly established Islamic bank can be listed on the stock exchange provided minimum of 50 percent of total shares must be offered to the general public. At least 15 percent of total paid-up capital should be subscribed personally by sponsor directors. Islamic bank are also required to maintain a minimum capital adequacy ratio of 8 percent based on risk weighted assets. Meezan Bank Limited (MBL) received the first Islamic commercial banking license from SBP in January 2002. At the end of 2003, MBL has a small net-work of 10 branches with total deposits of US $ 130 million.
In January, 2003 the State Bank issued detail instructions upon setting up subsidiaries and stand-alone Islamic banking branches by existing commercial banks. Accordingly six existing commercial banks including one foreign bank are allowed to open separate Islamic banking branches. Out of which eight branches of four banks have already started their operations since June 2004. Islamic banks are also allowed to maintain statutory liquidity requirements (SLR) and special cash reserve (SCR) deposits in current account with the State Bank to the maximum extent of 40% of SLR and SCR for other banks in order to avoid interest.
Some developments have also been witnessed in the capital market with regard to Islamization. During the last few years, numbers of companies have issued Term Finance Certificates (TFC) to raise redeemable capital on the basis of Musharika. The payments of profit of or sharing of loss with the TFC holders are linked to the operating profit/loss of the TFC issuing companies. Therefore, the investors assume the risk of sustaining losses proportionate to their principal amount in case of operating losses incurred by the company. In September 2002, Securities and Exchange Commission of Pakistan (SECP) also allowed the Mudaraba companies to float Musharikah based TFC’s.
Another significant development during the year 2003 is the permission to set up ‘SME Modaraba’ with the participation of about 20 Modarabah companies to undertake SME businesses in the smaller towns and distant areas. SME Modaraba will resolve the problem of the individual Modarabah companies which do not have a big branch network to reach out to the prospective clientele.

Present scenario of Islamic Banking System in Malaysia

Today, Malaysia has a full-fledged Islamic financial system operating parallel to conventional financial system. In terms of products and services, there are more than 40 different Islamic financial products currently available in a country. However, differentiating fixed assets and overhead expenses are problematic in case of IBS banks. Usually, an IBS bank consists of a team overseeing Islamic banking transactions. Product development, marketing and other policy issues are conducted at the respective headquarters. At the branch level, there is no delineation over Islamic and conventional transactions. Each branch officer is expected to deal with both systems. Islamic and conventional transactions share the share computers and automated teller machines (ATMs) facilities. To some extent, overhead expenses on wages/salaries, office equipment and furniture etc. can be accounted for at the bank’s headquarter, but not at the branch level. The same applies to security systems, land and office premises as these cannot be divided into the Islamic and conventional individual components (Rosley, 2003).
Overall Islamic banking industry in Malaysia has continued to register strong expansion during 2003 to account for 9.7% of the total assets of the banking system (8.9% in 2002), 10.4% of total deposits (10.2% in 2002) and 10.3% of total financing (8.1% in 2002). The improved performance was characterized by strong growth in financing activities for the purchase of transport vehicles and residential property.
The thrust of Islamic financial policy in 2004 will continue to be directed at further strengthening the fundamental essential for progressive Islamic banking industry. The Central Bank is focusing on strengthening the institutional infrastructure, enhancing the regulatory framework, strengthening the Shariah and legal infrastructure as well as enhancing intellectual capital development and consumer education. In 2003, the Central Bank of Malaysia brought forward liberalization in Islamic banking to allow three full-fledged foreign Islamic banks to be set-up in Malaysia.

Conclusion

Islamic banking has proved vital potential as a competitive and better substitute against conventional banking system in many countries of the world. Currently, two different approaches are experienced towards the development of Islamic banking. First way experienced by Pakistan, Iran and Sudan is to implement Islamic banking on a country wide and on a comprehensive basis. Second, way is to setup individual Islamic banks in parallel to the conventional interest based banks. Pakistan and Malaysia can be assumed as the two leaders of Islamic Finance. Both countries selected different tracks to achieve the same goals of developing full fledge Islamic banking but gained different results.
The Governments of Pakistan has tried to employ Islamic banking system at once at national level. The overnight exercise of islamization didn’t produce the required results due to lack of required support and continue efforts to eliminate the interest (Riba) from the economy. Most of the Islamization efforts either had been reversed or at least, further progress was stopped. Since 2001, the Central Bank of Pakistan has started adopting the gradual policies of implementing Islamic banking which Malaysia has adopted twenty years back. Al-Meezan Bank in Pakistan (fully Islamic and independent commercial bank) and full fledge separate Islamic banking branches from few commercial banks are healthy indicators for positive expectations.
Malaysia employed the gradual approach of implementing Islamic banking. Although, the country is facing problems in segregating Islamic and conventional banking fixed assets and overheads expenses but, no doubt, it has successfully developed viable Islamic financial system. After developing Islamic banking infrastructure and Islamic instruments for financial investments and liquidity management, the country is actively progressing towards the development of Islamic capital market. Malaysia is now also inviting the international players to experience its new dual banking system.
References
Ahmad, A (1997),” Towards an Islamic Financial Market, A Study of Islamic Banking and Finance in Malaysia” Research Paper No 45, Islamic Research and Training Institute, Islamic Development Bank, Jeddah.
Rosley, S A (2003), “Performance of Islamic and Mainstream Banks in Malaysia” International Journal of Social Economics, Vol 30 – 12, PP 1249 – 1265.
The Central Bank of Malaysia, (1993-2003),”The Central Bank of Malaysia, Annual Reports”, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
, (1999), “The Central Bank and the Financial System in Malaysia: A Decade of Change (1989 – 1999)” the Central Bank of Malaysia Publication.
The Bank Islam Malaysia Berhad, (1994-2003),”The Central Bank of Malaysia, Annual Reports”, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
State Bank of Pakistan, (1999-2003),”State Bank of Pakistan, Annual Reports”, Karachi, Pakistan.

The 2nd Annual Islamic Finance Summit

August 22, 2010 Leave a comment

ACHIEVING GROWTH THROUGH DEDICATED INNOVATION
21st & 22nd January, The Langham Hilton, London

Plus a separately bookable one-day pre-conference workshop on:
Islamic banking, finance and investment management
Monday 20th January 2003

Euromoney Seminars are proud to present the 2nd Annual Islamic Finance Summit: an unrivalled opportunity to explore the enormous potential for growth in Islamic banking. Innovative products of increasing scope and complexity are attracting greater numbers of investors to Shari’ah compliant instruments and the volume of capital under Islamic management only looks set to increase fast.

This Summit gives you a ‘questions and answers’ forum in which you can learn more about the screening of products from the world’s foremost Shari’ah scholars. Keynote addresses from some of the industry’s leading figures will deliver a cutting-edge assessment of the achievements of Islamic banking and the challenges that it faces today. In addition, highly focussed presentations from senior industry players will ensure that you are fully briefed on the most significant deals and the most exciting prospects. The range of topics includes:

• The Islamic economic system
• Successful strategies for Islamic fund management
• New Shari’ah compliant products and services
• Creating an Islamic secondary market
• Trends in Middle Eastern investment in western based Islamic products
• Conventional banks and the Islamic system
• The growing market for Islamic retail financial services
• Islamic sukuk issues

The summit will also offer a great environment for networking with the industry professionals that matter most, and for sharing ideas on an informal basis. For learning, debate and business opportunities, the 2nd Annual Islamic Finance Summit will be a vital experience for both established professionals and those interested in understanding the sector better.

