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DEVELOPING HUMAN RESOURCES FOR DEVELOPMENT THROUGH SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: TOWARDS A PRACTICAL APPROACH


DEVELOPING HUMAN RESOURCES

FOR DEVELOPMENT THROUGH SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: TOWARDS A PRACTICAL APPROACH [1]

DR. V.K. GUPTA [2]

Department of Science and Technology

Technology Bhavan

New Delhi

India

Introduction

Human resources are the key to the process of economic development. Any approach to develop human resources for development through science and technology should aim at the utilization of these resources for more productive activity. It should also facilitate the fullest possible development of skills and knowledge of the labour force relevant to such activity.

S&T MANPOWER FOR NATIONAL R&D SYSTEM

It is now recognised that science and technology are an important input to the process of development. The need to develop an endogenous capacity for science and technology has long been emphasised for developing countries. In fact, a strong base of indigenous R&D systems in the developing countries is essential not only to develop indigenous technologies but also for importing technologies from abroad and their adaptation and upgrading. Research and Development, together with science and technology education and training are, thus, essential component of the national S&T system and its interface with the development process.

The base of science and technology consists of trained and skilled manpower at various levels, covering a wide range of disciplines, and an appropriate institutional, legal and fiscal infrastructure. The resources of scientific and technical manpower need to be developed for establishing an R&D infrastructure encompassing basic research, applied research, experimental development, design and engineering, and transfer of results of research to industry. Similarly, scientific and technical manpower resources would also be needed for the transfer of technology from abroad and its adaptation, upgrading and assimilation in the economy.

The education system is the primary source for preparing scientific and technical manpower at graduate, post‑graduate, and doctoral levels. The educational programmes of the universities/academic and technical institutions should be responsive to the changing technologies, pattern of industrialisation and the demands of the service/user sectors in the economy. Skills of a higher nature in specific scientific and technical field can be developed through the process of training and learning by doing in national R&D institutions as well as through international cooperation. Professional scientific societies, international organisations, bilateral and multilateral cooperation in science and technology, and various other mechanisms of scientific exchange, seminars, workshops, summer schools and training programmes also play an important role in the development of human resources for science and technology.

HUMAN SKILLS AND TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION FOR DEVELOPMENT

An indigenous infrastructure for science and technology is an essential pre‑requisite for innovation and bringing technological change for economic development.  In addition, to labour and capital, innovation has become an essential element of economic growth as it is a critical factor for the survival and growth of most industrial enterprises.

Science and technology contributes to the process of development by making innovations, discoveries and improvements in productivity. Developing an approach for human resource development for scientific and technological manpower for development would require an understanding of the skill/training implications at the various stages of the process of innovation , transfer of technology, and technological change. In particular, at the level of a firm, suitable training programmes and steps would be required to develop knowledge and skills at various stages of innovation.

Many models of innovation process have been proposed in the literature, most of which have similar characteristics.(1,2,3,4,5) In particular, they break it into stages or phases, namely, idea generation ‑ the R&D phase or pre-market phase, problem solving and implementation and diffusion ‑ the marketing phase.

A `blind’ investment in R&D is likely to be futile. In the creation of new technology, it is important to recognise its appropriateness to the economy.  A new technology can not make its own way. There must be an explicit demand for it.  The increased R&D inputs lead to improved product which in turn leads to market growth and profitability. This innovation driven product life cycle is effective in the early stages of the development of technology as long as technological opportunity is high and technological improvement can be kept proprietary. Technological progress results in market leadership and profit leadership, which in turn permits further investment in R&D to maintain technological leadership.

Technology means a way of doing things, more specifically, a way of increasing human capability to perform an activity. Technology transfer means the movement of a technological system from one place to another. The possible types of transfer are :

*          Imitation

No modification. The technology is transferred from one environment to another where the new environment is so similar to the old that no modification to either the technology or its environments is required.

*          Adoption

Modify the environment. When a firm or country is desirous of acquiring a new technology, it may have to modify existing systems in order to allow the new one to fit in.

*          Adaptation

Modify the technology. In this case, in order to be compatible with its new environment, modifications are made to the technology system.


Modify both the environment and the technology

In practice, none are simple alternatives. Even simple copying may require considerable knowledge, skills and support systems. In adopting new technology, workers may need to be retrained or even trained for the first time. For adaptation, the technology needs to be adapted to suit specific requirements.