Gold Sponsor: First Islamic Investment Bank
Silver Sponsor: Oasis Asset Management (Guernsey)
Bronze Sponsors: First Investment, Dawnay, Day Global Investment
iHilal Financial Services, Global Securities House
The International Association for Islamic Economics

Plus a separately bookable one-day pre-conference workshop on:
Islamic banking, finance and investment management
Monday 20th January 2003
Workshop leader: Stella Cox, Managing Director, Dawnay, Day Global Investment, United Kingdom

Also featuring:
Abdelhak El Kafsi, Managing Director, Islamic Finance Consultants, Bahrain
Bryan Kraty, Independent Consultant
Topics will include:
• Shari’ah compliant structured finance deals
• The application of Shari’ah compliant financial contracts to investment and financing opportunities
• Identifying and expanding acceptable asset classes for Islamic investment funds
• Interacting with Shari’ah authorities
• Islamic securitisation
• The Islamic markets

DAY ONE

08.15 Coffee and Registration

08.45 Chairman’s welcome and opening remarks

George Kardouche, Senior Advisor, Arab Bankers Association, United Kingdom

09.00 Keynote address

HE Abdulla Hassan Saif, Minister for Finance and National Economy, Bahrain

09.30 Keynote address: Creating an Islamic economic system

• Developing Industry
• Developing welfare of people
• Creation of jobs
• The essence of Islamic banking and the Islamic system

Sheikh Saleh Kamel, President, Dallah Al Baraka Group, Saudi Arabia

10.00 Development of the Islamic banking industry

• Growth in Islamic investment banking
• New entrants into the market
• New products
• Alternative investments
• Islamic retail banking: expanding into Europe and North America
• Industry consolidation through mergers and acquisitions between older Islamic banks
• Development of an Islamic capital market in the Gulf and Malaysia

Atif A. Abdulmalik, CEO, First Islamic Investment Bank, Bahrain

10.30 Morning Coffee

11.00 Successful strategies for Islamic fund management

• Addressing clients’ priorities
• Overcoming practical difficulties
• Making the best of Islamic limitations on investment options
• Comparing different markets around the world
• Marketing your fund to private and institutional investors

Basil Al-Nakeeb, Senior Executive Director, First Investment, Kuwait

11.30 A review of Islamic finance in 2002 and prospects for 2003

• A period of re-assessment and re-focusing
• More conventional bank interest in Islamic finance – from HSBC Amanah to UBS Noriba Bank
• Islamic bank responses to growing conventional presence in the Islamic finance industry
• Challenges facing Islamic equity funds
• Switching from western to Muslim markets
• Risk management through Islamic capital protected funds

Professor Rodney Wilson, Centre for Middle Eastern & Islamic Studies, University of Durham, United Kingdom

12.00 The global regulatory environment for Islamic finance

• AAOIFI and the move towards regularisation for Islamic institutions
• Regulatory requirements in accounting and documentation for Islamic banks and investors in:
• The Middle East
• The Far East
• Europe
• The United States

Professor Rifaat Abdel Karim, Secretary General, Accounting & Auditing Organisation for Islamic Financial Institutions (AAOIFI), Bahrain

12.30 The First Annual Awards Ceremony for Innovation in Islamic Banking, hosted by EUROMONEY Magazine

12.45 Lunch

14.00 Panel discussion – developing new Islamic products and services

• Addressing the restrictions that product limitation places on the Islamic finance industry
• The challenges of developing instruments based on Islamic principles
• Gaining a competitive edge through diversification in product and service options
• Meeting the liquidity mismatch problem
• Documentation for new products
Ramzi Abukhadra, CEO, iHilal Financial Services, UAE
Henry Thompson, Executive Director, First Islamic Investment Bank, Bahrain
Dr Mohd Daud Bakar, Shari’ah Scholar, International Islamic University, Malaysia
Angus Blair, Head of Investments, Al-Rajhi Bank, Saudi Arabia*

14.45 Trends in Islamic banking and finance

• Retail and private banking
• Institutional/corporate banking
• How clients’ requirements are changing
• Different and new asset classes

Iqbal Khan, CEO, HSBC Amanah Finance

15.15 Islamic equity funds – the long term solution

• Growth of Islamic investment funds
• Different asset classes
• Shari’ah guidelines for investing and benchmarking
• Portfolio management
• Smaller investment universe does not necessarily imply lower return

Adam Ismail Ebrahim, CEO, Oasis Asset Mangement (Guernsey), South Africa

15.45 Afternoon Tea

16.15 Creating an Islamic secondary market

• Review of current Islamic secondary markets
• Developing tradeable Shari’ah compliant instruments
• How to create a market with:
• Liquidity
• Rapid, reliable and secure clearing and processing
• A harmonised regulatory regime
• Assessing structures for short-term deposits

Duncan Smith, CEO, ABC International Bank Islamic Asset Management, UK

16.45 Panel discussion – Can there be an Islamic hedge fund?

• What are the mechanics of a traditional hedge fund?
• What challenges do they present?
• What would be the benefits for investors of creating an Islamic hedge fund?
• Approving short-selling and greater levels of leverage
• Legal and regulatory issues: disclosure and accounting standards in relation to Shari’ah

Moderator: Michael McMillen, Partner, King & Spalding, USA
Eric Meyer, Senior Managing Partner, Meyer Capital Partners, USA
Eric R. Roper, Partner, Gersten, Savage, Kaplowitz, Wolf & Marcus, USA
Sheikh Yusuf Talal DeLorenzo, Shari’ah Supervisor, and Director, Yassar Ltd, USA

17.35 Chairman’s closing remarks

17.45 Close of Day One

DAY TWO

08.15 Coffee and Registration

08.45 Chairman’s welcome and opening remarks

Michael McMillen, Partner, King & Spalding, USA

09.00 Keynote address: The Islamic financial sector: a Malaysian perspective

Mohd Razif Abd Kadir, Associate Governor, Bank Negara, Malaysia*

09.30 Open Fatwa and Shari’ah panel discussion

• Each scholar will give a brief address on contemporary issues of importance for Islamic finance
• The scholars will give responses to audience questions concerning Islamic finance and economics
• The scholars will clarify any doubts participants may have regarding contracts and Shari’ah related matters

Moderator: Sheikh Nizam Yaquby, Member of Global Securities House Limited, Shari’ah Supervisory Board, Kuwait

Justice ® Muhammad Taqi Usmani, Vice President, Darul Uloom Karachi, Pakistan
Sheikh Yusuf Talal DeLorenzo, Shari’ah Supervisor, and Partner, Yassar Ltd, USA
Dr Mohamed A. Elgari, Director of the Centre for Research in Islamic Economics, King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia

10.20 Morning Coffee

10.50 Examining elements of Shari’ah contracts in comparison to western legal and regulatory practices

• Regulatory issues for Islamic mutual funds in the EU
• Contract law questions in the EU and US
• Islamic mudariba structures and partnership law

Glenn M. Stewart, General Manager, Algosaibi Trading Co., Bahrain

11.20 Changing Times? Shari’ah compliant investment in the international financial environment

• Assessing opportunities for Islamic investors
• Maximising the appeal of international asset classes
• What barriers/ disincentives are there for Islamic investors seeking cross-border investments?
• Trends in capital flow
• Is there a global market for Islamic financial services?

Stella Cox, Managing Director, Dawnay, Day Global Investment, United Kingdom

11.50The growth of Islamic banking in the Saudi financial markets

• Baseline size of Islamic versus conventional banking
• Consumer products, corporate banking and project finance
• Growth of different Islamic vehicles
• What is driving the growth of the Islamic sector?
• Looking at prospective developments

Brad Bourland, Chief Economist, Saudi American Bank, Saudi Arabia
Naveed Khan, Head of Islamic Banking, Saudi American Bank, Saudi Arabia

12.20 Lunch

13.50 Islamic funds and indexes: prospects and problems

• Islamic funds and indexes: a symbiotic relationship
• More is needed: a peer review
• Constraints on investing Islamically
• Consolidation: too many funds chasing too few assets
• How and why did Islamic funds fail in the UK and US?
• Do scholars need to revisit the Shari’ah criteria?
• Lessons from Socially Responsible Investing (SRI)

Rushdi Siddiqui, Director, Islamic Market Index, Dow Jones, USA

14.20 Conventional banks and Islamic finance

• Analysing the decision to develop an Islamic finance division
• Selecting an implementation team and advisory body
• Competitive advantage of Islamic products within a conventional set-up
• Successfully marketing Islamic products and services
• Creating strategic partnerships for competitive growth and development in the sector

John Voss, Vice President, Merrill Lynch, United Kingdom

14.50 Growth in the market for retail Islamic financial services

• Islamic mortgage alternatives
• Charge and debit cards
• Auto and other consumer transactions
• Crossover opportunities
• Credit issues
• Securitization tools

Abdulkader Thomas, President & CEO, SAMAD American Holding Corp, Principal, AJIF.org, LLC, USA

15.20 Afternoon Tea

15.50 Panel discussion: Islamic Project Finance and Structured Finance in the Middle East

• Evolution of Project Finance / Structured Finance in the Middle East: the last five years
• Recent significant transactions: elements that are / are not Shari’ah compliant
• Collateral structures
• Leveraged leases
• Trade and construction finance
• Justification of non-Shari’ah compliant elements in integrated project structures

Moderator: Craig Hart, Associate, O’Melveny Myers, USA
Nadim Khan, Senior Associate, Banking and Project Finance, Norton Rose, Bahrain
Michael Duncan, Partner, Allen & Overy, United Kingdom

16.35 Islamic sukuk issues

• Principles of an Islamic sukuk
• Looking at Recent sovereign sukuks
• Advantages of issuing an Islamic euro-sukuk
• Various Formats of Sukuks from listing perspective
• Rating sukuk certificates
• Listing Requirements for Sukuk on international exchanges
• Assessing the need for high Investment grade Sukuks as alternate liquidity management instrument
• Developing the secondary market

Saad Zaman, Managing Director, Citi Islamic Investment Bank, Bahrain
Saad Ashraf, Unit Head, Global Islamic Finance, Citigroup, UK

17.05 Case study: Islamic leasing to Emirates airlines

• The natural place of leasing within the principles of Islamic economics
• Differences in documentation between Islamic and conventional leases
• Scope for development in Islamic leasing structures

Riyaz Peermohamed, Corporate Treasurer, Emirates Airlines, UAE
Javed Ahmad, Associate Director, HSBC Amanah Finance, United Kingdom

17.35 Chairman’s closing remarks

17.40 Close of Summit*

*To be finally confirmed

REGISTRATION FORM:
2nd Annual Islamic Finance Summit
21 – 22 JANUARY 2003, THE LANGHAM HILTON, LONDON

FURTHER INFORMATION REQUEST
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Euro. Inv. Grade Corporate Bonds Conf. 
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CANCELLATION POLICY
Should you be unable to attend, a substitute delegate may attend the seminar in your place at no extra charge. Otherwise the originally registered delegate will be subject to the following refund policy. Full refunds less 10% handling charge are available for all cancellations received in writing (letter or fax) by 3rd January 2003. Subsequently no refund will be given.

The course fee includes all tuition, course documentation, luncheon, midmorning and afternoon refreshments. Hotel accommodation is not included.

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EKONOMI ISLAM SEBAGAI MODEL ALTERNATIF PEMBANGUNAN EKONOMI DI INDONESIA

August 22, 2010 Leave a comment

Makalah Kelompok 5 Posted 9 May 2002
Falsafah Sains (PPs 702)
Program Pasca Sarjana
Institut Pertanian Bogor
May 2002

Dosen:
Prof Dr Ir Rudy C Tarumingkeng (Penanggung Jawab)

EKONOMI ISLAM SEBAGAI MODEL ALTERNATIF
PEMBANGUNAN EKONOMI DI INDONESIA
(Penerapan Bank Syariah)

Oleh: Kelompok 5

Kardiman (EPN), Bayu Nuswantara (EPN), Godlief Joseph (PTK), Harry Triely U (PTK)

BAB I. PENDAHULUAN

I.1. Latar Belakang

Fenomena perekonomian dunia telah berubah dari waktu ke waktu sesuai dengan perkembangan jaman dan perubahan teknologi informasi yang berkembang pesat. Banyak nilai-nilai baru yang dibentuk namun sulit untuk menentukan mana yang benar dan mana salah, sehingga terkadang membawa kebaikan namun adakalanya menyesatkan. Globalisasi ekonomi yang diwarnai dengan bebasnya arus barang modal dan jasa, serta perdagangan antar negara, telah mengubah suasana kehidupan menjadi individualistis dan persaingan yang amat ketat.
Dalam tataran perekonomian dunia, telah terjadi pula kesenjangan ekonomi yang dialami oleh negara miskin dan negara kaya, serta munculnya jurang kesenjangan antara masyarakat miskin dan masyarakat kaya yang semakin besar. Bangsa Indonesia saat ini berada dalam krisis ekonomi yang ditandai dengan beban utang luar negeri yang besar, sampai dengan akhir tahun 2001 utang luar negeri mencapai 138 milyar dollar AS yang terdiri dari utang pemerintah 74,56 milyar dollar (53,9%) dan 63,44 milyar dollar (46,1%) adalah utang swasta. Sistem ekonomi kapitalis membuat bangsa Indonesia terseret dalam putaran keuangan kapitalis yang dahsyat, ibarat badai tornado yang memporakporandakan semua benda dan bangunan yang dilaluinya.
Sudah cukup lama umat Islam Indonesia, demikian pula dunia Islam lainnya menginginkan sistem perekonomian yang berbasis nilai dan prinsip syariah (Islamic economic system) untuk dapat diterapkan dalam segenap aspek kehidupan bisnis dan transaksi umat. Keinginan ini didasari oleh suatu kesadaran untuk menerapkan Islam secara utuh dan total seperti yang ditegaskan Allah SWT.
Sangat disayangkan dewasa ini masih banyak kalangan yang melihat bahwa Islam tidak berurusan dengan bank dan pasar uang, karena yang pertama adalah dunia putih, sedangkan yang kedua adalah dunia hitam, penuh tipu daya dan kelicikan. Oleh karena banyak kalangan melihat Islam dengan sistem nilai dan tatanan normatifnya, sebagai faktor penghambat pembangunan. Penganut paham liberalisme dan pragmatisme sempit ini menilai bahwa kegiatan ekonomi dan keuangan akan semakin meningkat dan berkembang bila dibebaskan dari nilai-nilai normatif dan rambu-rambu Ilahi (Syafi’I Antonio, 2001).
Ketidakseimbangan ekonomi global, dan krisis ekonomi yang melanda Asia khususnya Indonesia adalah suatu bukti bahwa asumsi diatas salah total bahkan ada sesuatu yang tidak beres dengan sistem yang kita anut selama ini. Adanya kenyataan sejumlah besar bank ditutup, di-take-over, dan sebagian besar lainnya harus direkapitulasi dengan biaya ratusan trilliun rupiah dari uang negara yaitu sekitar 635 triliun rupiah, maka rasanya amatlah besar dosa kita bila tetap berdiam diri dan berpangku tangan tidak melakukan sesuatu untuk memperbaikinya.
Sekarang saatnya kita menunjukkan bahwa muamalah syariah dengan filosofi utama kemitraan dan kebersamaan (sharing) dalam profit dan risk dapat mewujudkan kegiatan ekonomi yang lebih adil dan transparan. Sekaligus pula membuktikan bahwa dengan sistem perbankan syariah, kita dapat menghilangkan wabah penyakit negative spread (keuntungan minus) dari dunia perbankan.

I.2. Rumusan Permasalahan

Dari latar belakang diatas menyangkut perkembangan perekonomian di Indonesia khususnya perbankan nasional, maka dapat dirumuskan permasalahan sebagai berikut:
1. Bagaimana model ekonomi Islam dapat diterapkan di Indonesia ?
2. Bagaimanakah bank syariah bertindak sebagai lembaga perantara dalam perekonomian Indonesia?

1.3. Tujuan dan Kegunaan Tulisan

– Tujuan
1. Untuk mengetahui bagaimana model ekonomi Islam diterapkan di Indonesia.
2. Bagaimana bank syariah bekerja sebagai lembaga perantara.

- Kegunaan :
1. Untuk memenuhi tugas kelompok V mata kuliah Falsafah Sains di IPB Bogor sm.2 tahun 2002 dibawah bimbingan dosen Prof.Rudy C. Tarumingkeng Ph.D
2. Untuk pengembangan model ekonomi Islam sebagai model ekonomi alternatif di Indonesia.