The scientific and technical human resources participate in the process of technological innovation both as generator of ideas and new research (through the R&D enterprise) as well as vehicles of technological change and diffusion of technologies for economic development.

Education including training and practical experience‑ learning by doing, is one of the most effective means of transferring technology. Ways in which individuals can receive education, training and practical experience are:

*          Formal in house training programmes

*          Training programmes overseas

*          In‑plant courses

*          On‑the‑job training

*          Literature (books, journals etc.)

The requirements of human resource development by firms in different sectors of the industry should be worked out at the operating levels. The volume of training required for different category of staff: skilled workers including apprentices, highly specialised workers and technicians, supervisory and managerial staff etc. should be clearly spelt out.  The type of training for different categories of people would vary and should be designed to meet the specific requirement of the enterprise.  The objectives of the training programmes and the course contents should be such as to facilitate on‑line development of skills and avoid being loaded with too much academic input.

Training must be arranged by both supplier and receiver, to guarantee an effective transfer as well as successful absorption and adaptation of technology. It should provide the necessary skills required to cope with the technical complexities of the imported machines.  Full details of training programmes need to be specified in contracts covering their duration, qualification requirements, number of persons and the period over which foreign experts are to be replaced by local manpower. Local participation should be ensured. Training should also be included in the areas of design and engineering services, construction and safety, and standards (6).

ROLE OF CONSULTANTS

Industrial consultants can provide different types and forms of services ranging from direct assistance in establishing the criteria, objectives, priorities, and procedures for an integrated industrial development plan to specific technical assistance to an industrial enterprise. Following types of assistance can be rendered (7):

*          Design and engineering services ‑ may include project feasibility studies, plant design and preparation of the books of tender for equipment and civil engineering, evaluation of bids, supervision and erection and start‑up as well as assistance in the initial operation.

*          Technological services ‑ studies to find out what raw materials are available and how far they are suitable to specific users by means of laboratory tests and analyses, improving the technical know how, and conduct specialised research in product development including design, packaging, new uses and utilisation of wastes. Evaluation and improvement of production methods and processes, plant layout, equipment design specifications, and establishment of industrial plant regulations and codes, including construction standards and safety facilities.

*          Economic services ‑ development planning and surveys of economic and industrial potential.

*          Management services ‑ to review and evaluate objectives and goals of a particular project etc.

*          Training programmes ‑ to train the local work force to take over and operate equipment.

ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT

Two types of skills have been found to be of special importance to the process of technological innovation viz. technical skills, and marketing and managerial skills. Developing entrepreneurial skills among the persons with scientific and technical qualifications has been one possible approach for stimulating technological innovations for development. Entrepreneurship development programmes facilitate development of human resources for self‑employment by setting up small scale industries.  Figure (Annexure 1) gives the schematic integrated view for entrepreneur ship development. (8).

INDIAN EXPERIENCE ‑ SOME INSIGHTS

In India, the importance of scientific and technical manpower for the development of science and technology as well as for the developmental requirements and the benefits to society was recognised in the early stages of developing the scientific and technological infrastructure. In 1958, Scientific Policy Resolution of the Government of India had given considerable emphasis to the development of S&T manpower – its proper training, necessary encouragement required for individuals and through various other means such as by offering good conditions of service to scientists and according them an honoured position by associating scientists with the formulation of policies and by taking such other measures as may be deemed necessary from time to time to accomplish the aims of the Scientific Policy Resolution.

In 1983, the Technology Policy Statement of the Government of India laid considerable importance to the need for fullest utilization of scientific talent by consolidation of the existing scientific base and selective strengthening of thrust areas, giving special attention to the promotion and strengthening of the technology base in newly emerging and frontier areas such as information and materials sciences electronics and bio‑technology, education and training to upgrade skills, encouraging basic research and according special attention to the skills and skilled workers so as to upgrade and enhance traditional skills and capabilities using knowledge and techniques generated by advances in science and technology.

The Technology Policy Statement provided a framework of utilising S&T manpower by the identification and diffusion of technologies to reduce the incidence of poverty, unemployment and regional inequalities, and promoting application of science and technology for the improvement of standards of living of those engaged in traditional activities, particularly, household technologies. The potential impact on employment was considered an important criterion in the choice of technologies. In the decentralized sector, it emphasised to diversify labour, take steps to reduce drudgery and upgrade technologies relevant to the cottage, village and small industries sector.