BAB II. SISTEM PERBANKAN SYARIAH

2.1. Perkembangan Bank Syariah

Sejak awal kelahirannya bank syariah dilandasi dengan kehadiran dua gerakan renaissance Islam Modern: neorevivalis dan modernis, tujuan utama dari pendirian lembaga keuangan berlandaskan etika ini, tiada lain sebagai upaya kaum muslimin untuk mendasari segenap aspek kehidupan ekonominya berlandaskan Al-Qur’an dan As-Sunnah. Upaya awal penerapan sistem profit dan loss sharing tercatat di Pakistan dan Malaysia sekitar tahun 1940-an, yaitu adanya upaya mengelola dana jamaah haji secara non-konvensional. Rintisan institusional lainnya adalah Islamic Rural Bank di desa Mit Ghamr pada tahun 1963 di Kairo, Mesir.
Berdirinya Islamic Development Bank (IDB) pada tahun 1975 di Jeddah telah memotivasi banyak negara Islam untuk mendirikan lembaga keuangan syariah. Pada awal periode 1980-an bank-bank syariah bermunculan di Mesir, Sudan, Pakistan, Iran, Malaysia, Bangladesh, serta Turki. Secara garis besar lembaga tersebut dapat dibagi dua kategori: bank Islam komersial, dan lembaga investasi dalam bentuk international holding companies.
Perkembangan bank syariah dipelopori oleh Pakistan, pada tahun 1979 sistem bunga dihapuskan dari operasional tiga institusi: National Investment, House Building Finance Co, dan Mutual Funds of the Investment Corporation of Pakistan. Pada tahun 1985 seluruh sistem perbankan Pakistan dikonversi dengan sistem yang baru, yaitu sistem perbankan syariah. Sedangkan di Mesir bank syariah pertama yang didirikan adalah Faisal Islamic Bank pada tahun 1978, kemudian diikuti Islamic International Bank for Investment and Development Bank ini beroperasi sebagai bank investasi, bank perdagangan, maupun bank komersial. Sementara di Malaysia, Bank Islam Malaysia Berhad (BIMB) yang didirikan tahun 1983 merupakan bank syariah pertama di Asia Tenggara.
Di Indonesia bank syariah didirikan pertama kali pada tahun 1991 dengan berdirinya Bank Muamalat Indonesia (BMI). Pada awal berdirinya keberadaan bank syariah belum mendapat perhatian yang optimal dalam tatanan industri perbankan nasional. Kemudian setelah UU No.7/1992 diganti dengan UU No.10 tahun 1998 yang mengatur dengan rinci landasan hukum serta jenis-jenis usaha yang dapat dioperasikan dan diimplementasikan oleh bank syariah, maka bank syariah mulai menunjukkan perkembangannya. Undang-undang ini pula memberikan arahan bagi bank konvensional untuk membuka cabang syariah atau mengkonversikan diri menjadi bank syariah.

2.2. Perbedaan Antara Bank Syariah dan Bank Konvensional
Disamping adanya beberapa persamaan antara bank konvensional dan bank syariah, terdapat pula perbedaan yang cukup mendasar antara lain: aspek legal, dan usaha yang dibiayai. Dalam aspek legal di bank syariah, akad yang dilakukan memiliki konsekuensi duniawi dan ukhrawi karena akad yang dilakukan berdasarkan hukum Islam. Sedangkan aspek bisnis dan usaha yang dibiayai, dalam bank syariah tidak dimungkinkan membiayai usaha yang terkandung didalamnya hal-hal yang diharamkan. Hal yang yang harus dipastikan:
Apakah obyek pembiayaan halal atau haram?
Apakah proyek menimbulkan kemudharatan untuk masyarakat?
Apakah proyek berkaitan dengan perbuatan asusila?
Apakah proyek berkaitan dengan perjudian?
Secara umum perbandingan antara bank syariah dan bank konvensional, serta perbedaan antara bunga dan bagi hasil disajikan dalam tabel berikut:

Tabel1. Perbandingan Antara Bank Syariah Dan Bank Konvensional
Bank Syariah Bank Konvensional
1 Investasi yang halal 1 Investasi halal & haram
2 Prinsip bagi hasil, jual beli, atau sewa 2 Memakai perangkat bunga
3 Profit dan falah oriented 3 Profit oriented
4 Hubungan kemitraan 4 Hubungan debitor-kreditor
5 Penghimpunan dan penya-luran dana harus sesuai dengan fatwa Dewan Pengawas Syariah 5 Tidak terdapat dewan sejenis

Tabel 2. Perbedaan Antara Bunga Dan Bagi Hasil
Bunga Bagi Hasil
1 Penentuan bunga dibuat pada waktu akad dengan asumsi harus selalu untung 1 Penentuan besarnya rasio bagi hasil dibuat saat akad dengan pedoman pada kemungkinan untung & rugi
2 Besarnya persentase untung berdasarkan modal yang dipinjamkan 2 Besarnya rasio bagi hasil berdasarkan jumlah untung yang diperoleh
3 Pembayaran bunga tetap seperti yang dijanjikan tanpa pertimbangan lainnya 3 Bagi hasil bergantung pada keuntungan atau kerugian proyek yang dijalankan
4 Jumlah pembayaran bunga tidak meningkat walaupun jumlah keuntungan berlipat 4 Jumlah pembagian laba meningkat sesuai dengan peningkatan jumlah pen-dapatan.
5 Eksistensi bunga diragukan 5 Tidak ada yang meragukan keabsahan bagi hasil

2.3. Bunga dan Riba
Ada beberapa pendapat dalam menjelaskan riba, namun secara umum terdapat benang merah yang menegaskan bahwa riba adalah pengambilan tambahan, baik dalam transaksi jual beli maupun pinjam-meminjam secara batil atau bertentangan dengan prinsip muamalah. Namun yang dimaksud riba yaitu setiap penambahan yang diambil tanpa adanya satu transaksi pengganti atau penyeimbang yang dibenarkan syariah, dan yang dimaksud dengan transaksi pengganti yaitu transaksi bisnis atau komersial yang melegitimasi adanya penambahan tersebut secara adil, seperti: transaksi jual beli, gadai, sewa, atau bagi hasil.
Teori bunga dapat digolongkan ke dalam dua kelompok yaitu : (i) teori bunga murni, dan (ii) teori bunga moneter. Teori bunga murni, terdiri dari : teori bunga klasik, teori bunga tahan nafsu, teori bunga produktivitas, dan teori bunga Austria. Sedangkan teori bunga moneter terdiri dari : teori bunga tentang dana yang dapat dipinjamkan, dan teori bunga Keynes.
Menurut Smith, bunga merupakan kompensasi yang dibayarkan oleh debitor kepada kreditor sebagai balas jasa atas keuntungan yang diperoleh dari uang pinjaman tersebut. Ekonom ini percaya bahwa akumulasi kapital uang sebagai akibat dari penghematan, dimana penghematan ini tidak dapat dilaksanakan tanpa mengharapkan balas jasa atas pengorbanannya. Karena itulah bunga sebagai balas jasa atau perangsang tabungan.
Sedangkan pendekatan Keynes terhadap teori bunga sering dikenal sebagai pendekatan persediaan (stock), Keynes berpendapat bahwa bukan tingkat bunga, tapi tingkat pendapatan yang menjamin untuk menyamakan tingkat tabungan dengan tingkat investasi. Dengan kata lain bunga merupakan balas jasa untuk tidak membelanjakan uang atau untuk tidak menyimpan uang dalam bentuk uang kas.

2.4. Riba Dalam Perspektif Agama dan Ekonomi
Kita akan menganalisis bunga dengan beberapa implikasinya. Banyak pendapat mengenai bunga, pertama alasan menahan diri (abstinence) yang menegaskan ketika kreditor menahan diri, ia menangguhkan keinginannya memanfaatkan uangnya sendiri semata-mata untuk memenuhi keinginan orang lain. Namun dalam kenyataannya kreditor hanya akan meminjamkan uang yang tidak ia gunakan sendiri atau uang yang berlebih dari yang ia perlukan dengan demikian sebenarnya ia tidak menahan diri atas apapun.
Ada anggapan bunga sebagai imbalan sewa yang didasarkan dari rumusan yang menempatkan posisi rent, wage, dan interest. Rumus ini menunjukkan bahwa padanan rent (sewa) adalah aset tetap dan aset bergerak, sedangkan interest (bunga) padanannya uang. Hal ini tentu tidak tepat karena uang bukan aset tetap, karena itu menuntut sewa uang tidak beralasan.
Modal sering juga dipandang mempunyai daya untuk menghasilkan nilai tambah, dengan semikian kriditor layak untuk mendapatkan imbalan bunga. Dalam kenyataanya modal menjadi produktif bila digunakan untuk bisnis yang mendatangkan keuntungan, sedang bila digunakan untuk konsumsi modal sama sekali tidak produktif.
Anggapan lain bunga sebagai agio atau selisih nilai yang diperoleh dari barang-barang pada waktu sekarang terhadap perubahan atau penukaran barang di waktu yang akan datang. Benarkah demikian? Mengapa banyak oarng tidak membelanjakan seluruh pendapatannya sekarang tetapi menyimpannya untuk keperluan pada masa yang akan datang? Secara prinsip Islam mengakui adanya nilai dan berharganya waktu, tetapi penghargaannya tidak diwujudkan dalam rupiah tertentu atau persentase bunga tetap, hal ini karena hasil nyata dari optimalisasi waktu itu adalah variabel.
Inflasi dipahami sebagai meningkatnya harga barang secara keseluruhan, dengan demikian terjadi penurunan daya beli uang atau decreasing purchasing power of money. Karena itu menurut penganut paham ini pengambil bunga uang sangatlah logis sebagai kompensasi penurunan daya beli uang selama dipinjamkan. Argumentasi ini sangat tepat bila dalam perekonomian yang terjadi hanya inflasi saja tanpa deflasi atau stabil.

2.5. Prinsip Dasar Perbankan Syariah

2.5.1. Prinsip Titipan atau Simpanan (Al-Wadi’ah)
Al-wadi’ah dapat diartikan sebagai titipan murni dari satu pihak ke pihak lain, baik individu maupun badan hukum yang harus dijaga dan dikembalikan kapan saja sipenitip menghendaki. Pada dasarnya penerima simpanan adalah yad al-amanah (tangan amanah) artinya tidak bertanggungjawab atas kehilangan atau kerusakan yang terjadi pada aset titipan selama hal ini bukan karena kalalaian penerima dalam memelihara barang titipan. Akan tetapi dalam aktivitas perekonomian modern penerima simpanan tidak mungkin akan meng-idle-kan aset tersebut tetapi mempergunakannya dalam aktivitas perekonomian tertentu. Karenanya harus memenita izin dari penitip untuk kemudian mempergunakan asetnya dengan menjamin akan mengembalikannya secara utuh. Pihak penerima titipan dapat membebankan biaya kepada penitip sebagai biaya penitipan.
Bank sebagai penerima simpanan dapat memanfaatkan titipan atau simpanan tersebut untuk tujuan: giro dan tabungan berjangka. Konsekuensi dari tangan penanggung ini (bank), semua keuntungan yang dihasilkan dari dana titipan tersebut menjadi milik bank, demikian juga bank adalah penanggung seluruh kumungkinan kerugian. Sebagai imbalan penyimpan memperoleh jaminan keamanan terhadap asetnya juga fasilitas giro lainnya. Bank tidak dilarang untuk memberikan semacam insentif berupa bonus dengan catatan tidak disyaratkan sebelumnya dan jumlahnya tidak ditetapkan dalam nominal atau persentase secara advance, tetapi merupakan kebijakan dari manajemen bank.

2.5.2. Prinsip Bagi Hasil (Profit-Sharing)
Secara prinsip dalam perbankan syariah yang paling banyak dipakai adalah akad utama: al-musyarakah dan al-mudharabah, sedangkan al-muzara’ah dan al-musaqah dipergunakan khusus untuk plantation financing atau pembiayaan pertanian oleh beberapa bank Islam.
Al-musyarakah adalah akad kerjasama antara dua pihak atau lebih untuk suatu tertentu dimana masing-masing pihak memberikan kontribusi dana dengan kesepakatan bahwa keuntungan dan resiko akan ditanggung bersama sesuai dengan kesepakatan. Sedangkan Al-mudharabah adalah akad kerjasama usaha antara dua pihak dimana pihak pertama menyediakan 100% modal, sedangkan pihak lainnya menjadi pengelola. Keuntungan usaha secara mudharabah dibagi menurut kesepakatan yang dituangkan dalam kontrak sedangkan apabila rugi ditanggung oleh pemilik modal selama kerugian itu bukan akibat kelalaian pengelola. Seandainya kerugian tersebut akibat kecurangan atau kelalaian pengelola, maka pengelola harus bertanggungjawab atas kerugian tersebut.

BAB III. MODEL EKONOMI ISLAM, PERANAN BANK SYARIAH DAN PEMULIHAN EKONOMI INDONESIA

3.1. Prinsip-prinsip Ekonomi Islam
Ekonomi Islam berbeda dengan ekonomi lainnya seperti :
1. Dalam ekonomi, berbagai jenis sumberdaya dipandang sebagai pemberian tuhan atau titipan Tuhan kepada menusia guna memenuhi kesejahteraan bersama di dunia dan di akhirat bukan seperti ekonomi kapitalis untuk kepentingan diri sendiri (self interest principle).
2. Islam mengakui hak pribadi namun harus dibatasi oleh Pertama, kepentingan masyarakat, Kedua Islam menolak setiap pendapatan yang diperoleh dari suap, rampasan, kecurangan, pencurian, perampokan, penipuan dalam timbangan atau ukuran, pelacuran, produksi dan penjualan alkohol, bunga, judi, perdagangan gelap, usaha yang menghancurkan masyarakat.
3. Kekuatan penggerak utama ekonomi Islam adalah kerjasama, suka sama suka. Jiwa kerjasama ini adalah mencari keuntungan yang wajar, tanpa perubahan ongkos maka harga barang hanya sebagai akibat prinsip kelangkaannya.
4. Al-qur’an : Hai orang-orang yang beriman, janganlah kamu makan harta sesamamu dengan jalan batil, kecuali dengan perdagangan yang dilakukan dengan suka sama suka diantara kamu …. “ (Q4 : 29). Arti ayat ini adalah bahwa kepemilikan pribadi harus berperan sebagai kapital produktif yang akan meningkatkan besaran produksi nasional supaya harta itu jangan berputar di sekitar orang-orang kaya saja.
5. Dalam ekonomi penganut pasar bebas, pemilikan industri didominasi oleh monopoli dan oligopoli. Islam menjamin pemilikan masyarakat dan penggunaannya drencanakan untuk kepentingan orang banyak. Rasulullah bersabda “Masyarakat punya hak sama untuk air, padang rumput dan api, bahan tambang bahkan bahan makanan harus dikelola oleh perusahaan negara”.
6. Seorang muslim harus takut kepada Allah dan hari penentuan seperti dalam Al-qur’an : “Dan takutilah hari sewaktu kamu dikembalikan kepada Allah. Kemudian masing-masing diberi balasan dengan sempurna usahanya (amal ibadahnya). Dan mereka tidak teraniaya. “ (Q2:281).