In late eighties, the new education policy emphasised education for developing competence in terms of knowledge and skills in relation to opportunities of employment in the context of a particular pattern and rate of development.  It took cognisance of the problem of brain drain of the S&T personnel and stressed the need of more socially relevant technical education and undertaking research and development to couple it with the needs of the entrepreneurs. With a view to attract best talents in the science education, there is a national science talent search scheme which aims to pick best brains when young and provide them encouragement to take courses in the field of science and technology.

The university sector has played an important role in developing scientific and technical manpower in the country.  The stock of S&T manpower in the country which was 1.8 lakh in 1950 increased to 21.8 lakhs in 1980, 28.59 lakh in 1985 and expected to be more than three million in early 1990s. Of these, as on 1.4.1988 nearly 2.68 lakh personnel were employed in the R&D institutions including in‑house R&D units of the industries. Out of total personnel employed in R&D 44.7% were from engineering background, 28.7% from natural sciences, 22.7% from medical sciences and the rest from social sciences. 36.2% of these personnel, were employed primarily in R&D activities, 30.3% were providing auxiliary services, and 32.3% providing non technical support while the status of the involvement of the rest 1.2% could not be ascertained. The national R&D laboratories, science academies, and professional scientific societies have complemented these efforts to develop requisite S&T manpower in the country.

In addition to the university/academic sector, the governmental R&D system of national laboratories has played an important role in developing and training scientific and technical manpower of high order including those for frontier areas of research. The national laboratories has also played an important role in preparing requisite manpower for the user sectors by organising special training programmes in the areas of their technical competence. More recently, stress is being laid to develop close linkages between universities, national laboratories and the industries so as to optimise the utilisation of S&T manpower for the genuine requirements of the development.

In order to develop manpower for frontier/new emerging areas of scientific and technological research, for example, in India, an integrated plan for manpower development in Biotechnology has been launched at post‑graduate level which includes M. Tech; Post‑doctoral short‑term training courses and Biotechnology Associateships. Innovative curricular programmes in Advanced Institutions for post‑graduate and post‑doctoral teaching in Biotechnology have also been initiated.

In the field of computer software, a number of steps have been taken in the country to develop highly educated manpower. There are more than 400 independent consultancy organisations and a few educational and R&D institutions who possess good skill and expertise in developing software. Similarly, special efforts are made to evolve manpower development programmes in areas such as ocean development, environment and other new areas of science and technology.

Schemes are supported by scientific departments and agencies like CSIR to facilitate development of scientific and technical manpower in frontier areas of research. CSIR and other organisations organise specific manpower development programmes of short‑term duration for scientists in the field of R&D management.

Table (Annexure 2) gives the estimates of the economically active persons in the total stock of S&T manpower. Of the total S&T manpower, about 82% are economically active‑ 87% in engineering and medical category, 78% in the science and 80% in the agricultural categories. Table (Annexure 3) gives the distribution of S&T personnel according to the field of specialisation and level of qualifications and sex. Table (Annexure 4) gives the distribution of the employed degree holders and technical personnel according to type of present employment, sector and nature of work‑ teaching, research, design development, planning, quality control and testing, construction, production, operation and maintenance, sales, marketing and management , administration and others.

India has arrangements of bilateral S&T cooperation with over 40 countries and participates in various multilateral programmes for international cooperation in science and technology. These arrangements are used to develop human resources within the country in different fields of science and technology and also provide opportunities for training of scientists from other collaborating countries. The cooperation under various programmes include exchange of scientists and research workers, organisation of seminars and workshops, and training programmes for S&T personnel.

JAPANESE EXPERIENCE‑ SOME INSIGHTS IN DEVELOPING HUMAN SKILLS (9)

The most important innovative aspect of Japanese electronic industry includes integrated development of manufacturing facilities, human skills, information support for decision‑making, institutional frameworks for technology development and diffusion, and emphasis on product, process and application innovations.

Emphasis on human resources and industrial relations is the major contributing factor for high competitiveness. A rapidly changing high technology industry needs continuous upgrading of skills. The following are the main aspects which provide for a high level of human skills for converting ideas into products, especially in areas such as `knowledge based industries’:

*          Flexible new product teams

In Japanese electronics industry new product development is through flexible teams. Horizontal information flow is hastened by such a structure. Job rotation, lifetime employment, quality circles and higher degree of autonomy at the lower level together with new product team arrangements helps in faster commercialisation of ideas, better feedback and continuous product and process improvements. The team is hand-picked by the top management and is given a free hand to create something new.