3.2. Prinsip Distribusi dalam Ekonomi Islam
Setiap muslim yang kekayaannya melebihi tingkat tertentu (nisbah) diwajibkan membayar sebagian hartanya untuk orang miskin dan orang yang memerlukan. Pengeluaran tersebut pajak keagamaan yang disebut zakat. Ketentuan pendistribusian zakat tersebut tidak dapat diubah. Pihak-pihak penerima zakat tersebut dapat diuraikan secara detil kepada :
1. Orang Miskin
orang tua atau orang cacat yang tidak memperoleh pendapatan untuk keperluan sehari-hari.
2. penganggur yang belum memperoleh pendapatan, pengungsi yang menghindari penindasan di negara asalnya.
3. Orang yang membutuhkan.
4. Seseorang yang tidak cukup pendapatan untuk memenuhi kebutuhan dasarnya.
5. Petugas Pengumpul Zakat
termasuk didalamnya pengumpul, pesuruh, pencatat, pembagi, penyimpan dan pemegang buku yang terlibat dengan pengumpulan zakat.
6. Golongan Muallaf
orang yang baru masuk Islam yang memerlukan bantuan dan dorongan kehilangan kekayaan.
7. Memerdekakan budak
8. Orang yang berhutang
Zakat digunakan untuk membantu orang yang berhutang bila pengutang tidak mempunyai kekayaan untuk melunasinya.
9. Orang yang Menempuh Bekerja karena Allah
termasuk kedalamnya anak sekolah, buku, tempat tinggal dan pakaian.
10. Orang dalam Perjalanan

3.3. Model Ekonomi Islam

1. Fungsi Daya Guna seorang Konsumen Muslim

U = f (x1, x2,…xn; y1, y2, ym ; G)

Dimana G adalah pengeluaran untuk sedekah.

Konsumen non muslim dapat mengkonsumsi jenis barang yang tersedia x1,x2,….,xn, namun konsumen muslim dibatasi mengkonsumsi alkohol, daging babi dan berjudi x1,x2,…,xk; dimana k<n.
2. Seorang muslim dilarang menerima atau membayar bunga dari berbagai pinjaman untuk barang tahan lama, bunga yang terkandung didalamnya harus dikeluarkan bunga diganti dengan ongkos yang disebut dengan bagi keuntungan (profit shering) seperti mobil mewah, rumah mewah, barang-barang elektronik dan sebagainya, karena bahaya akan dililit hutang yang berlipat ganda (contoh : sebuah mobil baru dibeli kontan Rp 100 juta, namun dengan kredit 4 tahun, d/p Rp 10 juta dengan sistem cicilan, hutang menjadi Rp 150 juta, sedangkan mobil yang dibeli setelah 4 tahun dijual hanya laku Rp 70 juta berarti sipembeli harus bersedia dililit hutang Rp 80 juta karena ingin membeli mobil dengan sistem kredit, hitungannya (sistem kredit Rp 150 – kontan Rp 100) + (harga baru Rp 100 – harga 4 tahun Rp 70), setelah itu model terbaru dipromosikan dengan sangat menggoda dengan harga Rp 200 juta (harus bersedia menambah hutang Rp 130 untuk beli mobil baru lagi). Begitulah seterusnya sehingga hutang menjadi sangat besar.
3. Keseimbangan Konsumen Muslim

U = f (x1, x2,…xn; y1, y2, ym ; G)

Dengan kendala

G +  (Pj x j) +  (liyi) < (1 – ) M

Persoalan tersebut dapat diselesaikan dengan menggunakan syarat Kuhn-Tucker.

4. Aturan Main Sebuah Perusahaan Islam
Perusahaan Islam harus dapat mencapai tingkat keuntungan yang wajar guna mempertahankan kegiatan usahanya. Fungsi daya guna merupakan fungsi dari jumlah keuntungan dan jumlah pengeluaran untuk sedekah, dengan kendala keuntungan setelah pembayaran zakat.

Formulasi matematika pemikiran diatas adalah :

Y = f (F, G)

Dimana :

F = tingkat keuntungan
G = pengeluaran untuk sedekah.

Dengan anggapan M adalah keuntungan maka fungsinya adalah :

M = R – C – G

R = pendapatan total
C = ongkos produksi
G = sedekah

5. Peranan Bursa Efek dan Kelemahannya
a. Non Islam
– Memungkinkan penabung untuk berpartisipasi pada kegiatan bisnis yang menguntungkan
– Memungkinkan para pemegang saham untuk memperoleh likuiditas dengan menjual saham dan obligasi pada perusahaan bisnis di pasar modal.
– Memungkinkan kegiatan bisnis untuk mendapatkan dana dari pihak luar
– Memungkinkan kegiatan bisnis untuk memisahkan operasi bisnis dan ekonomi dari kegiatan keuangan.

b. Bursa efak Islam
– Bursa efek diorganisisr untuk menyediakan dua pasar yang berbeda dalam konsep yaitu :
1). Pasar penerbitan efek baru (pasar perdana)
2). Pasar sekunder yang memungkinkan pemegang saham untuk memperjualbelikan saham-saham yang telah ada.

Dengan demikian bursa efek dalam ekonomi Islam harus melaksanakan fungsi-fungsi sebagai berikut :
a. Memungkinkan para penabung berpartisipasi penuh pada pemilikan kegiatan bisnis dengan meperoleh bagian dari keuntungan dan resikonya.
b. Memungkinkan para pemegang saham mendapatkan likuiditas dengan menjual saham sesuai dengan aturan bursa efek.
c. Memungkinkan kegiatan bisnis meningkatkan modal dari luar untuk mebangun dan mengembangkan lini produksinya.
d. Memisahkan operasi kegiatan bisnis dari fluktuasi jangka pendek pada harga saham yang merupakan ciri umum pada pasar non Islam.
e. Memungkinkan investasi pada ekonomi itu ditentukan oleh kinerja kegiatan bisnis sebagaimana tercermin pada harga saham.

3.4. Peranan Ekonomi Islam dalam Mencegah Krisis Ekonomi
Berdasarkan uraian diatas dapat dibuat suatu simulasi atau pemisalan jika model ekonomi Islam diterapkan semenjak 1980 di Indonesia, maka ada hal-hal yang dapat diatasi yaitu :
a. Sistem ekonomi Islam dapat menjamin distribusi ekonomi yang lebih adil dan merata.
b. Dapat memperkecil hutang Indonesia terutama himpitan bunga dan tambahan pokok pinjaman sebab sistem ekonomi Islam adalah bagi hasil
c. Dapat mencegah penyelewengan BLBI dan korupsi.
d. Dapat mencegah gejolak moneter dan melemahnya mata uang Rupiah terhadap Dollar Amerika pada krisis moneter tahun 1998 sebab dalam Islam uang tidak boleh diperjualbelikan.
e. Dapat mencegah spekulasi yang menguntungkan pihak tertentu.
f. Dapat mencegah penumpukan hutang yang amat besar pada tahun 2001 mencapai sekitar Rp 1400 triliun.

Untuk melihat skenario bagaimana model ekonomi Islam dapat mengatasi krisis ekonomi di Indonesia dapat dilihat data dan grafiknya pada lampiran tulisan ini.

3.5. Peran Bank Syariah Dalam Melaksanakan Fungsi Intermediasi Perbankan.

Secara umum tujuan utama bank Islam adalah mendorong dan mempercepat kemajuan ekonomi suatu masyarakat dengan melakukan semua kegiatan perbankan, finansial, komersial dan investasi sesuai dengan prinsip-prinsip Islam. Jadi kegiatan bank-bank Islam haruslah didasarkan atas :
1. Larangan bunga pada semua bentuk transaksi
2. Pelaksanaan aktivitas bisnis dan perdagangan atas dasar kejujuran dan keuntungan yang sah.
3. Pemupukan dana serta menggunakannya di negara-negara Islam
4. Pembinaan kebiasaan menabung di kalangan umat Islam
5. Penataan aktivitas bisnis yang dapat diterima oleh umat Islam sesuai dengan syari’ah. Jadi dalam situasi bagaimanapun bank Islam langsung atau tidak langsung tidak berhubungan dengan bunga misalnya produksi, konsumsi atau distribusi minuman keras, perjudian, produksi daging babi dan kegiatan non Islam lainnya, spekulasi yang merugikan ekonomi masyarakat.
6. Mengembangkan kompetisi
7. Pembayaran Zakat
8. Kerja sama dengan bank-bank Islam lainnya di luar negeri untuk mendorong pembangunan ekonomi dan kemajuan sosial masyarakat muslim.

- Instrumen Finasial dalam Perbankan Islam

1. Kemitraan (Musyarakah)
Yaitu adanya kesepakatan untuk mengerjakan proyek secara bersama-sama lalu berbagi keuntungan sesuai kesepakatan
2. Pinjaman tanpa keikutsertaan dalam manajemen (Qirad)
Bank menyediakan modal sementara nasabah bertanggung jawab dalam manajemen. Sebagai imbalannya nasabah menerima proporsi yang disepakati dari keuntungan bersih.
3. Kontrak Jual Ulang (Murabahah)
Bank membelikan sebuah barang lalu dijual kepada nasabah dengan keuntungan yang disepakati kedua belah pihak.
4. Pinjaman Kebajikan (Qard Hasan)
Yaitu sutau pinjaman yang diberikan oleh Bank lalu nasabah mengembalikan sejumlah pinjamannya ditambah dengan hasil sekedar tambahan. Biasanya instrumen ini dalam transaksi antara negara dengan warganya yang kurang mampu.
5. Leasing atau sewa peralatannya
Bank membelikan peralatan dan menyewakannya kepada nasabah.
6. Takaful
Bank Islam bertindak sebagai perusahaan manajemen, menginvestasikan dana pada proyek-proyek yang halal.
7. Penjualan Penyerahan Kemudian
Bank membeli barang tetentu yang diserahkan belakangan, tetapi membayar harganya segera, menjual barang yang akan disertakan belakangan.

- Permasalahan Bank Islam

1. Bank Islam cenderung mempertahankan rasio yang lebih tinggi antara uang tunai dengan simpanan dibandingkan bank non Islam
2. Persentase modal sendiri (equity) terhadap total aset lebih tinggi pada bank Islam dibandingkan bank non-Islam
3. Bank Islam menunjukkan rasio keuntungan yang lebih tinggi dari pada bank non-Islam
4. Bank Islam lebih efisien daripada bank non-Islam

Untuk melihat peran bank Syariah dalam fungsinya sebagai intermediasi Perbankan dapat dilihat pada skema dibawah ini :

BAB IV. PENUTUP

A. Kesimpulan
1. Secara filosofis, model ekonomi Islam memiliki prinsip pemerataan yang adil dalam distribusi hasil ekononi.
2. Model ekonomi Islam secara konsep sangat baik namun memerlukan penelitian dan kajian lebih lanjut dalam penerapannya.
3. Keuntungan yang ditarima Bank Islam lebih besar daripada Bank non Islam.
4. Model ekonomi Kapitalis dapat memberikan pertumbuhan ekonomi yang baik bagi pemilik modal (bagi sikaya) namun dapat membuat kesenjangan ekonomi yang sangat tajam bagi yang miskin (memilukan).

B. Saran
1. Bagi pemerintah dan masyarakat Indonesia sebaiknya dapat menerapkan model ekonomi Islam sebagai model alternatif pembangunan ekonomi rakyat terutama untuk masyarakat miskin, jangan hanya memakai sistem ekonomi kapitalis karena telah terbukti secara empiris nmenguntungkan pihak yang kaya (kaum kapitalis).

DAFTAR PUSTAKA

Antonio Safii Muhammad, M.Sc. Bank Syariah dari Teori ke Praktik, Bank Indonesia, Jakarta, 2000.

Keynes, J.M. The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money, Harcourt Brace, New York, 1963.

METWALLY. M.M, Prof. DR., Teori dan Model Ekonomi Islam, PT. Bankit Daya Insana, Jakarta, 1995

————,Statistik Ekonomi Keuangan Indonesia, Bank Indonesia, Jakarta. Tahun 1995 s/d Desember 2001.

Siddiqi, M.N., “Rational of Islamic Bank”, International for Islamic Economic, Jeddah, 1981.

Categories: Islamic Economy

KAJIAN INSANI INTEGRASI SAINS DAN ISLAM

August 22, 2010 Leave a comment

UB GRADUATE SCHOOL

PROGRAM MAGISTER

KAJIAN INSANI
INTEGRASI SAINS DAN ISLAM

BKPT:
BAHAN KAJIAN PENUNJANG TESIS

Bahan Kajian
Benchmarking /
References

ECOLOGICAL ECONOMICS Standford University
Graduate School of Business
ETHICS OF TECHNOLOGY Helsinki University of Technology
FACTORS IMPACTING ISLAMIC LAND DOCTRINES Nicholas School of the Environment and Earth Sciences, Duke University

GREEN ECONOMICS THE GREEN ECONOMICS INSTITUTE (GEI), EU
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS AND ISLAM Faculty of Management Sciences; International Islamic University-Islamabad
ISLAM AND ASTRONOMY
Abu al-Qasim Maslama b. Ahmad (al-Majriti); Abū al-Rayhān al-Bīrūnī; Ibn al-Shatir

ISLAM AND EARTH SCIENCES Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī;
Piri Reis (1513)
The King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals
ISLAM AND THE ENVIRONMENT Islamic Studies
University of Wales – Lampeter, Theology & Religious Studies & Islamic Studies.
The Islamic perspective on the environmental crisis: Seyyed Hossein Nasr in Conversation with Muzaffar Iqbal. Iqbal, Muzaffar (2007) Center for Islam & Science
ISLAM AND ZOOLOGY
The University of Punjab
ISLAM AND AND CHEMISTRY
Jabir ibn Hayyan (Geber);
Geber (Jabir ibn Hayyan);
Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī;
Dubai Pharmacy College
ISLAM AND CONTEMPORARY LAND ISSUES
ISLAM AND UNIVERSAL CREATION

ISLAM AND DISEASES

ISLAM AND ECONOMIC GROWTH

ISLAM AND EMBRYOLOGY

ISLAM AND GENETIC ENGINEERING

ISLAM AND HUMAN CREATION

ISLAM AND MEDICAL SCIENCE
Jacquart, Danielle (2008): Islamic Pharmacology in the Middle Ages: Theories and Substances.
Nurdeen Deuraseh and Mansor Abu Talib (2005): Mental health in Islamic medical tradition
ISLAMIC MEDICINE
IIIM:
International Institute of Islamic Medicine
Ashy, Majed A. (1999): Health and Illness from an Islamic Perspective
ISLAM AND MODERN SCIENCES
K. A. Waheed (1978): Islam and The Origins of Modern Science.
Salah Zaimeche (2005): Foundation for Science Technology & Civilization.
Graham, Mark (2006): How Islam Created the Modern World.
Huff, Toby E. (2003): The Rise of Early Modern Science: Islam, China, and the West.
ISLAM AND SOCIAL SCIENCES
Ragab, Ibrahim (1993): Islamic Perspectives on Theory Building in the Social sciences.
ISLAM AND WATER MANAGEMENT Water management in Islam
By Naser I. Faruqui, Asit K. Biswas, Murad J. Bino, International Development Research Centre (Canada)
ISLAM, EMBRYOLOGY AND LIFE CREATION
ISLAM-FOOD-ALCOHOL – SMOKING AND RAMADAN
ISLAMIC AGRICULTURE
Toufic Fahd (1996): Botany and agriculture.
ISLAMIC APPROACH TO BUSINESS ETHICS
ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE

ISLAMIC ASTROLOGY
Nasir al-Din Tusi

ISLAMIC ASTRONOMY
F. Jamil Ragep (2001): Freeing Astronomy from Philosophy: An Aspect of Islamic Influence on Science.
ISLAMIC BANKING
Islamic Banking references (GDRC)
Abbas Mirakhor: Theoretical Studies in Islamic Banking and Finance, (Islamic Publications International); Islamic Banking, Finance & Economics (Maryam Ayaz).