*          Job rotation

At each level of organisation, Japanese industries use job rotation to help organisational learning to make people understand the various dimensions rather than to make everyone an expert in every job. Job rotation between R&D, production, marketing etc. produces engineers with skills to convert ideas into products and improves feedback. Job rotation also helps to faster the capabilities for semiautonomous on the spot problem solving.

*          Technology assimilation skills

Technology assimilation has to be a rapid process otherwise the assimilators’ technology will be obsolete, compared to that of the leader. Job rotation and horizontal flow of information facilitates technology assimilation skills. Japanese firms also use a group approach for technology assimilation in the case of imported technology.

*          Intensive skill development

Considerable amount of resources are invested for skill development. Special training is arranged for new entrants. High corporate commitment for learning skills supported by comprehensive human resource development plans has lead to high competitiveness.

*          Commercialising skills

Skills needed for various interacting phases of technology development namely, researching, developing, listing, demonstrating, producing / commercialising, diffusing and substituting are different. A close cooperation between design and manufacturing engineers and plant operating staff, marketing and operating staff, and company and supplier leads to successful production and commercialisation interface.

*          Emphasis on organisational learning

Ability to learn as an organisation has been key to the Japanese business firms. Life time employment, in company training, new product teams, job rotation and quality circles facilitate the organisational learning.

*          Operator‑ Engineer communication skills

In Japanese firms, communications are mostly bottom‑up. Employees on the assembly line are expected to submit ideas for new methods, streamlined set ups, and more efficient ways of operating machinery because they are in the best position to uncover such improvements. Quality circles facilitate horizontal flow of information, idea generation and situational problem solving. The combined effect of job rotation, technical training and quality circles is that there is a feedback cycle from the shop floor to production engineer and this results in continuous but gradual improvement coming from lower levels to the top.

*          Skills for technology acquisition

Arrangements are made with other firms by way of joint ventures and licensing. There is intensive functional coordination between R&D, design, engineering, manufacturing and marketing. Productivity and total quality control are emphasised by top management and employees at lowest level. Intensive R&D efforts, getting sales set up in various markets and organisational interactions to improve flow of information and coordination are other factors for successful commercialisation.

*          Emphasis on technology diffusion

*          Cooperation in technology development through MITI

*          Technology orientation in education has been major reason for the high competitiveness of Japanese industries. Design and application of CAD/CAM has been given emphasis in education.

*          Transfer and assimilation of imported technology

MITI has an institutional arrangement for sharing the technology and then assimilating it. There is a multifunctional group for transfer and assimilation of imported technology.

*          Vocational training

Three kinds of training are provided namely, initial training, upgrading training, and occupational capability redevelopment training.

*          National examination for consulting engineers

A national examination or certification of consulting engineers is conducted which seeks to test the capability to perform planning, research, design, analysis, test, evaluation work requiring high technical application capability.

*          Integration of technology, trade and industrial policies.

*          Monitoring technology and commercial trends and skills in experience in handling particular products, markets, functions or services.

*          Internationalisation

Plant export and manufacturing abroad

*          Human Resource Development

‑                       R&D personnel

‑                       Scientific and technical personnel for technology transfer

‑                       Consultants

‑                       Entrepreneurs

Figure (Annexure 5) gives the main elements of the Human Resource Development in a Japanese firm. (9).

TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE AND HUMAN SKILLS

A new, more integrated, more information intensive production system is evolving. Manufacturing processes are becoming much less labour‑intensive and more knowledge and information intensive. What is happening is not so much the substitution of physical capital for labour, but the substitution of information for labour and capital. Some features of this new organisation include more formal interactions with users and suppliers, through joint R&D, production and marketing arrangements. The informational requirements in the overall production process grow as variety increases.  Even R&D is becoming more complex and information intensive. R&D is increasingly directed to designing for specific market niches.

In these contexts, mere inputs of computers are not enough, it is also necessary for organisations to modify procedures to adapt to new information processing technologies which is a learning process.

Changes in technology brings in multifaceted influence upon the production processes and the associated scientific and technical skills. In certain technical occupations, these changes may reduce employment, while in case of others, it may lead to increase in employment opportunities.

Skill requirements are greater as one progresses through various stages in the development and use of technology. Much more creativity, problem solving, and experimental skill are required during the developmental and early implementation stages than when maturity is reached and knowledge has been embodied in the technology and can be easily copied.