ISLAMIC BANKING OPERATIONS Institute of Islamic Banking & Insurance London

ISLAMIC BIOETHICS

ISLAMIC BIOLOGY al-Jahiz (781-869).
Ibn Miskawayh’s al-Fawz al-Asghar

ISLAMIC BIOTECHNOLOGY (Islam and Biotechnology: With Special Reference to Genetically Modified Foods) BENCHMARKING: Faculty of Shari`ah and Law; Islamic University College of Malaysia.
ISLAMIC COMMERCIAL LAW & CONTRACT Institute of Islamic Banking & Insurance London
ISLAMIC ECONOMICS & FINANCE Institute of Islamic Banking & Insurance, London
ISLAMIC ECONOMICS THOUGHT Classical Muslim economic thought Ibn Khaldun (1332–1406);
Ibn Taimiyah (1263–1328);
Mahmud Taleqani (1951);
Habibullah Peyman (1979);
Muhammad Nijatullah Siddiqui, Muslim Economic Thinking, (Islamic Foundation, Leicester, UK).
ISLAMIC ETHICS
Lenn Evan Goodman (2003): Islamic Humanism.
Syed Nawab Haider Naqi, Ethics and Economics: An Islamic Synthesis, (Islamic Foundation, Leicester, UK)
ISLAMIC FEMINISM
Qasim Amin (1899); Farida Shaheed with Aisha L.F. Shaheed (London/Lahore: WLUML/Shirkat Gah, 2005); Muslim Personal Law (also known as Muslim Family Law) (MPL); Islamic sexual jurisprudence.

ISLAMIC FINANCE Islamic Finance, Forbes (April 21, 2008); Aly KhorshidAly Khorshid, Islamic finance Scholar and Shari’ah Consultant, ( Elite Horizon Economic Consultancy, UK); Angelo M. Venardos, Islamic Banking & Finance in South-East Asia: Its Development & Future, (World Scientific Publ, Singapore)

ISLAMIC GEOGRAPHY

ISLAMIC HUMANISM
Lenn Evan Goodman (2003): Islamic Humanism
Science for humanity : an Islamic perspective. (Golshani, Mehdi). COPYRIGHT 2007 Center for Islam & Science

ISLAMIC JURISPRUDENCE OF THE ENVIRONMENT (Fiqh al-Bi’ah fil-Islam) By: Prof. Mustafa Abu-Sway
ISLAMIC LAND THEORIES AND ITS APPLICATIONS

ISLAMIC LAW

ISLAMIC MARKETING

ISLAMIC MATHEMATICS
Al-Khwarizmi (780-850); Al-Kindi (801-873); Al-Karaji around 1000 AD; Omar Khayyám; Sharaf al-Din al-Tusi (1135-1213)
ISLAMIC MECHANICS Ja’far Muhammad ibn Mūsā ibn Shākir (800-873); Avicenna (980-1037); al-Khazini (1121): The Book of the Balance of Wisdom
ISLAMIC MEDICAL ETHICS Islamic Medical Association of North America (IMANA)
Anatomy and Physiology, Islamic Medical Manuscripts, United States National Library of Medicine.

ISLAMIC MEDICINE
Ophthalmology in medieval Islam
Abu al-Qasim (Abulcasis); Al-Razi (Rhazes) (865-925); Avicenna (980-1037); Ibn al-Nafis (1242); Mansur ibn Ilyas (c. 1390); Ibrahim B. Syed : Islamic Medicine (2002).
Jacquart, Danielle (2008), “Islamic Pharmacology in the Middle Ages: Theories and Substances.
ISLAMIC METAPHYSICS Huff, Toby E. (2000): Science and Metaphysics in the Three Religions of the Books.
Syed Muhammad Naquib al-Attas, Prolegomena to the Metaphysics of Islam (Kuala Lumpur: ISTAC, 2001).

ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVES ON NATURAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT & SUSTAINABILITY
ISLAMIC PHILOSOPHY & THEOLOGY Sardar, Ziauddin (1998): Science in Islamic philosophy.

http://www.muslimphilosophy.com/ip/rep/H016.htm

Nasr, Seyyed Hossein; Oliver Leaman (1996): History of Islamic Philosophy.

ISLAMIC POLITICAL THOUGHT
International Institute of Islamic Thought:
Towards Islamization of Knowledge and Reform of Islamic Thought

ISLAMIC PSYCHOLOGY
Al-Razi (Rhazes) (865-925)
Ibn al-Haytham.;
Amber Haque (2004): Psychology from Islamic Perspective.

ISLAMIC SOCIOLOGY
Abū al-Rayhān al-Bīrūnī (973-1048); Ibn Khaldun (1332-1406)
Franz Rosenthal : Historio-graphy of Islamic science
Richard Tapper (1995): Islamic Anthropology and the “Anthropology of Islam”.
ISLAMIC SCIENCE
Inventions in the Muslim world
Timeline of science and technology in the Islamic world
Islamic civilization
Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen)
Is Islamic science possible?
Iqbal, Muzaffar (COPYRIGHT 2008 The Center for Islam and Science (www.cis-ca.org).
Diane Boulanger (2002): The Islamic Contribution to Science, Mathematics and Technology.
Three meanings of Islamic science: toward operationalizing Islamization of science. Setia, Adi (2007) Center for Islam & Science.
What is Islamization of Science?. Mohammad Gill, 2005

ISLAMIC STUDIES
Syed Muhammad Naquib al-Attas: Islam and Secularism.
Islamization of knowledge.
UGA Virtual Center for Interdisciplinary Studies of the Islamic World (VCISIW).
Leiden University: Islamic Studies.
Leif Stenberg: The Islamization of Science or the Marginalization of Islam.

http://www.hf.uib/smi/paj/stenberg.html.

AL-MAKTOUM INSTITUTE FOR ARABIC AND ISLAMIC STUDIES:
MLitt in Islamic Studies
Postgraduate Taught Programme

ISLAMIC SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT (Sustainable development from an Islamic Perspective: meaning implications and policy concerns)
INCEIF The Global University in Islamic Finance
Homepage: http://www.inceif.org
Location: Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
ISLAMIC WATER MANAGEMENT Water management in Islam
By Naser I. Faruqui, Asit K. Biswas, Murad J. Bino, International Development Research Centre (Canada).
K. A. Waheed (1978). Islam and The Origins of Modern Science.
ISLAMIC WEALTH AND FUND MANAGEMENT

ISLAMIZATION OF KNOWLEDGE /
ISLAMIZATION OF SCIENCE
Al-Faruqi, Ismael Raji (1982): Islamization of Knowledge, General Principles and Workplan ( International Institute of Islamic Thought).
“Islamization of the Science”
Ismail Faruki and Seyed Hussein Nasr.
S. W. Akhtar (1997): The Islamic Concept of Knowledge.
Diane Boulanger (2002): The Islamic Contribution to Science, Mathematics and Technology.

ISLAM’S CONTRIBUTION TO AGRICULTURE; MUSLIM AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION
The Islamic Azad University (IAU), Teheran

LAND ADMINISTRATION IN THE MUSLIM CONTEXT

LOGIC IN ISLAMIC PHILOSOPHY
Why We Need Islamization of Science?
Kamran Meer, 2005

PROPERTY AND LAND IN ISLAMIC THEORY

QUR’AN AND SCIENCE
Jalees Rehman : Searching for Scientific Facts in the Qur’an: Islamization of Knowledge or a New Form of Scientism?

REGULATION-SUPERVISION AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE AND FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING OF ISLAMIC BANKS Institute of Islamic Banking & Insurance-London.
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RELIGION AND SCIENCE Abdus Salam (1984): Islam and Science.
Paul Vallely (2006): How Islamic Inventors Changed the World.
John William Draper (1878): History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science

SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY IN ISLAM
ISLAM AND MODERN TECHNOLOGY
Islam, Muslims, and modern technology. Publication: Islam & Science
22-DEC-05. Nasr, Seyyed Hossein. The George Washington University, Washington DC.
Hill, Donald Routledge: Islamic Science And Engineering, Edinburgh University Press (1993).
Ahmad Y Hassan and Donald Routledge Hill (1986): Islamic Technology: An Illustrated History.
STRATEGIES FOR EMPOWERMENT THROUGH ISLAMIC LAND THEORIES
TAKAFUL – ISLAMIC INSURANCE Institute of Islamic Banking & Insurance-London.

TECHNOLOGY AND RELIGION (ISLAM) INTERSECTION.

TREASURY AND CAPITAL MARKET OPERATIONS Institute of Islamic Banking & Insurance- London.

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