Engineers and scientists are needed to develop new products, construct pilot models, and implement design changes. As technology matures, standardization and expanded use of the equipment permit a greater division of labour and the subdivision of multifaceted tasks into narrowly defined assignments. As tasks become deskilled, the workers’ skills become less important.

Given the nature of skill emergence and development, mismatch in the demand and supply of skills often occur as technology evolves. This requires a sound strategy of training to update the skills, prepare for the new skills and redeploy the labour force as a result of skill obsolescence.

With regard to the impact of technology on job skills there are two views: One, industrialisation requires higher skills and higher levels of education because workers must be more mobile, deal with more complicated equipment, and understand more complex processes. Another view is that industrialization leads to `deskilling’ because the technology permits management to fragment and deskill jobs.

While it will be possible to perform many tasks in the high‑tech workplace with limited education, the most effective operations of that workplace will require more, better, and different kinds of education. Workers will have to have much more knowledge than they use at any given time in order to repair equipment, solve problems, communicate with and coordinate parts of worldwide production processes, and participate more effectively in management.

One of the most important skills in the competitive workforce of the future will require more attention to education, the analysis of data, the management or responsibility, and the ability to use abstractions.

TOWARDS A PRACTICAL APPROACH

Each country that has decided to develop science and technology as an essential element of the development process must address itself to key questions for developing human resources for development through science and technology. Some of these relate to: The national development priorities and the role science and technology is required to play in the process of national development; the essentiality to set up an indigenous R&D system; the endogenous capacity for science and technology required to develop technologies, exploit locally available resources, as well as for import of technologies from abroad, their transfer, adaptation, adoption, assimilation, and upgrading.

The development of human resources for science and technology has long gestation period, therefore, it is essential to make a long term assessment of the expertise and skills required in different fields of science and technology.

The demands of skills required vary in various stages of the development of technology, its introduction and diffusion in the economy, and at the maturity stage which require setting up specialised institutional arrangements for education and training to provide knowledge and expertise as required at respective stage of the development of the technology.

For research and development, organisational arrangements are required for nurturing the creative potential of scientific and technical manpower for the national development. Appropriate R&D Management Development programmes should be instituted for developing the required expertise of managing R&D.

The quality of scientific and technical expertise is one of the most important attributes of human resources in science and technology. Steps are required to attract best brains for education in the science and technology stream.

Efforts would also be required to productively utilise the S&T manpower for jobs commensurate to their qualifications and skills. For this purpose, the demands of the employing sectors of S&T manpower should be carefully built into education and training curricula of the educational and training institutions.

How to overcome the problem of brain drain? Schemes could be instituted to reduce the flow of manpower to other countries by providing opportunities within the country. To the contrary, schemes could be initiated for the participation of the native scientific and technical manpower, employed abroad, for indigenous technology development as well as transfer of technology.


A FRAMEWORK FOR DISCUSSIONS ON SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT‑ COUNTRY EXPERIENCE

*                                  Human Resources

*                                  Science and Technology Expertise

‑           Scientists

‑           Engineers

‑           Technicians

‑           Skilled workers

*                                  Promotion and Application Expertise

‑           Marketing specialists

‑           Technology transfer specialists

‑           Supporting staff

*                                  Managerial Expertise

‑           R&D and technical organisation leaders

‑           Project leaders

‑           Managerial staff

*                                  Team Formation

‑           Availability of constituents

‑           Appropriateness of integration mechanism

*                                  Human Resource Development Expertise

‑           Education/university system

‑           National R&D institutions

‑           Scientific societies and professional bodies

‑           Conferences/seminars/ workshops etc.

‑           Training Programmes

–           In‑house

–           External courses

‑           Skill Development/Redeployment

‑           Updating knowledge

‑           Consulting

‑           Specialised training programmes

‑           Training opportunities abroad

*                                  Education and Curriculum Development ‑ Universities/college

*                                  Vocational Education

*                                  Mobility

*                                  International Cooperation

•           Information exchange

‑           Science and technology information

‑           Industrial and other relevant information

‑           Translation

•           Human Exchange

‑           Individual expert

‑           Groups and teams

‑           Organisational arrangements and supporting

•           Joint Programs

‑           Consideration of potential cost and benefit

‑           Emphasis on collaborative mechanism


Interface with elements of national S&T system

*                                  National science and technology policy and approach for development through science and technology

*                                  National priorities and the broad disciplines of science and technology in which manpower needs to be developed.

*                                  The Role of the Major Participants

‑           Government

‑           Academic Community

‑           Applied R&D Institutes

‑           Industrial Cooperation

‑           Consulting and Service Agencies

‑           Industrial and Trade Association

*                                  Strategy of Innovation

‑           Technology‑Push strategy and measures

‑           Demand pull strategy and measures

*                                  Financial Resources

*                                  Research and Development

‑           Basic research

‑           Applied research

‑           Development and engineering

‑           Commercialisation

‑           Promotion of application

*                                  Technology Transfer

‑           Introduction from foreign countries

‑           Domestic technology transfer and diffusion

*                                  Role in Transfer of

‑           R&D Institutes

‑           Manufacturers

‑           Consulting and service agencies

‑           Industrial and trade associations

*                                  Information

‑           Network

‑           General purpose data bases

‑           Special data bases

‑           Service channels


REFERENCES

1.       Brian C. Twiss, Managing Technological Innovations , Longman, London 1974.

2.       Langrish John, The Importance of Design in Technology Transferr, Paper, Manchester Polytechnic, UK‑1987.

3.       Rajan Y.S, Introduction of Technologies ‑ The Management of Innovation Cycle, August 1990, TIFAC, New Delhi.

4.       Ashok Jain et al, Diffusion of Innovation , JSIR, 1991, New Delhi.

5.       Pearson, A.W. ‘Innovation strategy’ Technovation , Vol. 10 (3) May, 1990.

6.       Bowonder B and Miyake T., An Analysis of Japanese Electronics Industry ‑ Some Lessons for India , Report 1, Sponsored by Technology Information Forecasting and Assessment Council, DST, New Delhi, July 1989.

7.       UN, Manual on the Use of Consultants in Developing Countries, 1972, New York.

8.       Singh N.P.’Entrepreneurship Development ‑ A Viable Force for Employment Generation’ pre‑workship papers, National Workshop on Employment Generation Through Entrepreneurship Development , November 1988, DST, New Delhi.

9.       Salahaldeen Al‑Ali, ‘The Role of Training and Education in Technology Transfer ‑ A Case Study of Kuwait’, Technovation, Vol. 11 (3) April, 1991.

10.     Ayres R.and Zuscovitch E, ‘Technology and Information: Chain Reactions and Sustainable Growth ‘, Technovation, Vol. 10 (3) May, 1990.

A FEW EXAMPLES OF PRACTICAL SCHEMES RELATING TO MANPOWER DEVELOPMENT ‑ INDIAN EXPERIENCE

Census of India ‑1991: Post‑Graduate Degree Holders Technical Personnel Survey ‑ Format of the Questionnaire.

National Register of Scientific and Technical Personnel ‑ Format for keeping information or experts, CSIR, New Delhi.

Scientists’ Pool Scheme: Information and Application proforma effective from Ist January 1991.  CSIR New Delhi.

Centre for Interface for Non‑resident Indian Scientists and Technologists ‑ Brochure on Functions. CSIR, New Delhi

Transfer of Knowledge Through Expatriate Nationals (TOKTEN) CSIR, New Delhi.

Guidelines/Norms for Utilisation of TOKTEN Consultants, CSIR, New Delhi.

CSIR Visiting Associateship scheme ‑ General Information & Terms and Conditions CSIR, New Delhi.

National Science and Technology Entrepreneur Incentive Scheme ‑ Guidelines and proforma for submission of proposals, DST New Delhi.

Better opportunities for Young Scientists in Chosen Areas of Science and Technology ‑ General Information, Guidelines and formats, DST, New Delhi,1991.

Guidelines for conducting Entrepreneurship Awareness Camps in educational institutions.

CSIR Research Grants: Research Schemes ‑ Terms and conditions, forms and General Information, CSIR, New Delhi.

CSIR Research Grants: Emiritus Scientist Scheme ‑ General Information Forms, Term & Conditions, CSIR, New Delhi.

CSIR Research Grants: Research fellowships & Associateships ‑ terms & conditions, July 1991, CSIR.


[1] The views expressed are personal to the author and do not necessarily belong to the employing organisation.

[2] National Institute of Science Technology and Development Studies, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi‑110012. Presently, on Deputation : Project Officer, International Division, Department of Science and Technology, New Meharauli Road, New Delhi‑110016.

  1. July 31, 2013 at 8:22 pm

    Seriously this is a helpful websites.

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